Timeline of computer security hacker history

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Timeline of computer security hacker history. Hacking and system cracking appeared with the first electronic computers. Below are some important events in the history of hacking and cracking.

1903[edit]

1930s[edit]

1932[edit]

1939[edit]

1943[edit]

1960s[edit]

1965[edit]

  • William D. Mathews from MIT found a vulnerability in a Multics CTSS running on an IBM 7094. This flaw discloses the contents of the password file. The issue occurred when multiple instances of the system text editor were invoked, causing the editor to create temporary files with a constant name. This would inexplicably cause the contents of the system CTSS password file to display to any user logging into the system.

1970s[edit]

1971[edit]

1980s[edit]

1981[edit]

  • The Warelords forms in The United States, founded by Black Bart (cracker of Dung Beetles in 1982) in St. Louis, Missouri, and was composed of many teenage hackers, phreakers, coders, and largely black hat-style underground computer geeks. One of the more notable group members was Tennessee Tuxedo, a young man that was instrumental with developing conference calls via the use of trunk line phreaking via the use of the Novation Apple Cat II that allowed them to share their current hacks, phreaking codes, and new software releases. Other notable members were The Apple Bandit, Krakowicz, Krac-man, and The Codesmith, who ran the BBS The Trading Post for the group. Black Bart was clever at using his nationally known and very popular BBS system in order to promote the latest gaming software. He used that relationship to his advantage, often shipping the original pre-released software to his most trusted code crackers during the beta-testing phase, weeks prior to their public release. The Warelords often collaborated with other piracy groups at the time, such as The Syndicate and The Midwest Pirates Guild and developed an international ring of involved piracy groups that reached as far away as Japan. Long before the movie War Games went into pre-production, The Warelords had successfully infiltrated such corporations and institutions as The White House, Southwestern Bell "Ma Bell" Mainframe Systems, and large corporate providers of voice mail systems.

1982[edit]

1983[edit]

  • The group KILOBAUD is formed in February, kicking off a series of other hacker groups which form soon after.
  • The movie WarGames introduces the wider public to the phenomenon of hacking and creates a degree of mass paranoia of hackers and their supposed abilities to bring the world to a screeching halt by launching nuclear ICBMs.
  • The U.S. House of Representatives begins hearings on computer security hacking.[6]
  • In his Turing Award lecture, Ken Thompson mentions "hacking" and describes a security exploit that he calls a "Trojan horse".[7]

1984[edit]

1985[edit]

1986[edit]

1987[edit]

1988[edit]

1989[edit]

1990s[edit]

1990[edit]

  • Operation Sundevil introduced. After a prolonged sting investigation, Secret Service agents swoop down on organizers and prominent members of BBSs in 14 U.S. cities including the Legion of Doom, conducting early-morning raids and arrests. The arrests involve and are aimed at cracking down on credit-card theft and telephone and wire fraud. The result is a breakdown in the hacking community, with members informing on each other in exchange for immunity. The offices of Steve Jackson Games are also raided, and the role-playing sourcebook GURPS Cyberpunk is confiscated, possibly because the government fears it is a "handbook for computer crime". Legal battles arise that prompt the formation of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, including the trial of Knight Lightning.
  • Australian federal police tracking Realm members Phoenix, Electron and Nom are the first in the world to use a remote data intercept to gain evidence for a computer crime prosecution.[13]
  • The Computer Misuse Act 1990 is passed in the United Kingdom, criminalising any unauthorised access to computer systems.

1992[edit]

1993[edit]

  • The first DEF CON hacking conference takes place in Las Vegas. The conference is meant to be a one-time party to say good-bye to BBSs (now replaced by the Web), but the gathering was so popular it became an annual event.
  • AOL gives its users access to USENET, precipitating Eternal September.

1994[edit]

  • Summer: Russian crackers siphon $10 million from Citibank and transfer the money to bank accounts around the world. Vladimir Levin, the 30-year-old ringleader, uses his work laptop after hours to transfer the funds to accounts in Finland and Israel. Levin stands trial in the United States and is sentenced to three years in prison. Authorities recover all but $400,000 of the stolen money.
  • Hackers adapt to emergence of the World Wide Web quickly, moving all their how-to information and hacking programs from the old BBSs to new hacker Web sites.
  • AOHell is released, a freeware application that allows a burgeoning community of unskilled script kiddies to wreak havoc on America Online. For days, hundreds of thousands of AOL users find their mailboxes flooded with multi-megabyte email bombs and their chat rooms disrupted with spam messages.

1995[edit]

  • February 22: The FBI raids the "Phone Masters".[15]

1996[edit]

  • Hackers alter Web sites of the United States Department of Justice (August), the CIA (October), and the U.S. Air Force (December).
  • Canadian hacker group, Brotherhood, breaks into the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  • The U.S. General Accounting Office reports that hackers attempted to break into Defense Department computer files some 250,000 times in 1995 alone. About 65 percent of the attempts were successful, according to the report.
  • The MP3 format gains popularity in the hacker world. Many hackers begin setting up sharing sites via FTP, Hotline, IRC and Usenet.

1997[edit]

  • A 15-year-old Croatian youth penetrates computers at a U.S. Air Force base in Guam.[16]
  • June: Eligible Receiver 97 tests the American government's readiness against cyberattacks.
  • December: Information Security publishes first issue.
  • First high-profile attacks on Microsoft's Windows NT operating system[1]
  • In response to the MP3 popularity, the Recording Industry Association of America begins cracking down on FTPs [2]. The RIAA begins a campaign of lawsuits shutting down many of the owners of these sites including the more popular ripper/distributors The Maxx (Germany, Age 14), Chapel976 (USA, Age 15), Bulletboy (UK, Age 16), Sn4rf (Canada, Age 14) and others in their young teens via their ISPs. Their houses are raided and their computers and modems are taken. The RIAA fails to cut off the head of the MP3 beast and within a year and a half, Napster is released.

1998[edit]

1999[edit]

  • Software security goes mainstream In the wake of Microsoft's Windows 98 release, 1999 becomes a banner year for security (and hacking). Hundreds of advisories and patches are released in response to newfound (and widely publicized) bugs in Windows and other commercial software products. A host of security software vendors release anti-hacking products for use on home computers.
  • The Electronic Civil Disobedience project, an online political performance-art group, attacks the Pentagon calling it conceptual art and claiming it to be a protest against the U.S. support of the suppression of rebels in southern Mexico by the Mexican government. ECD uses the FloodNet software to bombard its opponents with access requests.
  • U.S. President Bill Clinton announces a $1.46 billion initiative to improve government computer security. The plan would establish a network of intrusion detection monitors for certain federal agencies and encourage the private sector to do the same.
  • January 7: an international coalition of hackers (including CULT OF THE DEAD COW, 2600 's staff, Phrack's staff, L0pht, and the Chaos Computer Club) issued a joint statement ([3]) condemning the LoU's declaration of war. The LoU responded by withdrawing its declaration.
  • A hacker interviewed by Hilly Rose during the Art Bell Coast-to-Coast Radio Show exposes a plot by Al-Qaida to derail Amtrak trains. This results in ALL trains being forcibly stopped over Y2K as a safety measure.
  • March: The Melissa worm is released and quickly becomes the most costly malware outbreak to date.
  • July: CULT OF THE DEAD COW releases Back Orifice 2000 at DEF CON
  • August: Kevin Mitnick, "the most wanted man in cyberspace",[who?] sentenced to 5 years, of which over 4 years had already been spent pre-trial including 8 months solitary confinement.
  • September: Level Seven hacks The US Embassy in China's Website and places racist, anti-government slogans on embassy site in regards to 1998 U.S. embassy bombings. [4]
  • September 16: The United States Department of Justice sentences the "Phone Masters".[17]
  • October: American Express introduces the "Blue" smart card, the industry's first chip-based credit card in the US.

2000s[edit]

2000[edit]

  • May: The ILOVEYOU worm, also known as VBS/Loveletter and Love Bug worm, is a computer worm written in VBScript. It infected millions of computers worldwide within a few hours of its release. It is considered to be one of the most damaging worms ever. It originated in the Philippines; made by an AMA Computer College student for his thesis.
  • September: teenage hacker Jonathan James becomes first juvenile to serve jail time for hacking.

2001[edit]

  • Microsoft becomes the prominent victim of a new type of hack that attacks the domain name server. In these denial-of-service attacks, the DNS paths that take users to Microsoft's Web sites are corrupted.
  • February: A Dutch cracker releases the Anna Kournikova virus, initiating a wave of viruses that tempts users to open the infected attachment by promising a sexy picture of the Russian tennis star.
  • April: FBI agents trick two into coming to the U.S. and revealing how they were Hacking U.S. banks [5].
  • May: Spurred by elevated tensions in Sino-American diplomatic relations, U.S. and Chinese hackers engage in skirmishes of Web defacements that many dub "The Sixth Cyberwar".
  • July: Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov is arrested at the annual Def Con hacker convention. He is the first person criminally charged with violating the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA).
  • August: Code Red worm, infects ts.

2002[edit]

  • January: Bill Gates decrees that Microsoft will secure its products and services, and kicks off a massive internal training and quality control campaign.
  • May: Klez.H, a variant of the worm discovered in November 2001, becomes the biggest malware outbreak in terms of machines infected, but causes little monetary damage.
  • June: The Bush administration files a bill to create the Department of Homeland Security, which, among other things, will be responsible for protecting the nation's critical IT infrastructure.
  • August: Researcher Chris Paget publishes a paper describing "shatter attacks", detailing how Windows' unauthenticated messaging system can be used to take over a machine. The paper raises questions about how securable Windows could ever be. It is however largely derided as irrelevant as the vulnerabilities it described are caused by vulnerable applications (placing windows on the desktop with inappropriate privileges) rather than an inherent flaw within the Operating System.
  • October: The International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium - (ISC)² - confers its 10,000th CISSP certification.

2003[edit]

2004[edit]

  • March: Myron Tereshchuk is arrested for attempting to extort $17 million from Micropatent.
  • July: North Korea claims to have trained 500 hackers who successfully crack South Korean, Japanese, and their allies' computer systems.[18]

2005[edit]

  • November 3: Jeanson James Ancheta, whom prosecutors say was a member of the "Botmaster Underground", a group of script kiddies mostly noted for their excessive use of bot attacks and propagating vast amounts of spam, was taken into custody after being lured to FBI offices in Los Angeles.[21]

2006[edit]

  • January: One of the few worms to take after the old form of malware, destruction of data rather than the accumulation of zombie networks to launch attacks from, is discovered. It had various names, including Kama Sutra (used by most media reports), Black Worm, Mywife, Blackmal, Nyxem version D, Kapser, KillAV, Grew and CME-24. The worm would spread through e-mail client address books, and would search for documents and fill them with garbage, instead of deleting them to confuse the user. It would also hit a web page counter when it took control, allowing the programmer who created it as well as the world to track the progress of the worm. It would replace documents with random garbage on the third of every month. It was hyped by the media but actually affected relatively few computers, and was not a real threat for most users.
  • May: Jeanson James Ancheta receives a 57-month prison sentence, [6] and is ordered to pay damages amounting to $15,000.00 to the Naval Air Warfare Center in China Lake and the Defense Information Systems Agency, for damage done due to DDoS attacks and hacking. Ancheta also had to forfeit his gains to the government, which include $60,000 in cash, a BMW, and computer equipment [7].
  • May: Largest Defacement in Web History, at that time, is performed by the Turkish hacker iSKORPiTX who successfully hacked 21,549 websites in one shot. [8]
  • July: Robert Moore and Edwin Pena featured on Americas Most Wanted with Kevin Mitnick presenting their case commit the first VOIP crime ever seen in the USA. Robert Moore served 2 years in federal prison with a $152,000.00 restitution while Edwin Pena was sentenced to 10 years and a $1 million restitution.
  • September: Viodentia releases FairUse4WM tool which would remove DRM information off WMA music downloaded from music services such as Yahoo Unlimited, Napster, Rhapsody Music and Urge.

2007[edit]

  • May 17: Estonia recovers from massive denial-of-service attack[22]
  • June 13: FBI Operation Bot Roast finds over 1 million botnet victims[23]
  • November 29: FBI Operation Bot Roast II: 1 million infected PCs, $20 million in losses and 8 indictments[27]

2008[edit]

  • January 17: Project Chanology; Anonymous attacks Scientology website servers around the world. Private documents are stolen from Scientology computers and distributed over the Internet
  • March 7: Around 20 Chinese hackers claim to have gained access to the world's most sensitive sites, including The Pentagon. They operate from a bare apartment on a Chinese island.[28]
  • March 14: Trend Micro website successfully hacked by Turkish hacker Janizary(aka Utku)[29]

2009[edit]

  • April 4: Conficker worm infiltrated millions of PCs worldwide including many government-level top-security computer networks[30]

2010s[edit]

2010[edit]

  • January 12: Operation Aurora Google publicly reveals[31] that it has been on the receiving end of a "highly sophisticated and targeted attack on our corporate infrastructure originating from China that resulted in the theft of intellectual property from Google"
  • June: Stuxnet The Stuxnet worm is found by VirusBlokAda. Stuxnet was unusual in that while it spread via Windows computers, its payload targeted just one specific model and type of SCADA systems. It slowly became clear that it was a cyber attack on Iran's nuclear facilities - with most experts believing that Israel[32] was behind it - perhaps with US help.
  • December 3: The first Malware Conference, MALCON takes place in India. Founded by Rajshekhar Murthy, Malware coders are invited to showcase their skills at this annual event supported by the Government of India. An advanced malware for Symbian OS is released by hacker A0drul3z.

2011[edit]

  • The Hacker group Lulz security is formed
  • April 9: Bank Of America website hacked by Turkish hacker JeOPaRDY. This time the FBI accuses him of stealing 85,000 credit card numbers and accounts. Bank officials say no personal customer bank information is available on that web-page. Only information about bank products and services. An investigation is now being conducted by the F.B.I[33]
  • April 17: An "external intrusion" sends the PlayStation Network offline, and compromises personally identifying information (possibly including credit card details) of its 77 million accounts, in what is claimed to be one of the five largest data breaches ever.[34]
  • Elite hacker sl1nk releases information of his penetration in the servers of the Department of Defense (DoD), Pentagon, NASA, NSA, US Military, other UK government websites.[35]
  • The hacker group LulzRaft is formed
  • September: Bangladeshi hacker TiGER-M@TE made world record in defacement history by hacking 700,000 websites in one shot.[36]
  • October 16: The YouTube channel of Sesame Street was hacked, streaming pornographic content for about 22 minutes.[37]
  • November 1: The main phone and Internet networks of the Palestinian territories sustained a hacker attack from multiple locations worldwide.[38]
  • November 7: The forums for Valve's Steam service were hacked. Redirects for a hacking website, Fkn0wned, appeared on the Steam Users' Forums, offering "hacking tutorials and tools, porn, free giveaways and much more.[39]
  • December 14: Five members of the Norwegian hacker group Noria was arrested, allegedly suspected for hacking into the email account of the militant extremist Anders Behring Breivik[40]

2012[edit]

  • Saudi hacker, 0xOmar, published over 400,000 credit cards online,[41] and threatened Israel to release 1 million credit cards in the future.[42]
    • In response to that incident, an Israeli hacker published over 200 Saudi's credit cards online.[43]
  • January 6: Hacker group The Hacker Encrypters found and reported an open SQLi exploit on Facebook. The results of the exploit have been posted on Pastebin.[44]
  • January 7: Team Appunity, a group of Norwegians hackers, got arrested for breaking into and publishing the user database of Norway's largest prostitution website.[45]
  • February 3: Marriott was hacked by a new age ideologist, Attila Nemeth who was resisting against the New World Order where Corporations Rule the World. As a response Marriott reported him to the United States Secret Service.[46]
  • February 8: Foxconn is hacked by rising hacker group, Swagg Security, releasing a massive amount of data including email logins, server logins, and even more alarming - bank account credentials of large companies like Apple and Microsoft. Swagg Security stages the attack just as a Foxconn protest ignites against terrible working conditions[47]
  • May 4: A lot of important Turkish Websites are hacked by F0RTYS3V3N (Turkish Hacker) . Google, Yandex, Microsoft, Gmail, Msn, Hotmail, PayPal Turkish representative offices ' s Websites hacked in one shot.[48]
  • May 24 WHMCS is hacked by UGNazi, they claim that the reason for this is because of the illegal sites that are using their software.
  • May 31: MyBB is hacked by newly founded hack group, UGNazi, the website was defaced for about a day, they claim their reasoning for this was because they were upset that the forum board Hackforums.net uses their software.
  • October 7: Farmers Insurance, MasterCard, and several other high-level government sites are hacked by Swagg Security. Released is several thousand usernames and logins, as well as other confidential information.[49]

2013[edit]

  • February 18: Burger King's Twitter account 'hacked' with McDonald's logo [50] According to Anonymous, it was due to the horse meat scandal in Europe.[51] An account named "iThug" was responsible for the hack. As a result, iThug's account was suspended.[52]

2014[edit]

  • February 7: Mt.Gox is hacked and 850,000 bitcoins belonging to customers and the company were missing and likely stolen. At Bitcoin highest price ($1,242), the total sum is $1 Billion.

[53]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marks, Paul (December 27, 2011). "Dot-dash-diss: The gentleman hacker's 1903 lulz". New Scientist. Retrieved January 11, 2012. 
  2. ^ David Price: Blind Whistling Phreaks and the FBI's Historical Reliance on Phone Tap Criminality CounterPunch, June 30, 2008
  3. ^ The 414 Gang Strikes Again, Aug 29 1983, Time magazine
  4. ^ Beware: Hackers at play, Newsweek, September 5, 1983, pp. 42-46,48
  5. ^ David Bailey, "Attacks on Computers: Congressional Hearings and Pending Legislation," sp, p. 180, 1984 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 1984.
  6. ^ "Timeline: The U.S. Government and Cybersecurity". Washington Post. May 16, 2003. Retrieved 2006-04-14. 
  7. ^ Thompson, Ken (October 1983). "Reflections on Trusting Trust" (PDF). 1983 Turing Award Lecture. ACM. 
  8. ^ 'Hacking' into Prestel is not a Forgery Act offence" (Law Report), The Times, 21 July 1987.
  9. ^ Cliff Stoll (1989). The cuckoo's egg. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-370-31433-6. 
  10. ^ Burger, R.: "Computer viruses - a high tech disease", Abacus/Data Becker GmbH (1988), ISBN 1-55755-043-3
  11. ^ Spafford, E.H.: "The Internet Worm Program: An Analysis", Purdue Technical Report CSD-TR-823 (undated)
  12. ^ Eichin, M.W. and Rochlis, J.A.: "With Microscope and Tweezers: An Analysis of the Internet Virus of November 1988", MIT(1989)
  13. ^ Bill Apro & Graeme Hammond (2005). Hackers: The Hunt for Australia’s Most Infamous Computer Cracker. Five Mile Press. ISBN 1-74124-722-5. 
  14. ^ Esquibel, Bruce (1994-10-08). ""Operation Sundevil" is finally over for Dr. Ripco". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  15. ^ "Recent Large Name Phreaker Busts by Anonymous". EmpireTimes. March 11, 1995. 
  16. ^ http://www.nap.edu/html/trust/trust-1.htm[dead link]
  17. ^ "U.S. Department of Justice, For Immediate Release, Dallas, Texas". USDOJ. September 16, 1999. 
  18. ^ "North Korean hackers sabotage computer networks of South Korea". Pravda Online. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  19. ^ Rob Lemos. "Campaign seeks to defang Rafa's hacker image", "Security Focus", April 11, 2005.
  20. ^ Krebs, Brian. "Teen Pleads Guilty to Hacking Paris Hilton's Phone", The Washington Post, September 13, 2005.
  21. ^ Iain Thomson (2005-11-04). "FBI sting nets botnet hacker". vnunet.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-20. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  22. ^ Estonia recovers from massive denial-of-service attack - Network World
  23. ^ FBI: Operation Bot Roast finds over 1 million botnet victims |NetworkWorld.com Community
  24. ^ McMillan, Robert (June 21, 2007). "Pentagon shuts down systems after cyberattack". InfoWorld (IDG). Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  25. ^ Aitoro, Jill R. (March 5, 2008). "Defense officials still concerned about data lost in 2007 network attack". Government Executive (National Journal Group). Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  26. ^ BM'nin sitesi hacklendi |Haber'in Doğru Adresi, Haber, Yerel Haber, Siyaset Haberleri, Sondakika Haberleri, Gazeteler, Haberler
  27. ^ FBI 'Bot Roast II: 1 million infected PCs, $20 million in losses and 8 indictments |NetworkWorld.com Community
  28. ^ "Chinese hackers: No site is safe". CNN. March 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  29. ^ Trend Micro Victim Of Malicious Hack
  30. ^ Markoff, John (2009-08-26). "Defying Experts, Rogue Computer Code Still Lurks". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  31. ^ "A new approach to China". Google Inc. 2010-01-12. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  32. ^ Broad, William J.; Sanger, David E. (18 November 2010). "Worm in Iran Can Wreck Nuclear Centrifuges". The New York Times. 
  33. ^ http://thehackernews.com/2011/03/thousands-of-bank-of-america-accounts.html
  34. ^ Posted: Apr 27, 2011 10:56 AM ET (April 27, 2011). "PlayStation data breach deemed in 'top 5 ever' - Business - CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  35. ^ Is Department of Defense (DoD), Pentagon, NASA, NSA secure?, TheHackerNews, May 14, 2011.
  36. ^ http://news.softpedia.com/news/700-000-InMotion-Websites-Hacked-by-TiGER-M-TE-223607.shtml
  37. ^ John P. Mello Jr. "Sesame Street Hacked, Porn Posted". PC World. Retrieved 2011-10-26. 
  38. ^ Alaa Ashkar. "PA Telecommunications minister: Palestinian Internet Under Hacking Attacks". IMEMC. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  39. ^ Ashcraft, Brian. "Steam Forums Apparently Hacked". Kotaku. 
  40. ^ Jonas Sverrisson Rasch. "News article about the arrests of Noria". Dagbladet. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  41. ^ Flock, Elizabeth (January 3, 2012). "Saudi hackers say they published Israeli credit card information". The Washington Post. 
  42. ^ http://hitechanalogy.com/saudi-hacker-0xomar-threatens-israel-release-01-million-credit-card-numbers-story/
  43. ^ "Israeli hacker retaliates to credit card hacking". BBC News. January 12, 2012. 
  44. ^ Results of the Facebook exploit on pastebin - http://pastebin.com/z5YgWanz
  45. ^ Kripos. "(Norwegian) Tre personer siktet for datainnbrudd". Kripos. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  46. ^ "Marriott,Hack,Extortion, Arrest and important websites hacked". Feb 3, 2012. 
  47. ^ Garside, Juliette (February 9, 2012). "Apple supplier Foxconn hacked in factory conditions protest". The Guardian (London). 
  48. ^ "Google,Microsoft,Yandex,Paypal and important websites hacked". May 4, 2012. 
  49. ^ USA Gov., Farmers Ins., Mastercard and + Hacked! Pastebin - http://pastebin.com/AP2M5cDX
  50. ^ BBC - http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-india-8533906955
  51. ^ New Times Broward-Palm Beach - http://blogs.browardpalmbeach.com/pulp/2013/02/anonymous_hacked_burger_king_horse_meat.php
  52. ^ Gizmodo- http://gizmodo.com/5985385/jeeps-twitter-account-has-been-hacked
  53. ^ http://www.wired.com/wiredenterprise/2014/02/bitcoins-mt-gox-implodes/

Further reading[edit]

  • Allan Lundell (1989). Virus! The secret world of computer invaders that breed and destroy. Wayne A. Yacco. ISBN 0-8092-4437-3. 
  • Bill Landreth (1989[1985]). Out of the Inner Circle. Tempus Books of Microsoft Press. ISBN 1-55615-223-X. 
  • Owen Bowcott and Sally Hamilton (1990). Beating the System: Hackers, phreakers and electronic spies. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-0513-6. 
  • Philip Fites, Peter Johnston and Martin Kratz (1989). The computer virus crisis. Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-28532-9. 
  • Bruce Sterling (1992). The Hacker Crackdown: Law and disorder on the electronic frontier. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-017734-5. 
  • Steve Gold (1989). Hugo Cornwall's New Hacker's Handbook. London: Century Hutchinson Ltd. ISBN 0-7126-3454-1.