Timeline of country and capital changes

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This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world. It includes dates of independence, changes in country name, changes of capital city or name, and significant changes in territory.


 2000s   1900s   1800s   1700s   1600s   1500s   1400s   1300s   1200s   1100s   1000s 
 1st Millennium CE   1st Millennium BCE   2nd Millennium BCE   3rd Millennium BCE   4th Millennium BCE 

Africa Asia Europe Oceania North America South America Antarctica

Common Era[edit]

2010s[edit]

Year Date Event
2014 March 21 The Republic of Crimea accedes to Russian Federation as two separate federal subjects: Republic of Crimea and city of federal significance Sevastopol. Simferopol yields to Moscow as the federal capital.
March 17 The Russian Federation recognizes the independence of the Republic of Crimea from Ukraine. Ukraine itself, along with the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People, and the international community maintain that Crimea and Sevastopol are illegally occupied by Russia and that both remain de jure integral regions of Ukraine.
The Republic of Crimea absorbs the Ukranian port of Sevastopol. Simferopol remains the capital.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea unilaterally proclaims its independence from Ukraine and changes its name to Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is the capital.
2013 October 24 The Republic of Cape Verde changes its official long-form name to the Republic of Cabo Verde.[1] Praia remains the capital.
January 7 The Libyan National Congress changes the name of the country from Libya to the State of Libya which will be used until a new constitution is adopted.[2] Tripoli remains the capital.
2012 August 20 The Somali Republic changes its name to the Federal Republic of Somalia. Mogadishu remains the capital.
July 12 The State of Azawad is reabsorbed into by the Republic of Mali.
April 6 The State of Azawad proclaims its independence from the Republic of Mali. Gao is the capital.
January 1 The Republic of Hungary changes its name to Hungary. Budapest remains the capital.
2011 September 16 After a civil war and the occupation of the capital by the National Liberation Army, the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya changes its name to Libya. Tripoli remains the capital.
July 9 The Republic of South Sudan formally gains independence from Sudan after a referendum in January. Juba is the capital.
February 2 The Republic of the Fiji Islands changes its name back to the Republic of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
2010 October 21 The Union of Myanmar (Burma) changes its name to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Naypyidaw remains the capital.
October 10 The Netherlands Antilles is dissolved. Curaçao and Sint Maarten become constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands with Willemstad and Philipsburg the respective capitals. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius become special municipalities of the Netherlands.

2000s[edit]

Year Date Event
2009 September 1 The United Kingdom changes the name of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena and Dependencies to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Jamestown on Saint Helena remains the capital.
February 7 The Republic of Bolivia changes its name to the Plurinational State of Bolivia. La Paz and Sucre remain the capitals.
2008 August 27 The Russian Federation recognizes the independence of the Republic of South Ossetia and the Republic of Abkhazia from Georgia. Georgia itself and much of the international community maintain that they are both illegally occupied by Russia and legally remain integral regions of Georgia. Tskhinval and Sukhumi are the capitals, respectively.
May 28 The State of Nepal changes its name to the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Kathmandu remains the capital.
February 17 The Republic of Kosovo declares its independence from the Republic of Serbia, although Serbia does not recognise it. Priština is the capital. On July 22, 2010, the International Court of Justice rules that the declaration of independence does not violate international law.
2007 October 22 The Republic of Montenegro changes its name to Montenegro. Podgorica remains the capital.
February 21 The French Republic separates the Collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy from Guadeloupe. Gustavia is the capital.
The French Republic separates the Collectivity of Saint-Martin from Guadeloupe. Marigot is the capital.
January 15 The Kingdom of Nepal changes its name to the State of Nepal. Kathmandu remains the capital.
2006 October 7 The Republic of Palau moves its capital from Koror to Ngerulmud.
August 14 The Federal Republic of Nigeria transfers sovereignty of Bakassi to the Republic of Cameroon.
June 5 The Republic of Serbia supersedes the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade remains the capital.
June 3 The Republic of Montenegro secedes from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Podgorica is the capital.
2005 November 6 The Union of Myanmar (Burma) moves its capital from Yangon to Naypyidaw.
2004 September 1 The Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty administering Antarctica establishes its headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
January 4 The Islamic State of Afghanistan changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
2003 May 26 The Rwandese Republic changes its name to the Republic of Rwanda. Kigali remains the capital.
February 4 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade remains the capital.
2002 May 20 The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste gains independence from the Portuguese Republic. Timor-Leste was occupied by Indonesia in 1975, and was placed under United Nations administration in 1999. Dili is the capital.
March 10 The Union of the Comoros reabsorbs the de facto independent State of Anjouan and the Democratic Republic of Mohéli. Mutsamudu and Fomboni yield to Moroni as the capital.
February 14 The State of Bahrain changes its name to the Kingdom of Bahrain. Manama remains the capital.
2001 December 23 The Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros changes its name to the Union of the Comoros. Moroni remains the capital.
November 13 The Islamic State of Afghanistan supersedes the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
July 1 The "temporarily independent" Puntland State of Somalia adopts a new constitution explicitly identifying itself as part of the Somali Republic. Garowe yields to Mogadishu as the capital.
January Taloqan, the de facto capital of the Islamic State of Afghanistan government, falls to the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The capital moves to Fayzabad.
2000 July 16 Somalia changes its name to the Somali Republic. Mogadishu remains the capital.
February 6 The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria is reabsorbed into the Russian Federation. Dzhokhar-Ghala yields to Moscow as the capital.

1990s[edit]

Year Date Event
1999 December 31 The United States of America returns sovereignty of the Panama Canal to the Republic of Panama.
December 30 The Republic of Venezuela changes its name to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Caracas remains the capital.
December 20 The Portuguese Republic transfers sovereignty over Macau to the People's Republic of China as the Macau Special Administrative Region.
June 10 The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo is formed in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
1998 May 6 The Republic of Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Aqmola to Astana.
1997 December 10 The Republic of Kazakhstan moves its capital from Almaty to Aqmola.
July 4 Western Samoa changes its name to the Independent State of Samoa.
July 1 The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China as the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
May 17 The Republic of Zaire changes its name back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kinshasa remains the capital.
The Republic of Fiji changes its name to the Republic of the Fiji Islands. Suva remains the capital.
1996 The United Republic of Tanzania moves its capital from Dar-es-Salaam to Dodoma.
1994 October 1 The Republic of Palau gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship administered by the United States. Koror is the capital.
February 28 The Republic of South Africa transfers sovereignty over Walvis Bay to the Republic of Namibia.
1993 September 24 The restored Kingdom of Cambodia supersedes the State of Cambodia. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
The Republic of Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Alma-Ata to Almaty.
May 24 The State of Eritrea gains independence from the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Asmara is the capital.
January 1 The Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic are formed out of the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Bratislava is the capital of the Slovak Republic. Prague remains the capital of the Czech Republic.
1992 September 12 The Democratic Republic of Madagascar changes its name to the Republic of Madagascar. Antananarivo remains the capital.
August 27 The People's Republic of Angola changes its name to the Republic of Angola. Luanda remains the capital.
April 28 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is created from the remnants of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
April 6 Bosnia and Herzegovina gains independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Sarajevo is the capital.
January 15 The Republic of Slovenia gains independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Ljubljana is the capital.
The Republic of Croatia gains independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Zagreb is the capital.
1991 December 26 The Russian Federation (Russia) is created from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Moscow remains the capital.
December 21 The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan) gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Bishkek is the capital.
December 16 The Republic of Kazakhstan gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Alma-Ata is the capital until 1997.
December 12 The Federal Republic of Nigeria moves its capital from Lagos to Abuja.
December 8 Turkmenistan gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Ashgabat is the capital.
The Republic of Uzbekistan gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tashkent is the capital.
September 21 The Republic of Armenia gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Yerevan is the capital.
September 9 The Republic of Tajikistan gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Dushanbe is the capital.
September 8 The Republic of Macedonia gains independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Skopje is the capital.
September 6 The Republic of Lithuania gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Vilnius is the capital.
August 30 The Republic of Azerbaijan gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Baku is the capital.
August 27 The Republic of Moldova gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Chişinău is the capital.
August 25 The Republic of Belarus gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Minsk is the capital.
August 24 The Republic of Ukraine gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Kiev is the capital.
August 21 The Republic of Latvia regains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Riga is the capital.
August 20 The Republic of Estonia regains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tallinn is the capital.
April 30 The Republic of Albania supersedes the Socialist People's Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
April 9 Georgia gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tbilisi is the capital.
1990 November 15 The People's Republic of Bulgaria changes its name to the Republic of Bulgaria. Sofia remains the capital.
October 3 The Federal Republic of Germany reabsorbs the German Democratic Republic. Unified Germany regains full sovereignty and Allied occupation ends. Bonn yields to Berlin as the capital.
May 22 The Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) reunite to form the Republic of Yemen. Aden yields to San'a' as the capital.
March 21 The Republic of Namibia gains independence from South Africa. Windhoek is the capital.
March 1 The People's Republic of Benin changes its name to the Republic of Benin. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
The Republic of Chile moves its legislative capital from Santiago to Valparaíso. Santiago remains the administrative capital.

1980s[edit]

Year Date Event
1989 December 31 The Polish People's Republic changes its name to the Republic of Poland. Warsaw remains the capital.
October 23 The People's Republic of Hungary changes its name to the Republic of Hungary.
September 26 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam ends its occupation of the State of Cambodia.
June 18 The Union of Burma changes its English language name to the Union of Myanmar. Yangon remains the capital until 2005.
The Federated States of Micronesia moves its capital from Kolonia to Palikir.
May 1 The State of Cambodia supersedes Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia). Phnom Penh remains the capital.
February 15 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ends its intervention in the Republic of Afghanistan.
1988 September 23 The Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Burma. Yangon remains the capital.
1987 November 30 The Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
October 7 The Dominion of Fiji changes its name to Republic of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
1986 November 3 The Federated States of Micronesia gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship administered by the United States. Kolonia is the capital.
October 21 The Republic of the Marshall Islands gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship administered by the United States. Majuro is the capital.
January 1 Aruba gains the status of "country" within the Kingdom of the Netherlands following a change of the Charter for the Kingdom and secedes from the Netherlands Antilles. Oranjestad is the capital.
1984 August 15 Bourkina-Fasso changes its name to Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
August 4 The Republic of Upper Volta changes its name to Bourkina-Fasso. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
February 4 The Republic of Cameroon supersedes the United Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé is the capital.
January 1 The State of Brunei, Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam) gains independence from the United Kingdom. Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital.
1983 September 19 The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis gains independence from the United Kingdom. Basseterre is the capital.
March The Republic of Ivory Coast moves its capital from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro.
1982 June 14 The United Kingdom recaptures the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) from the Argentine Republic. Britain restores the name of the capital Puerto Argentino to Stanley.
April 29 The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka moves its capital from Colombo to Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte.
April 18 The Republic of Zimbabwe renames its capital, Salisbury, along with many other place names. The new name for the capital is Harare.
April 2 The Argentine Republic seizes the Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands) from the United Kingdom. Argentina renames Stanley the capital Puerto Argentino.
1981 November 1 Antigua and Barbuda gains independence from the United Kingdom. St. John's is the capital.
September 21 Belize gains independence from the United Kingdom. Belmopan is the capital.
1980 July 30 The Republic of Vanuatu gains independence from a British-French condominium. Port Vila is the capital.
April 18 The Republic of Zimbabwe gains independence from the United Kingdom. Salisbury is the capital.

1970s[edit]

Year Date Event
1979 December 25 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics occupies the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
December 12 The Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia is dissolved as the United Kingdom regains control of the territory. The colony regains its former name, Southern Rhodesia. Salisbury remains the capital.
October 27 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kingstown is the capital.
September 20 The Central African Empire changes its name back to the Central African Republic. Bangui remains the capital.
July 12 The Republic of Kiribati gains independence from the United Kingdom. South Tarawa is the capital.
June 1 The unrecognised Republic of Rhodesia is superseded by the Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, which is also unrecognised. Salisbury remains the capital.
February 22 Saint Lucia gains independence from the United Kingdom. Castries is the capital.
January 7 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam occupies Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia).
1978 November 3 The Commonwealth of Dominica gains independence from the United Kingdom. Roseau is the capital.
October 1 Tuvalu gains independence from the United Kingdom. Funafuti is the capital.
July 7 The Solomon Islands become independent from the United Kingdom. Honiara is the capital.
September 7 The Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka changes its name to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Colombo remains the capital.
April 30 The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
1977 June 27 The Republic of Djibouti gains independence from the French Republic. The city of Djibouti is the capital.
March 2 The Libyan Arab Republic changes its name to the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Tripoli remains the capital.
1976 December 28 The Socialist People's Republic of Albania supersedes the People's Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
December 4 The Central African Republic changes its name to the Central African Empire. Bangui remains the capital.
July 2 The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam unite to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City yields to Hanoi as the capital.
June 29 The Republic of Seychelles become independent from the United Kingdom. Victoria is the capital.
June 24 The Republic of the Philippines reinstates Manila as the capital. Quezon City, the former capital from 1948, was incorporated with Manila and 15 surrounding suburbs to form Metro Manila. Baguio is no longer a summer capital.
January 5 Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) supersedes the Khmer Republic. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
1975 December 30 The Malagasy Republic changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. Antananarivo remains the capital.
December 2 Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) supersedes the Kingdom of Laos. Vientiane remains the capital.
November 30 The Republic of Dahomey changes its name to the People's Republic of Benin. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
November 25 The Republic of Suriname gains independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Paramaribo is the capital.
November 22 The Spanish State is superseded by the restored Kingdom of Spain. Madrid remains the capital.
November 11 The People's Republic of Angola gains independence from the Portuguese Republic. Luanda is the capital.
September 16 The Independent State of Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia. Port Moresby is the capital.
July 12 The Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe gains independence from the Portuguese Republic. The city of São Tomé is the capital.
July 6 The Union of the Comoros gains independence from the French Republic. Moroni is the capital.
July 5 The Republic of Cape Verde gains independence from the Portuguese Republic. Praia is the capital.
June 25 The Republic of Mozambique gains independence from the Portuguese Republic. Maputo is the capital.
April 30 The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam supersedes the Republic of Vietnam. The name of the capital is changed from Saigon to Ho Chi Minh City.
1974 December 13 The Republic of Malta supersedes the State of Malta. Valletta remains the capital.
September 10 The Republic of Guinea changes its name to the Republic of Guinea-Bissau and moves its capital from Madina do Boe to Bissau. The Portuguese Republic recognizes the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau.
February 22 The Islamic Republic of Pakistan recognizes the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
February 7 Grenada gains independence from the United Kingdom. St. George's is the capital.
January 4 The Union of Burma changes its name to the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. Yangon remains the capital until 2005.
1973 September 24 The Republic of Guinea declares its independence from the Portuguese Republic; recognition is limited. Madina do Boe is the temporary capital.
July 17 The Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
July 10 The Commonwealth of The Bahamas gains independence from the United Kingdom. Nassau is the capital.
1972 June 2 The United Republic of Cameroon supersedes the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital until 1982.
May 22 Ceylon changes its name to the Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka. Colombo remains the capital until 1982.
1971 December 2 The United Arab Emirates gains independence from the United Kingdom. Abu Dhabi is the capital.
October 27 The Democratic Republic of the Congo changes its name to the Republic of Zaire. Kinshasa remains the capital.
September 3 The State of Qatar gains independence from the United Kingdom. Doha is the capital.
September 1 The Arab Republic of Egypt supersedes the United Arab Republic. Cairo remains the capital.
August 16 The State of Bahrain gains independence from the United Kingdom. Manama is the capital.
March 26 The People's Republic of Bangladesh declares its independence from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Dhaka is the capital.
1970 December 1 The People's Republic of South Yemen changes its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Aden remains the capital.
October 9 The Khmer Republic (Cambodia) supersedes the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh is the capital.
October 10 The Dominion of Fiji gains independence from the United Kingdom. Suva is the capital.
July 4 The Kingdom of Tonga gains independence from the United Kingdom. Nukuʻalofa is the capital.
March 2 Rhodesia declares itself the Republic of Rhodesia. Salisbury remains the capital.

1960s[edit]

Year Date Event
1969 September 1 The Libyan Arab Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli remains the capital.
1968 October 12 The Republic of Equatorial Guinea gains independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Malabo is the capital.
September 6 The Kingdom of Swaziland gains independence from the United Kingdom. Mbabane is the capital.
March 12 The Republic of Mauritius gains independence from the United Kingdom. Port Louis is the capital.
January 31 The Republic of Nauru gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship. Yaren is the de facto capital.
1967 November 7 The People's Republic of South Yemen gains independence from the United Kingdom. Aden is the capital.
January 24 The Republic of the United States of Brazil changes its name to the Federative Republic of Brazil. Brasilia remains the capital.
1966 November 30 Barbados gains independence from the United Kingdom. Bridgetown is the capital.
November 28 The Republic of Burundi supersedes the Kingdom of Burundi. Bujumbura remains the capital.
October 4 The Kingdom of Lesotho gains independence from the United Kingdom. Maseru is the capital.
September 30 The Republic of Botswana gains independence from the United Kingdom. Gaborone is the capital.
July 6 Malawi becomes the Republic of Malawi. Lilongwe remains the capital.
June 30 The Democratic Republic of the Congo changes the name of its capital from Léopoldville to Kinshasa.
May 26 The Co-operative Republic of Guyana gains independence from the United Kingdom. Georgetown is the capital.
1965 November 11 Rhodesia issues its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom, which goes unrecognised. Salisbury is the capital.
August 9 The Republic of Singapore secedes from Malaysia. Singapore is the capital.
July 26 The Republic of Maldives gains independence from the United Kingdom. Male is the capital.
February 18 The Republic of the Gambia gains independence from the United Kingdom. Banjul is the capital.
1964 November 1 The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar changes its name to the United Republic of Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam remains the capital.
October 24 The Republic of Zambia gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lusaka is the capital.
September 21 The State of Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom. Valletta is the capital.
August 1 The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville) changes its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Léopoldville remains the capital.
July 6 Malawi gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lilongwe is the capital.
April 26 The Republic of Tanganyika and the Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba unite to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Zanzibar City yields to Dar-es-Salaam as the capital.
1963 December 12 The Republic of Kenya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Nairobi is the capital.
September 16 The Federation of Malaya unites with the British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak, and British North Borneo (Sabah) to form Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur remains the capital.
April 25 The Kingdom of Libya supersedes the United Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli remains the capital.
April 7 Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia changes the name to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
The Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba gains independence from the United Kingdom. Zanzibar City is the capital.
1962 October 9 The Republic of Uganda gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kampala is the capital.
September 26 The Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) moves its capital from Ta'izz to San'a'.
September 25 Algeria becomes the People's Democratic Algerian Republic. Algiers remains the capital.
August 31 The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago gains independence from the United Kingdom. Port of Spain is the capital.
August 6 Jamaica gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kingston is the capital.
July 3 Algeria gains independence from the French Republic. Algiers is the capital.
July 1 The Kingdom of Burundi and the Republic of Rwanda become independent from the Kingdom of Belgium. Bujumbura and Kigali are the respective capitals.
January 1 Western Samoa gains independence from New Zealand. Apia is the capital.
1961 December 28 The Syrian Arab Republic secedes from the United Arab Republic, leaving Egypt as the sole member of the federation. Cairo remains the capital of the UAR. Damascus is the capital of Syria.
December 9 The Republic of Tanganyika gains independence from the United Kingdom. Dar-es-Salaam is the capital.
October 1 The southern portion of British Cameroon gains independence from the United Kingdom and unites with the Republic of Cameroun to form the Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé is the capital.
June 23 The Antarctic Treaty System enters force administering the continent of Antarctica and all territory south of the 60th parallel south.
June 19 The State of Kuwait gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuwait City is the capital.
May 31 The Union of South Africa ceases to be a Commonwealth realm and changes its name to the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria, Cape Town and Bloemfontein remain the capitals.
April 27 The Republic of Sierra Leone gains independence from the United Kingdom. Freetown is the capital.
1960 November 28 The Islamic Republic of Mauritania gains independence from the French Republic. Nouakchott is the capital.
October 1 The Federal Republic of Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lagos is the capital.
September 22 The Republic of Mali gains independence from the French Republic. Bamako is the capital.
August 20 The Republic of Senegal gains independence from the French Republic. Dakar is the capital.
August 17 The Gabonese Republic (Gabon) gains independence from the French Republic. Libreville is the capital.
August 16 The Republic of Cyprus gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lefkosia is the capital.
August 15 The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) gains independence from the French Republic. Brazzaville is the capital.
August 13 The Central African Republic gains independence from the French Republic. Bangui is the capital.
August 11 The Republic of Chad gains independence from the French Republic. N'Djamena is the capital.
August 7 The Republic of Ivory Coast gains independence from the French Republic. Abidjan is the capital.
August 5 The Republic of Upper Volta gains independence from the French Republic. Ouagadougou is the capital.
August 3 The Republic of Niger gains independence from the French Republic. Niamey is the capital.
August 1 The Republic of Dahomey gains independence from the French Republic. Porto-Novo is the capital.
July 1 The Somali Republic (Somalia) is created from a merger of the former colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Mogadishu is the capital.
June 30 The Belgian Congo gains independence from the Kingdom of Belgium as the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville). Léopoldville remains the capital.
June 26 The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains independence from the French Republic. Antananarivo is the capital.
April 27 The Togolese Republic (Togo) gains independence from the French Republic. Lomé is the capital.
April 21 The Republic of the United States of Brazil moves its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.
January 1 The Republic of Cameroun gains independence from the French Republic. Yaoundé is the capital.

1950s[edit]

Year Date Event
1958 October 15 The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains autonomy within the French Community. Antananarivo is the capital.
October 2 The Republic of Guinea gains independence from the French Republic. Conakry is the capital.
July 14 The Republic of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan are created from the dissolution of the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Baghdad remains the capital of Iraq. Amman is again the capital of Jordan.
February 14 The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan unite to form the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Amman yields to Baghdad as the capital.
February 1 The Egyptian Republic and the Syrian Arab Republic unite to form the United Arab Republic. Damascus yields to Cairo as the capital.
1957 August 31 The Federation of Malaya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuala Lumpur is the capital.
March 6 The Republic of Ghana gains independence from the United Kingdom. Accra is the capital.
1956 June 18 The Egyptian Republic declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo remains the capital.
March 23 The Dominion of Pakistan declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Karachi remains the capital.
March 20 The Tunisian Republic gains independence from the French Republic. Tunis is the capital.
March 2 The Kingdom of Morocco gains independence from the French Republic. Rabat is the capital.
January 1 The Republic of Sudan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Khartoum is the capital. Egypt relinquishes its claim over Sudan.
1955 The Kingdom of Bhutan makes Thimphu the sole capital.
May 15 The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) regains its independence. Allied occupation ends. Vienna (German: Wien) is the capital.
1954 December 20 The French Republic recognizes the independence of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
December 15 The Dutch Territory of Curaçao becomes the Netherlands Antilles and the Dutch Territory of Suriname becomes Suriname with the entry into force of the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Both the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname become nations within the Kingdom of the Netherlands with autonomy over their internal affairs. Willemstad on Curaçao and Paramaribo remain the capitals.
July 20 The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) become independent from the French Republic. Hanoi and Saigon are the respective capitals.
1953 November 9 The Kingdom of Cambodia declares its independence from the French Republic. Phnom Penh is the capital.
October 22 The Kingdom of Laos (Laos) gains independence from the French Republic. Vientiane is the capital.
June 13 The Egyptian Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital.
1952 July 25 The Territory of Puerto Rico becomes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico upon ratification of the Constitution of Puerto Rico, choosing free association with the United States of America. San Juan remains the capital.
July 22 The Republic of Poland changes its name to the Polish People's Republic. Warsaw remains the capital.
1951 December 24 The United Kingdom of Libya gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship, previously having been divided into the independent Emirate of Cyrenaica, British-administered Tripolitania and the French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames. Tripoli is the capital.
February 15 The Republic of Poland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics exchange territory along their common border.
1950 August 17 The Republic of the United States of Indonesia becomes a unitary state and changes its name back to Republic of Indonesia. Jakarta remains the capital
January 26 The Union of India declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of India. New Delhi remains the capital.

1940s[edit]

Year Date Event
1949 December 8 The government of the Republic of China leaves Mainland China for Taiwan where Taipei becomes the de facto capital.
December 27 The Republic of Indonesia becomes a federation as Republic of the United States of Indonesia and its independence is formally recognised by the Netherlands. The capital returns to Jakarta from Yogyakarta.
December 5 The State of Israel declares Jerusalem its official capital. Tel Aviv continues to serve as the de facto capital.
October 7 The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is established in occupied eastern Germany. East Berlin is the capital.
October 1 The People's Republic of China is established. Beijing is the capital.
September 7 The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) is established in occupied western Germany. Bonn is the capital.
July 20 Siam changes its name again to Thailand, preserving the name till today.
March 31 The Dominion of Newfoundland joins Canada following the Newfoundland referendums, 1948. The capital is St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.
March 1 The Emirate of Cyrenaica is created from part of the British Military Administration of Libya. The capital is Benghazi.
1948 September 9 The Democratic People's Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea are created. Pyongyang and Seoul are the respective capitals.
July 17 The Republic of the Philippines moves its capital from Manila to Quezon City.
May 14 The State of Israel declares its independence from the British Mandate for Palestine. Tel Aviv is the capital.
February 4 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) gains independence from the United Kingdom. Colombo is the capital until 1982.
January 4 The Union of Burma gains independence from the United Kingdom. Yangon is the capital until 2005.
1947 August 15 The Union of India gains independence from the United Kingdom. New Delhi is the capital.
August 14 The Dominion of Pakistan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Karachi is the capital.
1946 September 15 The People's Republic of Bulgaria supersedes the Tsardom of Bulgaria. Sofia is the capital.
July 4 The Republic of the Philippines gains independence from the United States of America. Manila is the capital until 1948.
May 25 The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan gains independence from a British League of Nations Mandate. Amman is the capital.
January 11 The People's Republic of Albania supersedes the Kingdom of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
January 4 The Republic of Indonesia moves its capital from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.
The French Republic change the status of the former colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique for overseas departments and regions, fully incorporating them into the country.
The French Republic change the status of the former colony of Réunion for overseas department and region, fully incorporating it into the country.
The French Republic change the status of the former colony of French Guyana for overseas department and region, fully incorporating it into the country.
1945 December 2 The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
September 8 Thailand changes its name to Siam.
September 2 The Democratic Republic of Vietnam declares its independence from the France. Hanoi is the capital.
September 2 The Empire of Japan surrenders to Allied Forces.
August 17 The Republic of Indonesia declares their independence. Jakarta is the capital.
August 15 Korea gains independence from the Empire of Japan. Seoul is the capital.
May 8 The Greater German Empire surrenders to Allied Forces.
April 27 The second Republic of Austria is established in occupied Austria. Vienna is the capital. The independence is recognised by the Allied Forces.
1944 June 17 The Republic of Iceland gains independence from the Kingdom of Denmark. Reykjavík is the capital.
1943 November 22 The Lebanese Republic (Lebanon) gains independence from the French Republic. Beirut is the capital.
January The French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames is created when Free French forces from Chad invade southern Italian Libya. Sabha is capital.
1942 November The British Military Administration of Libya begins when British forces invade Cyrenaica from Egypt

1930s[edit]

Year Date Event
1939 July 10 The third German Empire changes its name to the Greater German Empire. Berlin remains as the capital.
June 23 Siam changes its name to Thailand.
April 1 The second Spanish Republic is superseded by the Spanish State. Madrid remains the capital.
1938 March 13 The third German Empire absorbs the Federal State of Austria in Anschluss. Vienna yields to Berlin as the capital.
1937 The Irish Free State changes its name to Ireland. Dublin remains the capital.
1936 The name of the colony Curaçao and Dependencies changes to Territory of Curaçao following the implementation of several laws resulting from the abolition of colonies in the Kingdom of the Netherlands already in 1922. Willemstad, Curaçao remains the capital.
1935 The Shah of Persia requested that Persia be referred to as Iran.
1934 The third German Empire supersedes the Weimar Republic. Berlin remains the capital.
Italian Libya is formed as a merger of the colonies Tripolitania, Cyrenaica as well as Fezzan. The capital is Tripoli.
1932 October 3 The Iraqi Kingdom (Iraq) gains independence from the United Kingdom. Baghdad is the capital.
September 13 The Socialist Republic of Chile changes its name back to the Republic of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
June 4 The Republic of Chile changes its name to the Socialist Republic of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
1931 December 11 Canada gains independence from the United Kingdom. Ottawa is the capital.
April 14 The Kingdom of Spain is superseded by the second Spanish Republic. Madrid remains the capital.

1920s[edit]

Year Date Event
1929 October 3 The Kingdom of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Belgrade remains the capital.
June 7 The Holy See (Vatican) gains independence from the Kingdom of Italy. Vatican City is the capital.
1928 December 29 The Republic of China establishes Nanking as its official capital, later codified in the 1947 Chinese Constitution.
September 1 The Kingdom of Albania supersedes the Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
1927 May 9 The Commonwealth of Australia moves its capital from Melbourne to Canberra.
April 12 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland changes its name to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. London remains the capital.
1926 June 9 Afghanistan becomes the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
The Belgian Congo moves its capital from Boma to Leopoldville.
1925 July 1 The Republic of China relocates its provisional capital from Nanking to Canton.
January 22 The Republic of Albania supersedes the Principality of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
January 1 The Kingdom of Norway changes the name of its capital from Kristiania to Oslo.
1924 November 26 The Mongolian People's Republic is established. Ulan Bator is the capital.
1923 October 29 The Republic of Turkey is established following the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Ankara is the capital.
1922 December 30 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic unite to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tbilisi, Kharkov, and Smolensk yield to Moscow as the capital.
December 6 The Irish Free State gains independence from the United Kingdom. Dublin is the capital.
November 17 The Ottoman Empire is dissolved. Its territories are mostly made protectorates of the victorious Allies of World War I.
March 12 The Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia, Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic, and the Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic unite to form the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. Baku and Yerevan yield to Tbilisi as the capital.
February 2 The Kingdom of Egypt gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital.
1921 November 22 The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
February 25 The Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital until 1922.
1920 November 29 The Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Democratic Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital until 1922.
April 28 The Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Baku remains the capital until 1922.

1910s[edit]

Year Date Event
1919 August 14 The Weimar Republic supersedes the second German Empire. Berlin remains the capital.
August 8 Afghanistan declares its independent from the United Kingdom. Kabul is the capital.
February 27 The Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Vilnius is the capital.
January 1 The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Belarusian People's Republic. Minsk and Smolensk remain joint capitals.
1918 December 1 The State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia unite to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Zagreb yields to Belgrade as the capital.
November 28 The Kingdom of Serbia annexes the Kingdom of Montenegro.
November 18 The Republic of Latvia gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Riga is the capital.
November 14 The Republic of Poland supersedes the Kingdom of Poland. Warsaw remains the capital.
November 2 The Republic of Lithuania supersedes the Kingdom of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
November 1 The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Ta'izz is the capital.
October 29 The State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs gains independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Zagreb is the capital.
July 25 The Independent State of Flanders is reabsorbed by the Kingdom of Belgium.
July 9 The Kingdom of Lithuania supersedes the State of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
May 30 Armenia becomes the Democratic Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital.
May 28 Armenia and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic dissolve the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Yerevan and Baku are the respective capitals.
May 26 The Democratic Republic of Georgia secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
May 11 The Emirate of Chechenia is incorporated into the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.
April 22 The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
April 19 The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic annexes the Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia).
March 25 The Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia) gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Sukhumi is the capital.
March 25 The Belarusian People's Republic declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Minsk and Hrodna are named the joint capitals.
March 12 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic moves its capital from Petrograd to Moscow.
February 24 The Republic of Estonia gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tallinn is the capital.
February 16 The State of Lithuania declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vilnius is named the capital despite occupation by the Kingdom of Poland.
January 22 The Ukrainian People's Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Kiev is the capital.
1917 December 22 The Independent State of Flanders declares its independence from the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels is the capital.
December 6 The Republic of Finland gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Helsinki is the capital.
December 2 The Emirate of Chechenia declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vedeno is the capital.
November 7 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic supersedes the Russian Empire. Petrograd remains the capital.
1916 November 5 Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaim establishment of the Kingdom of Poland. Warsaw is the capital.
1914 March 7 Albania becomes the Principality of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
1912 November 28 Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Tirana is the capital.
January 1 The Republic of China supersedes the Qing Dynasty of China. Nanking is the provisional capital.
1910 October 5 The first Portuguese Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Portugal. Lisbon remains the capital.
August 22 The Korean Empire is annexed by the Empire of Japan.
May 31 The Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony unite as the Union of South Africa to gain independence from the United Kingdom.
January 15 The French Republic creates French Equatorial Africa from its colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, and Oubangui-Chari. Libreville and Bangui yield to Brazzaville as the capital.

1900s[edit]

Year Date Event
1908 November 15 King Leopold II of Belgium sells his private Congo Free State to the Kingdom of Belgium. The new state is named the Belgian Congo. Boma remains the capital.
August 5 The Kingdom of Bulgaria gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Sofia is the capital.
1907 December 17 Ugyen Wangchuck establishes the Kingdom of Bhutan. Punakha is the winter capital and Thimphu is the summer capital.
September 26 New Zealand gains independence from the United Kingdom. Wellington is the capital.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the Republic of Colombia is defined by the Bogotá Treaty. Brazil gains lands on the margins of the Solimoes River, at the area known as Cabeça de Cachorro (The Dog's Head).
1906 The French Republic divides its colony of French Congo into the colonies of Gabon and Middle Congo. Libreville remains the capital of Gabon. Brazzaville becomes the capital of Middle Congo.
1905 October 26 The Kingdom of Sweden recognises the independence of the Kingdom of Norway.
June 7 The Kingdom of Norway declares independence from the Kingdom of Sweden through dissolution of the personal union. Kristiania is the capital.
1904 The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and English Guyana is defined by arbitration. Almost half of the disputed land goes to each side.
1903 November 11 The Republic of Bolivia and the Republic of the United States of Brazil sign the Treaty of Petrópolis. Bolivia receives land in Mato Grosso from Brazil, and Brazil absorbes the Republic of Acre.
November 3 The Republic of Panama gains independence from Colombia. Panama City is the capital.
January 27 The third Republic of Acre declares independence from Bolivia. The capital is Antimary.
1902 May 20 The Republic of Cuba gains independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Havana is the capital.
1901 January 1 The Commonwealth of Australia is established by federation of the British colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania. Melbourne is the capital until 1927.
1900 March The first Republic of Acre is reabsorbed by the Republic of Bolivia. At the same year, the second Republic of Acre would be declared (Antimary as the capital) and, again, reabsorbed by Bolivia.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and French Guyana is defined by arbitration. The French troops that went to the margins of Araguari River had to repair to the Oiapoque River.

1890s[edit]

Year Date Event
1899 July 14 The first Republic of Acre declares independence from Bolivia. The capital is Antimary.
1898 The Republic of Bolivia moves its administrative capital from Sucre to La Paz. Sucre remains the constitutional and judicial capital.
July 25 The United States of America seizes control of Puerto Rico from the Spanish Empire during the Spanish-American War. San Juan, Puerto Rico remains the territorial capital.
July 7 The United States of America annexes the Republic of Hawaiʻi as the United States Territory of Hawaii. Honolulu remains the capital.
June 12 The Republica Filipina declares independence from Kingdom of Spain.
1897 The Joseon Dynasty becomes the Korean Empire. Hanseong remains the capital.
1895 October 23 The Republic of Formosa is conquered by the Empire of Japan.
June The Republic of Formosa moves its capital from Taipei to Tainan.
May 23 The Republic of Formosa declares independence from the Qing Dynasty of China. Taipei is its capital.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the Argentine Republic is defined.
1894 July 4 The Republic of Hawaiʻi supersedes the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. Honolulu remains the capital.

1880s[edit]

Year Date Event
1889 November 15 The Republic of the United States of Brazil supersedes the Empire of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
1888 The Republic of Honduras moves its capital from Comayagua to Tegucigalpa, ending a century of indecision as to the country's capital.
1886 May 1 The Congo Free State makes Boma the capital.
1885 September 6 The Principality of Bulgaria unifies with Eastern Rumelia. Sofia remains the capital.
May 2 King Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State, a private government run by the International African Association.
1886 Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia founds Addis Ababa, which becomes the new capital of that country.
1882 March 6 The Kingdom of Serbia supersedes the Principality of Serbia. Belgrade remains the capital.
1880 The French Republic establishes the protectorate of French Congo.

1870s[edit]

Year Date Event
1878 July 13 The Principality of Bulgaria moves its capital to Sofia.
May 21 The Principality of Romania gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest is the capital.
March 3 The Principality of Bulgaria is established by the Treaty of San Stefano. Plovdiv is the capital.
1874 December 29 The restored Kingdom of Spain supersedes the first Spanish Republic. Madrid remains the capital.
1873 February 11 The first Spanish Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Spain. Madrid remains the capital.
1872 The Empire of Brazil gains lands in the border with Republic of Paraguay after the Paraguayan War.
1871 January 1 The second German Empire supersedes the North German Confederation. Berlin remains the capital.
1870 September 4 The third French Republic supersedes the second French Empire. Paris remains the capital.

1860s[edit]

Year Date Event
1868 October 10 Cuba declares its independence from the Kingdom of Spain.
October 1 The Bolivian Republic changes its name to the Republic of Bolivia. Sucre remains the capital until 1898.
January 3 Japan becomes the Empire of Greater Japan. Tokyo remains the capital.
1867 October 18 The Russian Empire sells Alaska to the United States of America. New Archangel (Novoarkhangelsk now Sitka) is the capital.
July 1 The British colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada unite to create the Dominion of Canada. Ottawa is the capital.
The North German Confederation supersedes the German Confederation. Berlin is the capital.
1865 April 11 The Confederate States of America capitulates and is reabsorbed by the United States of America. The USA will readmit the 11 CSA states to full statehood between July 24, 1866, and July 15, 1870.
April 3 The Confederate States of America moves its capital to Danville, Virginia.
March 3 The Dominican Republic regains its independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Santo Domingo is the capital.
1864 July The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is conquered by the Qing Dynasty of China.
1862 June 3 The Province of Buenos Aires reunites with the Argentine Republic. The capital is moved from Paraná back to Buenos Aires.
1861 The Dominican Republic returns to Spanish rule.
May 6 The Confederate States of America moves its capital from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia.
February 4 The Confederate States of America declares its independence from the United States of America. Montgomery, Alabama, is the capital for three months.
1860 October 1 The Argentine Republic supersedes the Argentine Confederation. Paraná remains the capital until 1862.

1850s[edit]

Year Date Event
1853 March The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom establishes its capital at Tianjing.
1852 December 2 The second French Empire supersedes the second French Republic. Paris remains the capital.
September 11 The Province of Buenos Aires secedes from the Argentine Confederation. The confederation moves its capital to Paraná.
1851 January 11 The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom gains independence from the Qing Dynasty of China.

1840s[edit]

Year Date Event
1848 February 24 The second French Republic supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
February 2 México surrenders its northern territory to the United States of America at the conclusion of the Mexican-American War.
1847 July 26 The Republic of Liberia gains independence from the United States of America. Monrovia is the capital.
1845 March 1 The Riograndense Republic is reabsorbed by the Brazilian Empire as the province of Rio Grande do Sul again.
1844 April 25 The Republic of Chile gains independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Santiago is the capital.
February 27 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti. Santo Domingo is the capital.
1845 December 29 The Republic of Texas joins the United States of America as the State of Texas.
The Netherlands splits its colonial possessions in the Americas into two parts: Suriname and Curaçao and Dependencies. Paramaribo remains the capital of Suriname (which convers the mainland), while Willemstad, Curaçao becomes the capital of the six Caribbean islands.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi moves its capital from Lāhainā to Honolulu.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Falkland Islands from Port Louis to Stanley.
1841 February 2 El Salvador becomes independent, officially ending the Federal Republic of Central America. San Salvador is the capital.

1830s[edit]

Year Date Event
1839 November 17 Guatemala secedes from the Federal Republic of Central America. Guatemala City is the capital.
August 25 The Peruvian Republic and the Bolivian Republic are formed from the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Lima and Sucre (previously Chuquisaca) are the respective capitals.
July 24 The Juliana Republic declares independence from Brazil. Laguna is the capital, but the Republic capitulates and is reabsorbed at the same year.
The Principality of Serbia moves its capital from Kragujevac to Belgrade.
The Republic of Texas establishes its permanent capital at Austin.
1838 November 5 Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras secede from the Federal Republic of Central America. San José, Managua, and Comayagua are the respective capitals.
1836 October 28 The Republic of North Peru, the Republic of South Peru, and the Bolivian Republic unite to form the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Tacna is the capital.
September 6 The Riograndense Republic declares independence from Brazil. Piratini is the first of five provisional capitals.
August 11 The Republic of North Peru supersedes the Peruvian Republic. Lima remains the capital.
May 14 México recognizes the independence of the Republic of Texas.
March 17 The Republic of South Peru secedes from Peruvian Republic. Cusco is the capital.
March 2 The Republic of Texas declares its independence from México. Washington is the first of six cities that will serve as temporary capital until 1839.
1834 The Federal Republic of Central America moves its capital from Guatemala City to San Salvador.
The Kingdom of Greece moves its capital from Nafplio to Athens.
1833 January 3 The United Kingdom seizes the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) from Spain. Port Louis becomes the capital.
1831 February 7 Belgium becomes the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels remains the capital
January 4 The Argentine Confederation supersedes the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. Buenos Aires remains the capital until 1852.
1830 October 4 Belgium declares its independence from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Brussels is the capital.
May 13 Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela are created from the dissolution of Gran Colombia. Bogotá, Quito and Caracas are the respective capitals.
February 3 Ottoman Empire recognizes the independence of Greece. Nafplio is the capital.

1820s[edit]

Year Date Event
1828 August 27 The Eastern Republic of Uruguay gains independence from Argentina. Montevideo is the capital.
1826 July 9 The Republic of Chile supersedes the State of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
1825 November 15 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves changes its name back to the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Lisbon remains the capital.
August 29 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves recognizes the independence of the Empire of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
August 25 The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata supersedes the United Provinces in South America. Buenos Aires remains the capital.
August 11 The Bolivian Republic gains independence from the Kingdom of Spain at the conclusion of the Bolivian War of Independence. Chuquisaca (later Sucre) is the capital.
The Netherlands merges its three colonies Suriname, Curaçao and Dependencies (the ABC islands) and Sint Eustatius and Dependencies (the SSS islands). Capital is Paramaribo.
1824 July 2 The Confederation of the Equator declares independence from Brazil. Recife is the capital, but the Confederation capitulates and is reabsorbed at the same year.
1823 July The Federal Republic of Central America is established from the former countries of Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Guatemala City is the capital.
1822 December 19 The Peruvian Republic supersedes the State of Peru. Lima remains the capital.
October 12 The Empire of Brazil supersedes the Independent Kingdom of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
September 7 The Independent Kingdom of Brazil declares its independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Rio de Janeiro is the capital.
1821 September 21 The Republic of Costa Rica gains independence from the Kingdom of Spain. San José is the capital.
September 15 The Republic of Guatemala, the Republic of Honduras, the Republic of Nicaragua and the Republic of El Salvador become independent from the Kingdom of Spain. Guatemala City, Comayagua, Managua, and San Salvador are the respective capitals.
August 24 The Kingdom of Spain recognizes the independence of México. Mexico City is the capital.
August 3 Peru becomes the State of Peru. Lima remains the capital.
July 28 Peru declares its independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Lima is the capital.
July 3 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves returns the capital from exile in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Lisbon.
March 25 Greece declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Nafplion is the capital.
The Argentine Republic (Argentina) gains independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Buenos Aires is the capital.
1820 The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi establishes its capital at Lāhainā.

1810s[edit]

Year Date Event
1819 August 7 The Republic of Colombia (Gran Colombia) gains independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Bogotá is the capital.
1818 January 12 The State of Chile again declares its independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Santiago is the capital.
1816 July 9 The United Provinces in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay) declares its independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Buenos Aires remains the capital.
1815 December 16 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves supersedes the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital-in-exile.
November 21 Miloš Obrenović establishes the Principality of Serbia. Kragujevac is the capital.
July 8 The restored Kingdom of France supersedes the first French Empire. Paris remains the capital.
June 20 The Congress of Vienna establishes the German Confederation. Frankfurt is the capital.
March 20 The first French Empire supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
March 16 The United Kingdom of the Netherlands supersedes the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands. Amsterdam and Brussels are the joint capitals.
Sir Robert Brownrigg establishes the Crown Colony of Ceylon. Colombo becomes the capital.
1814 October 2 The Kingdom of Spain reconquers Chile.
April 6 The restored Kingdom of France supersedes the first French Empire. Paris remains the capital.
1813 December 2 The Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands is created from the ruins of the first French Empire. Amsterdam is the capital.
October 19 The Confederation of the Rhine dissolves.
October 12 Paraguay becomes the Republic of Paraguay. Asunción remains the capital.
July 23 Malta Colony supersedes Malta Protectorate. Valletta remains the capital.
1811 May 14 Paraguay gains independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Asunción is the capital.
1810 September 18 Chile declares its independence from the Kingdom of Spain. Santiago is the capital.
September 16 México declares its independence from the Kingdom of Spain.
July 20 Colombia declares its independence from the Kingdom of Spain.
July 13 The Kingdom of Holland (Netherlands) is annexed by the first French Empire.
May 25 The United Provinces in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay) is created from colonies of the Kingdom of Spain. Buenos Aires is the capital.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi is established by Kalani Paiea Wohi o Kaleikini Keali`ikui Kamehameha o `Iolani i Kaiwikapu kaui Ka Liholiho Kunuiakea.

1800s[edit]

Year Date Event
1808 March 7 The Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves removes the capital from Lisbon to exile in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1806 August 6 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, dissolves the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
July 25 Napoleon I of France establishes the Confederation of the Rhine. Frankfurt is the capital.
June 5 The Kingdom of Holland (Netherlands) supersedes the Batavian Republic. Amsterdam remains the capital.
1804 August 11 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, establishes the Austrian Empire. Vienna is the capital.
May 18 The first French Empire supersedes the first French Republic. Paris remains the capital.
March 4 The French Republic sells Louisiane to the United States of America. New Orleans (Nouvelle-Orléans) is the capital of the unorganized territory.
1801 June 6 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Badajoz. Spain cedes the South American Misiones Orientales to Portugal.
The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal cedes Olivenza to Spain.
January 1 Haiti gains independence from the French Republic. Port-au-Prince is the capital.
The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland unite to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Dublin yields to London as the capital.
1800 November 17 The United States of America establishes its permanent capital at Washington, moving it from Philadelphia.
September 5 French forces in Malta surrender to the British. Malta and Gozo form the Malta Protectorate with Valletta as capital.

1790s[edit]

Year Date Event
1798 October 28 Gozo gains de facto independence from Malta with Rabat as its capital.
1798 June 11 The Order of Saint John capitulates to French forces and Malta is under French occupation with Valletta remaining the capital.
1797 April 17 The House of Habsburg annexes the Republic of Venice.
1795 May The Hawaiian Islands are unified to soon become the Kingdom of Hawai'i.
1795 January 19 The Batavian Republic supersedes the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Amsterdam is the capital.
1792 September 21 The first French Republic supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
1791 March 4 The Vermont Republic joins the United States of America as the State of Vermont.
1790 December 7 The United States of Belgium capitulates to the House of Habsburg.
1790 December 6 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from New York City to Philadelphia pending the construction of the new capital permitted by the new United States Constitution.
1790 January 11 The United States of Belgium declares its independence from the House of Habsburg. Brussels is the capital.

1780s[edit]

Year Date Event
1785 January 11 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Trenton to New York City.
1784 November 1 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Annapolis to Trenton.
1783 November 26 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Princeton to Annapolis.
1783 September 3 The Kingdom of Great Britain recognizes the independence of the United States of America. Princeton is the temporary capital.
1783 Province of Trinidad moves its capital from San José de Oruña to Puerto de España, its present location.
1782 April  21 Siam moves its capital from Thonburi to Bangkok, its present location.

1770s[edit]

Year Date Event
1777 October 1 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the First Treaty of San Ildefonso, confirming almost all the borders defined by the Treaty of Madrid, with the exception that Spain would rule both Colonia del Sacramento and the Misiones Orientales.
July 8 The Republic of New Connecticut changes its name to the Vermont Republic. Windsor remains the capital.
June 4 The Republic of New Connecticut moves its capital to Windsor.
January 15 The Republic of New Connecticut declares its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Westminster is the temporary capital.
1776 July 4 The United States of America declares its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Philadelphia is the first of eight cities that will serve as temporary capital until 1800.
1775 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites its South American colonies of State of Brazil, State of Great-Pará and State of Maranhão into the Colony of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro is the capital.
1772 The Kingdom of Portugal divides its colony of the State of Great-Pará and Maranhão into State of Great-Pará (capital, Belém) and State of Maranhão (capital, São Luis).
Ayutthaya having been destroyed in 1767, the new capital of Siam is created in Thonburi.

1760s[edit]

Year Date Event
1768 December 21 Prithvi Narayan Shah unified the Kingdom of Nepal. Kathmandu is the capital.
1763 February 12 The Kingdom of Portugal moves the capital of its colony of the State of Brazil from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
1761 February 12 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of El Pardo, nulling the Treaty of Madrid.

1750s[edit]

Year Date Event
1751 The Kingdom of Portugal changes the name of its colony of the State of Maranhão to State of Great-Pará and Maranhão.
1750 January 13 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Madrid. Based on the uti possidetis concept, Portugal gains lands on the actual south, central and north regions of Brazil. The treaty also stipulated that Spain would receive the Colonia del Sacramento and Portugal the Misiones Orientales.

1730s[edit]

Year Date Event
1737 The Kingdom of Portugal moves the capital of its colony of the State of Maranhão from São Luís to Belém.

1710s[edit]

Year Date Event
1715 The Kingdom of Spain returns Colonia del Sacramento to the Kingdom of Portugal.
1713 March and April The Treaty of Utrecht is signed. The United Kingdom takes sovereigny over Gibraltar and Minorca from the Kingdom of Spain. Spain also ceded: Sicily and parts of the Duchy of Milan to Savoy; Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia, and the bulk of the Duchy of Milan to Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor; lands in South America between Amazon River and Oiapoque River to the Kingdom of Portugal.

1700s[edit]

Year Date Event
1707 May 1 The Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland unite to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.[3] Edinburgh yields to London as the capital for all but judicial functions.

1660s[edit]

Year Date Event
1660 May 27 The Kingdom of Sweden cedes Trøndelag to the Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths as part of the Treaty of Copenhagen.
April 4 The restored Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, and Kingdom of Ireland supersede the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. London, Edinburgh, and Dublin are the respective capitals.

1650s[edit]

Year Date Event
1658 February 26 The Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths cedes Skåne, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm, Båhus and Trøndelag to the Kingdom of Sweden as part of the Treaty of Roskilde.
December 16 The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland supersedes the Commonwealth of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland. Edinburgh and Dublin yield to London as the capital.

1640s[edit]

Year Date Event
1649 May 19 The republican Commonwealth of England supersedes the Kingdom of England. London remains the capital.
1645 August 13 The Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths cedes Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna, Gotland, Ösel and Halland, the latter for a period of 30 years, to the Kingdom of Sweden as part of the Treaty of Brömsebro.
1644 October 30 The Qing Dynasty of China supersedes the Ming Dynasty. Beijing remains the capital.

1630s[edit]

Year Date Event
1635 Fasilides makes Gondar the first permanent capital of Ethiopia since the fall of the Zagwe Dynasty

1620s[edit]

Year Date Event
1628 The Colony of Barbados moves its capital from Saint James Town to Bridgetown.
1627 The Kingdom of England establishes the Colony of Barbados with its capital at Saint James Town.
1621 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into Brazilian State (capital, Salvador) and Maranhão State (capital, São Luis).

1610s[edit]

Year Date Event
1612 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites the North Brazil and South Brazil into the Colony of Brazil. The capital is Salvador.

1600s[edit]

Year Date Event
1608 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into North Brazil (capital, Salvador) and South Brazil (capital, Rio de Janeiro) for the second time.

1590s[edit]

Year Date Event
1594 Virmadhalasuriya I of Sri Lanka moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Kandy

1580s[edit]

Year Date Event
1581 July 26 The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands declares its independence from the Kingdom of Spain.

1570s[edit]

Year Date Event
1578 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites the North Brazil and South Brazil into the Colony of Brazil. The capital is Salvador.
1573 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into North Brazil (capital, Salvador) and South Brazil (capital, Rio de Janeiro).
1571 The Order of Saint John moves Malta's capital to Valletta.

1560s[edit]

Year Date Event
1569 July 1 The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania unite to form the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Vilnius yields to Kraków as the capital.

1540s[edit]

Year Date Event
1549 The Kingdom of Portugal establishes a central government for its Colony of Brazil, with Salvador as the capital.
1542 The Kingdom of Ireland supersedes the feudal Lordship of Ireland. Dublin remains the capital.
The Kingdom of England annexes the Principality of Wales.

1530s[edit]

Year Date Event
1534 The Kingdom of Portugal divides its Colony of Brazil into 15 independent captaincies.
1532 The Kingdom of France annexes the Duchy of Brittany.
1530 October 26 The Order of Saint John annex Malta and move the capital from Mdina to Vittoriosa.

1520s[edit]

Year Date Event
1529 April 22 The Treaty of Zaragoza is signed by the Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal, settling the limits between these countries on the East Hemisphere of any discovered land.
1521 August 13 The Kingdom of Spain has declared the Aztec Empire as theirs and established it to New Spain, destroyed and rebuilt Tenochtitlan and change its to Mexico City, and became the capital of New Spain.
1521 King Mayadunne I moves the capital of Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Sitawaka.

1500s[edit]

Year Date Event
1500 April 22 The navigation of Pedro Alvares Cabral for the Kingdom of Portugal arrive at Brazilian coast and claims its territory inside the Treaty of Tordesillas, establishing the Portuguese Colony of Brazil.

1490s[edit]

Year Date Event
1495 June 7 The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed by the Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal, settling the limits between these countries on the West Hemisphere of any discovered land.

1450s[edit]

Year Date Event
1453 29 May The Byzantine Empire falls to the Ottoman Empire. The capital of the Ottoman Empire is moved to Constantinople, present day Istanbul.

1420s[edit]

Year Date Event
1421 The Ming Dynasty of China moves its capital from Nanjing to Beijing.

1410s[edit]

Year Date Event
1412 King Parakramabahu VI moves the capital of Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Kotte.

1390s[edit]

Year Date Event
1392 The Joseon Dynasty succeed the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea. Hanseong is the capital.

1360s[edit]

Year Date Event
1368 The Ming Dynasty supersedes the Yuan Dynasty of China. Nanjing is the capital.

1350s[edit]

Year Date Event
1350 With the foundation of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, its capital is created in Ayutthaya, instead of the former Sukhothai.

1320s[edit]

Year Date Event
1325 March 13 The Mexicas (Aztecs) founded Tenochtitlan, the foundation of México. It is the oldest continuous capitol in the Americas.

1280s[edit]

Year Date Event
1287 King Parakramabahu III moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka back to Polonnaruwa.

1270s[edit]

Year Date Event
1279 March 19 The Song Dynasty is conquered by the Yuan Dynasty of China.
1272 The Yuan Dynasty of China moves its capital from Shangdu to Dadu.
1272 August 10 Yekuno Amlak overthrows the Zagwe dynasty, establishing the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia. Lalibela ceases to be the capital, and the Emperor of Ethiopia rules from a continually moving encampment around his domains for the following centuries.

1220s[edit]

Year Date Event
1220 King Vijayabahu III moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Dambadeniya.

1180s[edit]

Year Date Event
1185 The Second Bulgarian Empire gains independence from the Byzantine Empire under Peter IV of Bulgaria.

1130s[edit]

Year Date Event
1139 The Kingdom of Portugal gains independence from the Kingdom of León.

1120s[edit]

Year Date Event
1127 The Song Dynasty of China moves its capital from Bianjing to Lin'an.

1090s[edit]

Year Date Event
1097 King William II moves the capital of the Kingdom of England to London.

1050s[edit]

Year Date Event
1055 King Vijayabahu I moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Polonnaruwa.

980s[edit]

Year Date Event
987 Hughe Capet confirmes Paris as the capital of the Kingdom of the West Franks (soon to become the Kingdom of France).

960s[edit]

Year Date Event
962 February 2 Otto the Great re-establishes the Holy Roman Empire. Rome is the official capital.
960 January 3 Emperor Taizu of Song establishes the Song Dynasty of China. Bianjing remains the capital.

930s[edit]

Year Date Event
936 Goryeo Dynasty unified the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea.

920s[edit]

Year Date Event
927 July 12 King Athelstan of Wessex establishes the Kingdom of England. Winchester remains the capital.

910s[edit]

Year Date Event
918 King Taejo establishes Goryeo Dynasty on the Korean Peninsula. Gaegyeong is the official capital.

840s[edit]

Year Date Event
843 Charles the Bald, grandson of Emperor Charlemagne, made Paris the capital of the Kingdom of the West Franks, established as the result of the Treaty of Verdun.

800s[edit]

Year Date Event
800 December 25 Charlemagne establishes the Holy Roman Empire. While Rome is the official capital of the empire, Aix-la-Chapelle is the de facto capital.

690s[edit]

Year Date Event
690 King Go establishes Balhae on the Manchuria and northern Korean Peninsula.

680s[edit]

Year Date Event
681 Khan Asparukh crosses the Danube Delta and settles in the Ongal area (Southern Bessarabia or northern Dobruja). Asparukh, with his Slav allies, defeats Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV and establishes the First Bulgarian Empire. Pliska is the capital.

670s[edit]

Year Date Event
676 Silla unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

630s[edit]

Year Date Event
630 January 11 The Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh) conquers Mecca and unites Arabia. Medina is the capital.

530s[edit]

Year Date Event
538 The Baekje of Korea moves its capital from Ungjin to Sabi.

500s[edit]

Year Date Event
508 Frankish King Clovis the Frank made Paris the capital of the Frankish Kingdom.

470s[edit]

Year Date Event
476 September 4 Germanic General Odoacer forces Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus to abdicate, bringing the Western Roman Empire to an end.
475 The Baekje of Korea moves its capital from Wirye to Ungjin by pressure of Goguryeo.

420s[edit]

Year Date Event
427 The Goguryeo of Korea moves its capital from Gungnae to Pyongyang.

390s[edit]

Year Date Event
395 January 17 At his death, Roman Emperor Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius) permanently splits the Roman Empire between his two sons. Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius) rules the Eastern Roman Empire from Constantinopolis (now Istanbul, Turkey), and Honorius (Flavius Honorius) rules the Western Roman Empire from Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy).

330s[edit]

Year Date Event
330 May 11 Roman Emperor Constantine the Great builds a new capital for the Roman Empire at Byzantium which he renames Constantinopolis (now Istanbul, Turkey).

320s[edit]

Year Date Event
324 September 18 Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus) reunites the Roman Empire. Nicomedia (now İzmit, Turkey) becomes the capital.

290s[edit]

Year Date Event
293 Roman co-emperors Diocletian and Maximian split the Roman Empire into a tetrarchy with capitals at Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy), Augusta Treverorum (now Trier, Germany), Nicomedia (now İzmit, Turkey), and Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).

280s[edit]

Year Date Event
286 April 1 Roman Emperor Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) appoints Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius) co-emperor, splitting the Roman Empire into a dyarchy with capitals at Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy) and Augusta Treverorum (now Trier, Germany).

270s[edit]

Year Date Event
274 Roman Emperor Aurelian conquers the Palmyrene Empire which is subsumed back into the Roman Empire.
273 Roman Emperor Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) conquers the Gallic Empire which is subsumed back into the Roman Empire.

260s[edit]

Year Date Event
269 The Palmyrene Empire conquers the Roman Province of Egypt.
260 Syrian Queen Zenobia breaks from the Roman Empire and establishes the Palmyrene Empire. Palmyra is the capital.
Postumus (Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus) breaks from the Roman Empire and establishes the Gallic Empire. Colonia Agrippina (now Cologne, Germany) is the capital.

First decade[edit]

Year Date Event
3 The Goguryeo of Korea moves its capital from Jolbon to Gungnae.

Before the Common Era[edit]

First Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
18 BCE Onjo establishes Baekje on the central Korean Peninsula. Wiryeseong is the capital.
27 BCE January 16 The Roman Senate grants Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus the title Augustus. This effectively ends the Roman Republic and establishes the Roman Empire. The city of Rome remains the capital.
30 BCE August 1 Roman consul Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus conquers the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. Octavianus organizes Egypt as a province under his personal control.
37 BCE Dongmyeong establishes Goguryeo on the northern Korean Peninsula. Jolbon is the capital.
57 BCE Hyeokgeose establishes Silla on the southeast Korean Peninsula. Gyeongju is the capital.
194 BCE Wanggeom-seong becomes the capital of Wiman Joseon on the Korean Peninsula.
202 BCE February 28 Gaozu establishes the Han Dynasty of China. Chang'an becomes the capital.
221 BCE Qin Shi Huang unifies ancient China as the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty of China. Xianyang becomes the capital.
238 BCE Arsaces I of Parthia establishes the Arsacid Dynasty of Parthia. Hecatompylus becomes the capital.
305 BCE Macedonian general Ptolemy establishes the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt as King Ptolemy I Soter. Alexandria remains the capital.
312 BCE Macedonian general Seleucus establishes the Seleucid Empire. Babylon is the capital.
322 BCE Chandragupta establishes the Maurya Empire of ancient India. Pataliputra (now Patna) is the capital.
330 BCE Alexander the Great of Macedon conquers Persia. Alexander makes Babylon the capital.
332 BCE Alexander the Great of Macedon conquers Persian-occupied Egypt and establishes the Argead Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Alexander III. Alexander builds a new capital at Alexandria.
343 BCE Artaxerxes III of Persia reconquers Egypt and establishes the Persian Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Artaxerxes III.
380 BCE November Pharaoh Nectanebo I establishes the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt. Sebennytos becomes the capital.
399 BCE autumn Pharaoh Nefaarud I establishes the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt. Mendes becomes the capital.
404 BCE Amyrtaeus expels the Persians from Egypt and establishes the Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Amyrtaeus. Sais is the capital.
504 BCE King Panduvasudeva moves the capital of the Kingdom of Lanka to Upatissa Nuwara.
509 BCE The Roman Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Rome. The city of Rome remains the capital.
515 BCE Darius the Great moves the capital of the Persian Empire to Persepolis.
525 BCE May Cambyses II of Persia conquers Egypt and establishes the Persian Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Cambyses II.
543 BCE King Vijaya establishes the Kingdom of Lanka and makes Tambapanni the new capital.
546 BCE Cyrus the Great establishes the Persian Empire and makes Pasargadae the new capital.
660 BCE February 11 Emperor Jimmu establishes the Empire of Japan.
about 664 BCE Pharaoh Necho I establishes the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt. Sais is the capital.
694 BCE Deioces is elected the first King of the Medes. Ecbatana (now Hamadan) is the capital.
about 700 BCE Phoenicians establish a colony in Malta with Maleth as capital.
about 728 BCE Pharaoh Tefnakhte establishes the Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Sais becomes the capital.
about 740 BCE Nubian King Piye establishes the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt and rules Egypt from Napata in Nubia.
753 BCE April 21 Romulus establishes the Kingdom of Rome. The new city of Rome becomes the capital.
808 BCE Karanus establishes the Argead Dynasty of Macedon and builds Aigai to be the capital.
about 875 BCE Pharaoh Pedubast I establishes the Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes is the capital of Upper Egypt.
879 BCE Ashurnasirpal II moves the capital of the New Assyrian Empire to Kalhu.
911 BCE Adad-nirari II establishes the New Assyrian Empire. Assur remains the capital.
about 930 BCE The Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam I separates from the Kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam. Samaria becomes the capital of Israel, Jerusalem remains the capital of Judah.
about 945 BCE Pharaoh Shoshenq I establishes the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt. Tanis remains the capital.

Second Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 1004 BCE King David conquers the city of Jebus and makes the renamed City of David (now Jerusalem) the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
about 1047 BCE Shaul ben Qysh establishes the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Gibeah is the capital.
about 1070 BCE Pharaoh Nesbanebdjed I establishes the Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt. Tanis becomes the capital.
about 1184 BCE The city-state of Troy is destroyed by Greeks.
about 1188 BCE Pharaoh Setnakhte establishes the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt. Pi-Ramesses Aa-nakhtu remains the capital.
about 1230 BCE Pharaoh Ramesses II builds a new capital for the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt at the site of Avaris and names it Pi-Ramesses Aa-nakhtu.
about 1293 BCE Pharaoh Ramesses I establishes the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes remains the capital.
about 1340 BCE Ashur-uballit I establishes the Middle Assyrian Empire. Assur is the capital.
about 1534 BCE Pharaoh Ahmose I establishes the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes remains the capital.
about 1619 BCE Rahotep Sekhenrewahkhaw establishes the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes remains the capital.
about 1620 BCE Djehuti establishes the Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes is the capital.
about 1624 BCE Salitis establishes the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Avaris is the capital.
about 1710 BCE Nehesy establishes the Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Xois is the capital.
about 1763 BCE Hammurabi establishes the Babylonian Empire. Babylon remains the capital.
about 1778 BCE Wegaf Khutawyre establishes the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Amenemhat-itj-tawy remains the capital.
about 1894 BCE Sumu-abum establishes the First Babylonian Dynasty. Babylon is the capital.
about 1900 BCE Zulilu establishes the Old Assyrian Empire. Assur is the capital.
about 1983 BCE Amenemhat I establishes the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt and builds Amenemhat-itj-tawy to be the new capital.

Third Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 2047 BCE Ur-Nammu establishes the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur. Ur is the capital.
about 2130 BCE Mentuhotep I establishes the Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes becomes the capital of Upper Egypt.
about 2130 BCE Khety V establishes the Tenth Dynasty of Egypt. Henen-nesut remains the capital of Lower Egypt.
about 2140 BCE Wakhare Khety I establishes the Ninth Dynasty of Egypt. Henen-nesut becomes the capital of Lower Egypt.
about 2165 BCE Neferkare Pepiseneb establishes the Eighth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2175 BCE Netjerkare establishes the Seventh Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2270 BCE Sargon of Akkad establishes the Sumerian First Dynasty of Akkad. Akkad is the capital.
about 2333 BCE Dangun Wanggeom establishes Gojoseon on the Korean Peninsula.
about 2380 BCE Ur-Nanshe establishes the Sumerian First Dynasty of Lagash. Lagash is the capital.
about 2336 BCE Teti establishes the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2484 BCE Userkaf establishes the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2580 BCE Mesannepada establishes the First Dynasty of Ur. Ur becomes the de facto capital of Sumer.
about 2655 BCE Sneferu establishes the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2727 BCE Djoser establishes the Third Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis becomes the capital.
about 2860 BCE Hotepsekhemwy establishes the Second Dynasty of Egypt. Thinis remains the capital.

Fourth Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 3080 BCE Narmer (or Menes) unites Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt under the First Dynasty of Egypt. Thinis becomes the capital of all Egypt.
about 3200 BCE The city-states of Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen dominate Upper Egypt.
about 3200 BCE The city-states of Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, and Shuruppak rise to prominence in Sumer.

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 1st Millennium CE   1st Millennium BCE   2nd Millennium BCE   3rd Millennium BCE   4th Millennium BCE 

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See also[edit]

References[edit]