Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons

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The timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites charts the progress of the discovery of new bodies over history. Each object is listed in chronological order of its discovery (multiple dates occur when the moments of imaging, observation, and publication differ), identified through its various designations (including temporary and permanent schemes), and the discoverer(s) listed.

Historically the naming of moons did not always match the times of their discovery. Traditionally, the discoverer enjoys the privilege of naming the new object; however, some neglected to do so (E. E. Barnard stated he would "defer any suggestions as to a name" [for Amalthea] "until a later paper"[1] but never got around to picking one from the numerous suggestions he received) or actively declined (S. B. Nicholson stated "Many have asked what the new satellites" [Lysithea and Carme] "are to be named. They will be known only by the numbers X and XI, written in Roman numerals, and usually prefixed by the letter J to identify them with Jupiter."[2]). The issue arose nearly as soon as planetary satellites were discovered: Galileo referred to the four main satellites of Jupiter using numbers while the names suggested by his rival Simon Marius gradually gained universal acceptance. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) eventually started cleaning up the naming business in the late 1970s.

Key[edit]

In the following tables, planetary satellites are indicated in bold type (e.g. Moon) while planets and dwarf planets, which directly circle the Sun, are in italic type (e.g. Earth). The tables are sorted by publication/announcement date. Dates are annotated with the following symbols:

  • i: for date of first imaging (photography, etc.);
  • o: for date of first human visual observation, either through telescope or on photographic plate (the true discovery moment);
  • p: for date of announcement or publication.

In a few cases, the date is uncertain and is then marked "(?)".

* Note: Moons marked by an asterisk (*) had complicated discoveries. Some took years to be confirmed, and in several cases were actually lost and rediscovered. Others were found in Voyager photographs years after they were taken.

Color legend

The planets and their natural satellites are marked in the following colors:

Designations
  • Other designations are synonyms or periphrases sometimes encountered for the object.
  • Permanent designations (of planetary satellites) are explained here.
  • Temporary designations are explained here.

Prehistory[edit]

Prehistory
Name Image Other designation Notes
Sun
The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg
Star In Ptolemy's geocentric model, the Earth was believed to be at the center of the cosmos. Seven planets were placed in orbit around it in an order of increasing distance from the Earth, as established by the Greek Stoics: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. This list included two objects, the Sun and the Moon, which are no longer considered to be planets; it also excluded the Earth.
Moon
FullMoon2010.jpg
Earth I In the Copernican system, the Moon was considered to be no longer a planet but a natural satellite of the Earth, and was the only body in that system whose revolution was not centered on the Sun.
Mercury
Mercury Globe-MESSENGER mosaic centered at 0degN-0degE.jpg
1st Planet The inner planets, Mercury and Venus, and the outer planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, were identified by ancient Babylonian astronomers in the 2nd millennium BC.[3]

By Aristarchus of Samos, and later in Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric system (De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, 1543) the Earth came to be considered a planet revolving with the other planets around the Sun, in the following order of distance from the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The Sun, now situated near the center of revolution, was no longer considered a planet.

Venus
Venus-real.jpg
2nd Planet
Earth
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg
3rd Planet
Mars
Mars Valles Marineris.jpeg
4th Planet
Jupiter
Jupiter by Cassini-Huygens.jpg
5th Planet
Saturn
Saturn during equinox cropped.jpg
6th Planet

17th century[edit]

17th century
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1610s
o: January 7, 1610
p: March 13, 1610
Ganymede
Ganymede g1 true 2.jpg
Jupiter III Galileo.[4][5] The Galilean moons. The Galilean satellites were the first celestial objects that were confirmed to orbit an object other than the Sun or Earth. Galileo saw Io and Europa as a single point of light on January 7, 1610; they were seen as separate bodies the following night.[6]
Callisto
Callisto.jpg
Jupiter IV
o: January 8, 1610
p: March 13, 1610
Io
Io highest resolution true color.jpg
Jupiter I
Europa
Europa-moon.jpg
Jupiter II
1650s
o: March 25, 1655
p: March 5, 1656
Titan
Two Halves of Titan.png
Saturn VI
Saturn II (1673–1684), Saturn IV (1686–1789)
Huygens.[7] He first "published" his discovery as an anagram, sent out on 13 June 1655; later published in pamphlet form as De Saturni luna Observatio Nova and in full in Systema Saturnium[8] (July 1659).
1670s
o: October 25, 1671
p: 1673
Iapetus
Iapetus by Voyager 2 - enhanced.jpg
Saturn VIII
Saturn III (1673–1684), Saturn V (1686–1789), Saturn VII (1789–1848)
Cassini[9]
o: December 23, 1672
p: 1673
Rhea
Rhea (moon) thumb.jpg
Saturn V
Saturn I (1673–1684), Saturn III (1686–1789)
1680s
o: March 21, 1684
p: April 22, 1686
Tethys
Tethys cassini.jpg
Saturn III
Saturn I (1686–1789)
Cassini.[10]

Together with his previous two discoveries, Cassini named these satellites Sidera Lodoicea. In his work Kosmotheôros[11] (published posthumously in 1698), Christiaan Huygens relates "Jupiter you see has his four, and Saturn his five Moons about him, all plac’d in their Orbits."

Dione
Dione.jpg
Saturn IV
Saturn II (1686–1789)
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

18th century[edit]

18th century
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1780s
o: March 13, 1781
p: April 26, 1781
Uranus
Uranus2.jpg
7th Planet Herschel first reported the discovery of Uranus on April 26, 1781, initially believing it a comet.[12]
o: January 11, 1787
p: February 15, 1787
Titania
Titania (moon) color cropped.jpg
Uranus III Herschel.[13][14] He later reported four more spurious satellites.[15]
Oberon
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg
Uranus IV
o: August 28, 1789[16]
p: November 12, 1789
Enceladus
Enceladus from Voyager.jpg
Saturn II Herschel[17]
o: September 17, 1789
p: November 12, 1789
Mimas
Mimas moon.jpg
Saturn I
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

19th century[edit]

19th century
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1800s
o: January 1, 1801
p: January 24, 1801
Ceres
Ceres optimized.jpg
8th Planet (1801)
Asteroid (1851)
Dwarf planet (2006)
Giuseppe Piazzi. He first announced his discovery on January 24, 1801, in letters to fellow astronomers.[18] The first formal publication was the September 1801 issue of the Monatliche Correspondenz.[19]
1840s
o: September 23, 1846
p: November 13, 1846
Neptune
Neptune.jpg
13th Planet (1846)
8th Planet (1851)
Galle and Le Verrier[20][21]
o: October 10, 1846
p: November 13, 1846
Triton
Triton Voyager 2.jpg
Neptune I Lassell[22]
o: September 16, 1848
p: October 1848
Hyperion
Hyperion true.jpg
Saturn VII Bond, Bond,[23] Lassell[24]
1850s
o: October 24, 1851 Ariel
Ariel-NASA.jpg
Uranus I Lassell[25]
Umbriel
Umbriel moon 1.gif
Uranus II
1870s
o: August 12, 1877 Deimos
Deimos-MRO.jpg
Mars II Hall[26][27][28]
o: August 18, 1877 Phobos
Phobos colour 2008.jpg
Mars I
1890s
o: September 9, 1892
p: October 4, 1892
Amalthea
Amalthea (moon).gif
Jupiter V Barnard[1][29]
i: August 16, 1898
o: March 17, 1899
Phoebe
Phoebe cassini.jpg
Saturn IX Pickering[30][31]
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

Early 20th century (1901–1950)[edit]

Early 20th century
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1900s
i: December 3, 1904
p: January 6, 1905
Himalia
(Hestia 1955–1975)
Himalia.png
Jupiter VI Perrine[29][32][33]
i: January 2, 1905
p: February 27, 1905
Elara
(Hera 1955–1975)
Elara2-LB1-mag17.jpg
Jupiter VII Perrine[29][33][34]
i: January 27, 1908
o: February 28, 1908
p: March 1–6, 1908
Pasiphae
(Poseidon 1955–1975)
Pasiphaé.jpg
Jupiter VIII Melotte[29][35][36]
1910s
i: July 21, 1914
p: September 17, 1914
Sinope
(Hades 1955–1975)
Sinopé.jpg
Jupiter IX Nicholson[29][37]
1930s
i: January 23, 1930
o: February 18, 1930
p: March 13, 1930
Pluto
Pluto-map-hs-2010-06-c180.jpg
9th Planet (1930)
Dwarf planet (2006)
Tombaugh[38]
i: July 6, 1938
p: August 1938
Lysithea
(Demeter 1955–1975)
Lysithea2.jpg
Jupiter X Nicholson[29][39]
i: July 30, 1938
p: August 1938
Carme
(Pan 1955–1975)
Carmé.jpg
Jupiter XI
1940s
i: February 16, 1948
p: June 1949
Miranda
Miranda.jpg
Uranus V Kuiper[29][40]
i: May 1, 1949
p: August 1949
Nereid
Nereid-Voyager2.jpg
Neptune II Kuiper[29][41][42]
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

Late 20th century (1951–2000)[edit]

Late 20th century
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1950s
i: September 28, 1951
p: December 1951
Ananke
(Adrastea 1955–1975)
Ananké.jpg
Jupiter XII Nicholson[43][44]
1960s
i: December 15, 1966
p: January 3, 1967
Janus* S/1966 S 2
Janus moon.jpg
Saturn X Dollfus[43][45][46][47][48]
(Dollfus may have seen either Janus or Epimetheus)
i: December 18, 1966
p: January 6, 1967
Epimetheus* S/1980 S 3 Epimetheus.jpg Saturn XI Walker[43][49]
1970s
i: September 11, 1974
p: September 20, 1974
Leda Jupiter XIII Kowal[29][50]
i: September 30, 1975
p: October 3, 1975
Themisto* S/1975 J 1
S 2000 J 1.jpg
Jupiter XVIII Kowal[29][51]
(Discovered and then lost)
i: April 13, 1978
o: June 22, 1978
Charon S/1978 P 1
Charon.png
Pluto I Christy[52][53]
i: July 8, 1979
p: November 23, 1979
Adrastea S/1979 J 1
Adrastea.jpg
Jupiter XV Jewitt, Danielson, Voyager 2[46][54][55][56][57][58]
1980s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: February 26, 1980
p: March 6, 1980
Epimetheus* S/1980 S 3
Epimetheus.jpg
Saturn XI [43][48][59][60][61][62]
(Confirmed by Voyager 1)
i: March 1, 1980
p: March 6, 1980
Helene S/1980 S 6
Helene moon.jpg
Saturn XII Laques, Lecacheux[29][59][60][61][62]
i: April 8, 1980
p: April 10, 1980
Telesto S/1980 S 13
Telesto cassini closeup.jpg
Saturn XIII Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain, Voyager 1[43][62][63]
i: March 5, 1979
p: April 28, 1980
Thebe S/1979 J 2
Thebe.jpg
Jupiter XIV Synnott, Voyager 1[43][55][56]
i: February 19, 1980
p: June 6, 1980
Janus* S/1980 S 1
Janus moon.jpg
Saturn X [46][48][60][61][62]
(Confirmed by Voyager 1)
i: March 13, 1980
p: July 31, 1980
Calypso S/1980 S 25
Calypso moon.jpg
Saturn XIV Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie[43][61][62]
i:March 4, 1979
p: August 26, 1980
Metis S/1979 J 3
Metis.jpg
Jupiter XVI Synnott, Voyager 1[43][56]
o: October 1980
p: October 31, 1980
Prometheus S/1980 S 27
Prometheus moon.jpg
Saturn XVI Collins, Voyager 1[64]
Pandora S/1980 S 26
Pandora moon.jpg
Saturn XVII Collins, Voyager 1[29][64]
o: October 1980
p: November 13, 1980
Atlas S/1980 S 28
Cassini Atlas N00084634 CL.png
Saturn XV Terrile, Voyager 1[43][65]
i: May 24, 1981
p: May 29, 1981
Larissa* S/1981 N 1
S/1989 N 2
Larissa 1.jpg
Neptune VII Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen, Voyager 2[29][66][67]
i: December 30, 1985
p: January 9, 1986
Puck S/1985 U 1
Puck.png
Uranus XV Synnott, Voyager 2[29][68]
i: January 3, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
Juliet S/1986 U 2
Uranus-Juliet-NASA.gif
Uranus XI Synnott, Voyager 2[29][69][70]
Portia S/1986 U 1
Uranus-Portia-Cressida-Ophelia-NASA.gif
Uranus XII
i: January 9, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
Cressida S/1986 U 3 Uranus IX
i: January 13, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
Desdemona S/1986 U 6
Uranus-Desdemona-NASA.gif
Uranus X
Rosalind S/1986 U 4
Rosalind.jpg
Uranus XIII
Belinda S/1986 U 5
Belinda.gif
Uranus XIV
i: January 20, 1986
p: January 27, 1986
Cordelia S/1986 U 7
Uranus rings and two moons.jpg
Uranus VI Terrile, Voyager 2[29][71]
Ophelia S/1986 U 8 Uranus VII
i: January 23, 1986
p: January 27, 1986
Bianca S/1986 U 9
Bianca-luna-urano.gif
Uranus VIII Smith, Voyager 2[29][71]
i: June 16, 1989
p: July 7, 1989
Proteus S/1989 N 1
Proteus Voyager 2 (big).jpg
Neptune VIII Synnott, Voyager 2[29][72]
i: July 28, 1989
p: August 2, 1989
Despina S/1989 N 3
Despina.jpg
Neptune V Synnott, Voyager 2[29][67]
Galatea S/1989 N 4
Galatea moon.jpg
Neptune VI
i: September 18, 1989
p: September 29, 1989
Thalassa S/1989 N 5
Naiad Voyager.png
Neptune IV Terrile, Voyager 2[29][73]
Naiad S/1989 N 6 Neptune III
1990s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: August 22, 1981
p: July 16, 1990
Pan* S/1981 S 13
Pan cassini.jpg
Saturn XVIII Showalter, Voyager 2[29][74]
i: August 23, 1981
p: April 14, 1995
Pallene*
(see below)
S/1981 S 14
Petite Pallene.jpg
Saturn XXXIII Gordon, Murray and Beurle[29][75][76]
i: September 6, 1997
p: October 31, 1997
Caliban S/1997 U 1
Caliban discovery.jpg
Uranus XVI Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars[29][77]
Sycorax S/1997 U 2
Sycorax.jpg
Uranus XVII Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars[77]
i: January 18, 1986
p: May 18, 1999
Perdita* S/1986 U 10
S1986U10 zoom.png
Uranus XXV Karkoschka, Voyager 2[29][78]
i: July 18, 1999
p: July 27, 1999
Setebos S/1999 U 1 Uranus XIX Kavelaars, Gladman, Holman, Petit, Scholl[29][79]
Stephano S/1999 U 2 Uranus XX Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl[29][79]
i: July 18, 1999
p: September 4, 1999
Prospero S/1999 U 3
Prospero discovery image.gif
Uranus XVIII Holman, Kavelaars, Gladman, Petit, Scholl[29][80]
2000s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: October 6, 1999
p: July 20, 2000
Callirrhoe S/1999 J 1
S1999j1.jpg
Jupiter XVII Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels[29][81][82]
i: August 7, 2000
p: October 25, 2000
Ymir S/2000 S 1 Saturn XIX Gladman[29][83][84]
Paaliaq S/2000 S 2 Saturn XX
i: September 23, 2000
p: October 25, 2000
Siarnaq S/2000 S 3 Saturn XXIX Gladman, Kavelaars[29][85][86]
Tarvos S/2000 S 4
Tarvos from Cassini.jpg
Saturn XXI Kavelaars, Gladman[29][85][86]
i: August 7, 2000
p: November 18, 2000
Kiviuq S/2000 S 5
Kiviuq N00164111.jpg
Saturn XXIV Gladman[29][86][87]
i: September 23, 2000
p: November 18, 2000
Ijiraq S/2000 S 6
Ijiraq discovery.gif
Saturn XXII Kavelaars, Gladman[29][86][87]
i: November 21, 2000
p: November 25, 2000
Themisto* S/2000 J 1
S 2000 J 1.jpg
Jupiter XVIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (Rediscovered)[29][88][58]
i: September 23, 2000
p: December 7, 2000
Thrymr S/2000 S 7
Thrym from Cassini on April 05,2009.jpg
Saturn XXX Gladman, Kavelaars[29][84][89]
Skathi S/2000 S 8 Saturn XXVII Kavelaars, Gladman[29][84][89]
Mundilfari S/2000 S 9
Mundilfari.jpg
Saturn XXV Gladman, Kavelaars[29][84][89]
Erriapus S/2000 S 10 Saturn XXVIII Kavelaars, Gladman[29][86][90]
i: November 9, 2000
p: December 19, 2000
Albiorix S/2000 S 11 Saturn XXVI Holman, Spahr[29][91][92]
i: September 23, 2000
p: December 22, 2000
Suttungr S/2000 S 12 Saturn XXIII Gladman, Kavelaars[29][93][94]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

21st century[edit]

2000s[edit]

2000s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

i: November 23, 2000
p: January 5, 2001

Kalyke S/2000 J 2 Jupiter XXIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans[29][95][96][97]
Iocaste S/2000 J 3 Jupiter XXIV
Erinome S/2000 J 4 Jupiter XXV
Harpalyke S/2000 J 5 Jupiter XXII
Isonoe S/2000 J 6 Jupiter XXVI
Praxidike S/2000 J 7 Jupiter XXVII
i: November 25, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
Megaclite S/2000 J 8 Jupiter XIX Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans[29][95][97]
Taygete S/2000 J 9 Jupiter XX
i: November 26, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
Chaldene S/2000 J 10 Jupiter XXI
i: December 5, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2000 J 11
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: December 9, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
Hermippe S/2001 J 3
Ερμίππη.gif
Jupiter XXX Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][98][99]
Eurydome S/2001 J 4 Jupiter XXXII
Sponde S/2001 J 5 Jupiter XXXVI
Kale S/2001 J 8 Jupiter XXXVII
i: December 10, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
Autonoe S/2001 J 1 Jupiter XXVIII
i: December 11, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
Thyone S/2001 J 2 Jupiter XXIX
Pasithee S/2001 J 6 Jupiter XXXVIII
Euanthe S/2001 J 7 Jupiter XXXIII
Orthosie S/2001 J 9 Jupiter XXXV
Euporie S/2001 J 10 Jupiter XXXIV
Aitne S/2001 J 11 Jupiter XXXI
i: August 13, 2001
p: September 30, 2002
Trinculo S/2001 U 1 Uranus XXI Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic[29][100][101]
i: October 31, 2002
p: December 18, 2002
Arche S/2002 J 1 Jupiter XLIII Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry[29][102][103]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: July 23, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
Sao S/2002 N 2 Neptune XI Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic[29][104][105]
i: August 10, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
Halimede S/2002 N 1 Neptune IX
i: August 11, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
Laomedeia S/2002 N 3 Neptune XII
i: February 5, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
Eukelade S/2003 J 1 Jupiter XLVII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh[29][106][107]
(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2003 J 2
S/2003 J 3
S/2003 J 4
i: February 6, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 5
Helike S/2003 J 6 Jupiter XLV
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
Aoede S/2003 J 7 Jupiter XLI
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 6, 2003
Hegemone S/2003 J 8 Jupiter XXXIX Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[29][108][109]
i: February 6, 2003
p: March 7, 2003
(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2003 J 9 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[29][110][111]
S/2003 J 10
Kallichore S/2003 J 11 Jupiter XLIV
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 7, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 12
i: February 9, 2003
p: April 2, 2003
Cyllene S/2003 J 13 Jupiter XLVIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][112][113]
i: February 8, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
Kore S/2003 J 14 Jupiter XLIX Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][112][114]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2003 J 15 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[112][115]
S/2003 J 16 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[112][116]
i: February 8, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
Herse S/2003 J 17 Jupiter L Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[29][112][117]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 4, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 18 Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][112][118]
i: February 5, 2003
p: April 8, 2003
Narvi S/2003 S 1 Saturn XXXI Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][112][119]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 12, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 19 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[120][121]
i: February 9, 2003
p: April 14, 2003
Carpo S/2003 J 20 Jupiter XLVI Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][120][122]
i: February 6, 2003
p: May 29, 2003
Mneme S/2003 J 21 Jupiter XL Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[29][123][124]
i: January 18, 1986
p: September 3, 2003
Perdita* S/1986 U 10 Uranus XXV Karkoschka (Recovered by the Hubble Space Telescope)[29][78][125]
i: August 29, 2003
p: September 3, 2003
Psamathe S/2003 N 1 Neptune X Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars[29][126][127]
i: August 25, 2003
p: September 25, 2003
Mab S/2003 U 1 Uranus XXVI Showalter, Lissauer[128]
Cupid S/2003 U 2 Uranus XXVII
i: August 13, 2001
p: September 30, 2003
Ferdinand* S/2001 U 2 Uranus XXIV 2001: Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic;
2003: Sheppard, Jewitt[29][129][130]
i: August 14, 2002
p: September 30, 2003
Neso* S/2002 N 4 Neptune XIII Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic[29][129][131]
i: August 13, 2001
p: October 8, 2003
Francisco* S/2001 U 3
Uranus moon 021002 02.jpg
Uranus XXII Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman[29][132]
i: August 29, 2003
p: October 9, 2003
Margaret S/2003 U 3 Uranus XXIII Sheppard, Jewitt[29][133][134]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: February 9, 2003
p: January 24, 2004
Thelxinoe* S/2003 J 22 Jupiter XLII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[29][135][136]
(From images taken in 2003)
i: February 6, 2003
p: January 31, 2004
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 23*
S2003j23ccircle.gif
Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[137][138]
i: June 1, 2004
p: August 16, 2004
Methone* S/2004 S 1
Methone PIA14633.jpg
Saturn XXXII Cassini–Huygens[29][139][140]
Pallene S/2004 S 2
=S/1981 S 14
S2004s2 040601.jpg
Saturn XXXIII
i: October 21, 2004
o: October 24, 2004
p: November 8, 2004
Polydeuces S/2004 S 5
Polydeuces.jpg
Saturn XXXIV Cassini–Huygens[29][141]
i: May 6, 2004
o: December 28, 2004
p: July 29, 2005
Haumea (136108) 2003 EL61 Dwarf planet (Ortiz, Aceituno Castro, Santos-Sanz)[29][142] or (Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz)[143][144] (see the Controversy over the discovery of Haumea)
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 3, 2005
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 7 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden[29][145]
Fornjot S/2004 S 8
N00084012.jpg
Saturn XLII
Farbauti S/2004 S 9 Saturn XL
Aegir S/2004 S 10 Saturn XXXVI
Bebhionn S/2004 S 11
Μπέβιν.jpg
Saturn XXXVII
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2004 S 12
S/2004 S 13
Hati S/2004 S 14 Saturn XLIII
Bergelmir S/2004 S 15
Bergelmir cassini.jpg
Saturn XXXVIII
i: December 13, 2004
p: May 3, 2005
Fenrir S/2004 S 16 Saturn XLI
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 17
Bestla S/2004 S 18 Saturn XXXIX
i: May 1, 2005
p: May 6, 2005
Daphnis S/2005 S 1
Daphnis raw 2010 cropped.jpg
Saturn XXXV Cassini–Huygens[146]
i: October 21, 2003
o: January 5, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Eris (136199) 2003 UB313
Eris and dysnomia2.jpg
Dwarf planet Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[29][143][147]
o: January 26, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Hiʻiaka S/2005 (136108) 1 Haumea I Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[29][148]
i: March 31, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Makemake (136472) 2005 FY9 Dwarf planet Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[143][149]
o: June 30, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Namaka S/2005 (136108) 2 Haumea II Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[150]
i: September 10, 2005
p: October 3, 2005
Dysnomia S/2005 (136199) 1
Eris and dysnomia2.jpg
Eris I Brown, van Dam, Bouchez, Le Mignant, Campbell, Chin, Conrad, Hartman, Johansson, Lafon, Rabinowitz, Stomski, Summers, Trujillo, Wizinowich[151]
i: May 15, 2005
o: June 15, 2005
p: October 31, 2005
Nix S/2005 P 2
Pluto and its satellites (2005).jpg
Pluto II Weaver, Stern, Mutchler, Steffl, Buie, Merline,
Spencer, Young, Young[152]
Hydra S/2005 P 1 Pluto III
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: December 12, 2004
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
Hyrrokkin S/2004 S 19 Saturn XLIV Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][153][154]
i: January 4, 2006
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2006 S 1 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][154][155]
Kari S/2006 S 2
Kari moon crop.jpg
Saturn XLV
i: January 5, 2006
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2006 S 3
Greip S/2006 S 4 Saturn LI
Loge S/2006 S 5 Saturn XLVI
Jarnsaxa S/2006 S 6 Saturn L
Surtur S/2006 S 7 Saturn XLVIII
Skoll S/2006 S 8 Saturn XLVII
i: January 5, 2006
o: January 16, 2007 (?)
p: April 13, 2007
Tarqeq S/2007 S 1 Saturn LII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[29][156][157]
i: January 18, 2007
o: ?
p: May 1, 2007
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2007 S 2 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[157][158]
S/2007 S 3
i: June 2004
o: May 30, 2007
p: July 18, 2007
Anthe S/2007 S 4
S2007 S 4 PIA08369.gif
Saturn XLIX Cassini–Huygens[29][159]
i: August 15, 2008
p: March 3, 2009
Aegaeon S/2008 S 1
Aegaeon (2008 S1).jpg
Saturn LIII Cassini–Huygens[29][160]
i: July 26, 2009
o: ?
p: November 2, 2009
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2009 S 1
PIA11665 moonlet in B Ring.jpg
Cassini–Huygens[161]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

2010s[edit]

2010s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

i: September 7, 2010
p: June 1, 2011

(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2010 J 1 Jacobson, Brozovic, Gladman and Alexandersen[162]
S/2010 J 2 Veillet[162]

i: June 28, 2011
p: July 20, 2011

Kerberos S/2011 (134340) 1
Pluto P4.jpg
Pluto IV Showalter[163][164]

i: September 27, 2011
p: January 29, 2012

(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2011 J 1 Sheppard[165]
S/2011 J 2

i: June 26, 2012
p: July 11, 2012

Styx S/2012 (134340) 1
Pluto P5 Discovery Image.jpg
Pluto V Showalter[166]

i: 2004
o: July 1, 2013
p: July 15, 2013

(unnamed moon of Neptune) S/2004 N 1*
S-2004 N1 Hubble montage.jpg
Showalter et al.[167]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  41. ^ Kuiper, Gerard P.; The Second Satellite of Neptune, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 61, No. 361 (August 1949), pp. 175–176
  42. ^ Vinter Hansen, Julie M.; Object Near Neptune, IAUC 1212 (1 April 1949)
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i Marsden, Brian G.; GX 1+4; Sats OF JUPITER AND SATURN, IAUC 3872 (30 March 1983)
  44. ^ Nicholson, Seth B.; An Unidentified Object Near Jupiter, Probably a New Satellite, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 63, No. 375 (December 1951), pp. 297–299
  45. ^ Gingerich, Owen; Probable New Satellite of Saturn, IAUC 1987 (3 January 1967)
    Gingerich, Owen; Saturn X (Janus), IAUC 1995 (1 February 1967)
    Marsden, Brian G.; New Ring and Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3417 (25 October 1979)
  46. ^ a b c Marsden, Brian G.; Saturn, IAUC 3454 (25 February 1980)
  47. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; 1980 S 2, IAUC 3456 (29 February 1980)
  48. ^ a b c Marsden, Brian G.; Saturn, IAUC 3497 (4 August 1980)
  49. ^ Gingerich, Owen; Possible New Satellite of Saturn, IAUC 1991 (6 January 1967)
  50. ^ Kowal, Charles T.; Thirteenth satellite of Jupiter, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 80, No. 6 (June 1975), pp. 460–464
    Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2702 (20 September 1974)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2703 (1 October 1974)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Jupiter XIII, IAUC 2711 (24 October 1974)
  51. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2845 (3 October 1975)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2855 (23 October 1975)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2899 (9 January 1976)
  52. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; 1978 P 1, IAUC 3241 (7 July 1978)
  53. ^ Christy, James W.; Harrington, Robert S.; The satellite of Pluto, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 83, No. 8 (August 1978), pp. 1005–1008
  54. ^ Jewitt, David C., Danielson, G. Edward, Synnott, Stephen P.; Discovery of a new Jupiter satellite, Science, Vol. 206, No. 4421 (23 November 1979), p. 951
  55. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 3470 (28 April 1980)
  56. ^ a b c Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 3507 (26 August 1980)
  57. ^ Hamilton, Calvin J.; Discovery Image of Adrastea, Views of the Solar System (1995–2007)
  58. ^ a b Jovian System Data Analysis Program; Voyager 2 Jupiter Image 20630.53, NASA Planetary Data System Rings Node (20 February 1997)
  59. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; Saturn, IAUC 3457 (6 March 1980)
  60. ^ a b c Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3483 (6 June 1980)
  61. ^ a b c d Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3496 (31 July 1980)
  62. ^ a b c d e Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3534 (7 November 1980)
  63. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3466 (10 April 1980)
  64. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3532 (31 October 1980)
  65. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; 1980 S 28, IAUC 3539 (13 November 1980)
  66. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; 1981 N 1, IAUC 3608 (29 May 1981)
  67. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Neptune, IAUC 4824 (2 August 1989)
  68. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Uranus and Neptune, IAUC 4159 (9 January 1986)
  69. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 4164 (16 January 1986)
  70. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 4165 (17 January 1986)
  71. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites and Rings of Uranus, IAUC 4168 (27 January 1986)
  72. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; 1989 N 1, IAUC 4806 (7 July 1989)
  73. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Neptune, IAUC 4867 (29 September 1989)
  74. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Saturn, IAUC 5052 (16 July 1990)
  75. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Possible Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 6162 (14 April 1995)
  76. ^ Gordon, Mitchell K.; Murray, Carl D.; and Beurle, Kevin; Further Evidence for the Existence of Additional Small Satellites of Saturn, Icarus, Vol. 121, No. 1 (May 1996), pp. 114–125
  77. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 6764 (31 October 1997)
  78. ^ a b Green, Daniel W. E.; S/1986 U 10, IAUC 7171 (18 May 1999)
  79. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 7230 (27 July 1999)
  80. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 7248 (4 September 1999)
  81. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/1999 J 1, IAUC 7460 (20 July 2000)
  82. ^ New Outer Satellite of Jupiter Discovered, Joint press release, Minor Planet Center and the Spacewatch Project (2000?)
  83. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 1 and S/2000 S 2, IAUC 7512 (25 October 2000)
  84. ^ a b c d Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 1, S/2000 S 2, S/2000 S 7, S/2000 S 8, S/2000 S 9, MPEC 2000-Y15 (19 December 2000)
  85. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 3 and S/2000 S 4, IAUC 7513 (25 October 2000)
  86. ^ a b c d e Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 3, S/2000 S 4, S/2000 S 5, S/2000 S 6, S/2000 S 10, MPEC 2000-Y14 (19 December 2000)
  87. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 5 and S/2000 S 6, IAUC 7521 (18 November 2000)
  88. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/1975 J 1 = S/2000 J 1, IAUC 7525 (25 November 2000)
  89. ^ a b c Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 7, S/2000 S 8, S/2000 S 9, IAUC 7538 (7 December 2000)
  90. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 10, IAUC 7539 (7 December 2000)
  91. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2000 S 11, IAUC 7545 (19 December 2000)
  92. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 11, MPEC 2000-Y13 (19 December 2000)
  93. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 12, IAUC 7548 (23 December 2000)
  94. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 12, MPEC 2000-Y33 (22 December 2000)
  95. ^ a b Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 7555 (5 January 2001)
  96. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 J 2, S/2000 J 3, S/2000 J 4, S/2000 J 5, S/2000 J 6, MPEC 2001-A28 (5 January 2001)
  97. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 J 7, S/2000 J 8, S/2000 J 9, S/2000 J 10, S/2000 J 11, MPEC 2001-A29 (5 January 2001)
  98. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 7900 (16 May 2002)
  99. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Eleven New Satellites of Jupiter, MPEC 2002-J54 (15 May 2002)
  100. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2001 U 1, IAUC 7980 (30 September 2002)
  101. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2001 U 1, MPEC 2002-S64 (30 September 2002)
  102. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2002 J 1, IAUC 8035 (18 December 2002)
  103. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2002 J 1, MPEC 2002-Y22 (18 December 2002)
  104. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Neptune, IAUC 8047 (13 January 2003)
  105. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2002 N 1, 2002 N 2, 2002 N3, MPEC 2003-A75 (13 January 2003)
  106. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 8087 (4 March 2003)
  107. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 1, 2003 J 2, 2003 J 3, 2003 J 4, 2003 J 5, 2003 J 6, 2003 J 7, MPEC 2003-E11 (4 March 2003)
  108. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 8, IAUC 8088 (6 March 2003)
  109. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 8, MPEC 2003-E15 (6 March 2003)
  110. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 8089 (7 March 2003)
  111. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 9, 2003 J 10, 2003 J 11, 2003 J 12; S/2003 J 1, 2003 J 6, MPEC 2003-E29 (7 March 2003)
  112. ^ a b c d e f g Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, IAUC 8116 (11 April 2003)
  113. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 13, MPEC 2003-G09 (2 April 2003)
  114. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 14, MPEC 2003-G10 (3 April 2003)
  115. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 15, MPEC 2003-G17 (3 April 2003)
  116. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 16, MPEC 2003-G18 (3 April 2003)
  117. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 17, MPEC 2003-G19 (3 April 2003)
  118. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 18, MPEC 2003-G20 (4 April 2003)
  119. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 S 1, MPEC 2003-G39 (8 April 2003)
  120. ^ a b Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 19 and S/2003 J 20, IAUC 8125 (30 April 2003)
  121. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 19, MPEC 2003-G64 (12 April 2003)
  122. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 20, MPEC 2003-G67 (14 April 2003)
  123. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 21, IAUC 8138 (30 May 2003)
  124. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 21, MPEC 2003-K45 (29 May 2003)
  125. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Uranus, IAUC (3 September 2003)
  126. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Neptune, IAUC 8193 (3 September 2003)
  127. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 N 1, MPEC 2003-G64 (3 September 2003)
  128. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 U 1 and S/2003 U 2, IAUC 8209 (25 September 2003)
  129. ^ a b Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2001 U 2 and S/2002 N 4, IAUC 8213 (1 October 2003)
  130. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2001 U 2, MPEC 2003-S105 (30 September 2003)
  131. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2002 N 4, MPEC 2003-S107 (30 September 2003)
  132. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2001 U 3, IAUC 8216 (8 October 2003)
  133. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 U 3, IAUC 8217 (9 October 2003)
  134. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 U 3, MPEC 2003-T58 (9 October 2003)
  135. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 22, IAUC (25 January 2004)
  136. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 22, MPEC 2004-B41 (24 January 2004)
  137. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 23, IAUC 8281 (4 February 2004)
  138. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 23, MPEC 2004-B81 (31 January 2004)
  139. ^ Martinez, Carolina; Savage, Donald; and Finn, Heidi; Out from the Shadows: Two New Saturnian Moons, JPL Cassini–Huygens News Release 2004-202 (16 August 2004)
  140. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2004 S 1 and S/2004 S 2, IAUC 8389 (16 August 2004)
  141. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites and Rings of Saturn, IAUC 8432 (8 November 2004)
  142. ^ Pablo Santos-Sanz (26 September 2008). "La historia de Ataecina vs Haumea" (in Spanish). infoastro.com. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  143. ^ a b c Green, Daniel W. E. (29 July 2005). "IAUC 8577". 
  144. ^ "Santa et al.". NASA Astrobiology Magazine. 10 September 2005. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  145. ^ Lakdawalla, Emily; Twelve New Moons for Saturn, The Planetary Society, Planetary News: Moon Discoveries (2005)
    Jewitt, David C.; Twelve New Moons for Saturn (3 May 2005)
    Green, Daniel W. E.; New Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 8523 (4 May 2005)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Twelve New Satellites of Saturn, MPEC 2005-J13 (3 May 2005)
  146. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2005 S 1, IAUC 8524 (6 May 2005)
  147. ^ Brown, Michael E. (2006). "The discovery of 2003 UB313 Eris, the largest known dwarf planet". Retrieved 3 May 2007. 
  148. ^ Brown, M. E.; et al. (2005). "Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Discovery and Characterization of a Satellite to the Large Kuiper Belt Object 2003 EL61". Astrophysical Journal Letters 632 (1): L45–L48. Bibcode:2005ApJ...632L..45B. doi:10.1086/497641. 
  149. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 136472 Makemake (2005 FY9)". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 2008-04-05. Retrieved 11 June 2008. 
  150. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2005 (2003 EL_61) 2, IAUC 8636 (1 December 2005)
  151. ^ Brown, Michael E. (2006). "Dysnomia, the moon of Eris". Retrieved 1 September 2007. 
  152. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2005 P 1 and S/2005 P 2, IAUC 8625 (31 October 2005) (also as a pdf)
  153. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2004 S 19, MPEC 2006-M44 (26 June 2006)
  154. ^ a b Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 8727 (30 June 2006)
  155. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; Eight New Satellites of Saturn, MPEC 2006-M45 (26 June 2006)
  156. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2007 S 1, MPEC 2007-G38 (13 April 2007)
  157. ^ a b Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2007 S 1, S/2007 S 2, and S/2007 S 3, IAUC 8836 (11 May 2007)
  158. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2007 S 2, S/2007 S 3, MPEC 2007-J09 (1 May 2007)
  159. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2007 S 4, IAUC 8857 (18 July 2007)
  160. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2008 S 1, IAUC 9023 (03 March 2009)
  161. ^ Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2009 S 1, IAUC 9091 (02 November 2009)
  162. ^ a b MPEC 2011-L06: S/2010 J 1 AND S/2010 J 2
  163. ^ http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/cbet/cbet002769.txt
  164. ^ NASA - NASA's Hubble Discovers Another Moon Around Pluto
  165. ^ MPEC 2012-B97 : S/2011 J 1 AND S/2011 J 2 2012 Jan. 29 (issued)
  166. ^ Showalter, Mark. Hubble Press Release: Hubble Discovers a Fifth Moon Orbiting Pluto. 11 July 2012.
  167. ^ Kelly Beatty (15 July 2013). "Neptune's Newest Moon". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 

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