Timeline of electrical and electronic engineering

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The following timeline tables list the discoveries and inventions in the history of electrical and electronic engineering.[1][2]

History of discoveries timeline[edit]

Year Event
600BCE Thales of Miletus discovered static electricity by rubbing fur on substances such as amber
1600 English scientist William Gilbert coined the word electricus after careful experiments.
1705 Francis Hauksbee made a glass ball that glowed when spun and rubbed with the hand
1720 Stephen Gray discovered insulators and conductors
1745 German physicist Ewald Georg von Kleist and Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented Leyden jars
1752 Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was electrical by flying a kite, and explained how Leyden jars work
1783 French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb formulated Coulomb's law
1785 French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace developed a technique which was called Laplace transform to transform a linear differential equation to an algebraic equation. Later on his transform proved to be a valuable tool in circuit analysis.
1800 Italian physicist Alessandro Volta invented battery
1820 Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted accidentally discovered that the change in electric field creates magnetic field
1820 One week after Ørsted's discovery, French physicist André-Marie Ampère published his law. He also proposed right hand screw rule
1825 English physicist William Sturgeon developed the first electromagnet
1827 German physicist Georg Ohm introduced the concept of electrical resistance
1831 English physicist Michael Faraday published the law of induction (Joseph Henry developed the same law independently)
1831 American scientist Joseph Henry in United States developed a prototype DC motor
1832 French instrument maker Hippolyte Pixii in France developed a prototype DC generator
1836 Irish priest (and later scientist) Nicholas Callan invented transformer in Ireland
1844 American inventor Samuel Morse developed telegraphy and the Morse code
1850 Belgian engineer Floris Nollet invented (and patented) a practical AC generator
1855 First utilization of AC (in electrotherapy) by French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 First electrically powered light house in England
1862 Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell published four equations bearing his name
1873 Belgian engineer Zenobe Gramme who developed DC generator accidentally discovered that a DC generator also works as a DC motor during an exhibit in Vienna.
1876 Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented electric carbon arc lamp
1876 Scottish inventor Alexander Graham Bell invented telephone
1877 American inventor Thomas Alva Edison invented phonograph
1877 First street lighting in Paris, France
1878 First hydroelectric plant in Cragside, England
1878 English engineer Joseph Swan invented Incandescent light bulb
1879 Thomas Alva Edison introduced a long lasting filament for the incandescent lamp.
1882 First thermal power stations in London and New York
1888 German physicist Heinrich Hertz proved the that electro magnetic waves travel over some distance. (First indication of radio communication)
1888 Italian physicist and electrical engineer Galileo Ferraris publishes a paper on the induction motor and Serbian-American engineer Nikola Tesla gets a US patent on the same device[3][4]
1890 Thomas Alva Edison invented fuse
1893 During the Fourth International Conference of Electricians in Chicago electrical units in were defined
1894 Russian physicist Alexander Stepanovich Popov developed a prototype of a radio receiver
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1897 German inventor Karl Ferdinand Braun invented cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)
1900 Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi succeeded in first radio broadcast
1901 First transatlantic radio broadcast by Guglielmo Marconi
1904 English engineer John Ambrose Fleming invented diode
1906 American inventor Lee de Forest invented triode
1912 American engineer Edwin Howard Armstrong developed Electronic oscillator
1919 Edwin Howard Armstrong developed standard AM radio receiver
1921 Metre Convention was extended to include the electrical units
1926 Yagi-Uda antenna was developed by the Japanese engineers Hidetsugu Yagi and Shintaro Uda
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 First public TV broadcast in Germany
1931 First wind energy plant in the Soviet Union
1936 Dudley E. Foster and Stuart William Seeley developed FM detector circuit.
1938 Russian American engineer Vladimir K. Zworykin developed Iconoscope
1939 Edwin Howard Armstrong developed FM radio receiver
1939 Russell and Sigurd Varian developed the first Klystron tube in the US.
1941 German engineer Konrad Zuse developed the first programmable computer in Berlin
1944 English engineer John Logie Baird developed the first color picture tube
1947 American engineers John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain together with their group leader William Shockley invented transistor.
1950 French physicist Alfred Kastler invented MASER
1951 First nuclear power plant plant in the US
1953 First fully transistorized computer in the US
1958 American engineer Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit (IC)
1960 American engineer Theodore Harold Maiman invented the LASER
1962 Nick Holonyak Jr. invented the LED
2008 American scientist Richard Stanley Williams invented memristor which was proposed by Leon O. Chua in 1971

History of inventions timeline[edit]

Brief History of Electronics Timeline
Date Invention/Discovery Inventor(s)
1745 Capacitor Leyden
1780 Galvanic action Galvani
1800 Dry cell Volta
1808 Atomic theory Dalton
1812 Cable insulation Sommering and Schilling
1820 Electromagnetism Oersted
1821 Thermoelectricity Seebeck
1826 Ohm's law Ohm
1831 Transformer Faraday
1831 Electromagnetic induction Faraday
1832 Self-induction Henry
1834 Electrolysis Faraday
1837 Relays Cooke, Wheatstone, and Davy
1839 Photovoltaic effect Becquerel
1843 Wheatstone bridge Christie
1845 Kirchhoff's circuit laws Kirchhoff
1850 Thermistor Faraday
1860 Microphone diaphragm Reis
1865 Radiowave propagation Maxwell
1866 Transatlantic telegraph cable T.C. & M. Co.
1874 Capacitors, mica Bauer
1876 Rolled-paper capacitor Fitzgerald
1876 Telephone Bell
1877 Phonograph Edison
1877 Microphone, carbon Edison
1877 Loudspeaker moving coil Siemens
1878 Cathode rays Crookes
1878 Carbon-filament incandescent lamp Swan, Stearn, Topham, and Cross
1879 Hall effect Hall
1880 Piezoelectricity Curie
1887 Gramophone record Berliner
1887 Aerials, radiowave Hertz
1888 Induction motor Ferraris and Tesla
1893 Waveguides Thomson
1895 X-rays Roentgen
1896 Wireless telegraphy Marconi
1900 Old quantum theory Planck
1901 Fluorescent lamp Cooper and Hewitt
1904 Two-electrode tube Fleming
1905 Theory of relativity Einstein
1906 Radio broadcasting Fessenden
1908 Television Campell, Swinton
1911 Superconductivity Onnes
1915 Sonar Langevin
1918 Multivibrator circuit Abraham and Bioch
1918 Atomic transmutation Rutherford
1919 Flip-flop circuits Eccles and Jordan
1921 Crystal control of frequency Cady
1924 Radar Appleton, Briet, Watson, and Watt
1927 Negative-feedback amplifier Black
1927 Video camera tube Max Dieckmann and Rudolf Hell
1930 Patent of traffic signal timing system Thomas Watson awarded patent
1932 Neutron Chadwick
1932 Particle accelerator Crockcroft and Walton
1934 Liquid crystals Dreyer
1935 Transistor field effect Hieil
1935 Scanning electron microscope Knoll
1937 Xerography Carlson
1937 Oscillograph Van Ardenne, Dowling, and Bullen
1939 Early digital computer Aitken and IBM
1943 First general-purpose computer (ENIAC) Mauchly and Eckert
1943 Printed circuit board Eisler
1945 First commercially successful computer (UNIVAC I) N/A
1948 Bipolar transistor Bardeen, Bratlain, and Shockley
1948 Holography Gabor and Shockley
1950 Modem MIT and Bell Labs
1950 Karnaugh mapping technique (digital logic) Karnaugh
1952 Digital voltmeter Kay
1953 Unijunction transistor GEC
1954 Transistor radioset Regency
1954 Solar battery Chapin, Fuller, and Pearson
1956 Transatlantic telephone cable U.K. and U.S.A.
1957 Sputnik I satellite U.S.S.R.
1957 FORTRAN programming language Watson Scientific
1958 Video tape recorder U.S.A.
1958 Laser Schalow and Townes
1959 First one-piece plain paper photocopier (Xerox 914) Xerox
1959 Veroboard (Stripboard) Terry Fitzpatrick
1960 Light-emitting diode Allen and Gibbons
1961 Electronic clock Vogel and Cie
1962 MOSFET transistors Hofstein, Heiman, and RCA
1963 Electronic calculator Bell Punch Co.
1963 First commercially successful audio compact cassette Philips Corporation
1964 BASIC programming language Kemeny and Kurtz
1966 Optical fiber communications Kao and Hockham
late 1960s First digital fax machine Dacom
1969 UNIX operating system AT&T's Bell Labs
1970 Floppy disk recorder IBM
1970 First microprocessor (4004, 60,000 oper/s) Intel
1970 First commercially available DRAM memory IBM
1971 EPROM N/A
1971 PASCAL programming language Wirth
1971 First microcomputer-on-a-chip Texas Instruments
1972 8008 processor (200 kHz, 16 kB) Intel
1972 Ping Pong (video game) Atari
1972 First programmable word processor Automatic Electronic Systems
1972 5.25-in diskette N/A
1972 First modern automated teller machine (IBM 2984) IBM
1973 Josephson junction IBM
1973 Tunable continuous-wave laser Bell Labs
1973 Ethernet Metcalfe
1973 Mobile phone John F. Mitchell and Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola
1974 C (programming language) Kernighan, Ritchie
1974 Programmable pocket calculator Hewlett-Packard
1975 BASIC for personal computers Allen
1975 Liquid-crystal display United Kingdom
1975 First personal computer (Altair 8800) Roberts
1975 Digital camera Steven Sasson of Eastman Kodak
1975 Integrated optical circuits Reinhart and Logan
1975 Microsoft founded Gates and Allen
1975 Omni-font optical character recognition system Nuance Communications
1975 CCD flatbed scanner Kurzweil Computer Products
1975 Text-to-speech synthesis Kurzweil Computer Products
1975 First commercial reading machine for the blind (Kurzweil Reading Machine) Kurzweil Computer Products
1976 Apple I computer Wozniak, Jobs
1977 Launch of the "1977 trinity computers" expanding home computing, the Apple II, Commodore PET and the TRS-80 Apple, Tandy Corporation, Commodore Business Machines
1977 First handheld electronic game (Auto Race) Mattel
1978 Space Invaders (video game) Taito
1978 WordPerfect 1.0 Satellite Software
1980 3.5-in floppy (2-sided, 875 kB) N/A
1980 Commodore 64 Commodore Business Machines
1981 IBM Personal Computer (8088 processor) IBM
1981 MS-DOS 1.0 Microsoft
1982 Laser printer IBM
1982 First commercially marketed large-vocabulary speech recognition Kurzweil Applied Intelligence and Dragon Systems
1983 Satellite television U.S. Satellite Communications, Inc.
1983 "Wet" solar cell Germany/U.S.A.
1983 First built-in hard drive (IBM PC-XT) IBM
1983 Microsoft Word Microsoft
1983 C++ (programming language) Stroostrup
1984 Macintosh computer (introduced) Apple Computer
1984 CD-ROM player for personal computers Philips
1984 First music synthesizer (Kurzweil K250) capable of recreating the grand piano and other orchestral instruments Kurzweil Music Systems
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber AT&T, Bell Laboratory
1985 Nintendo Entertainment System Nintendo
1987 Warmer superconductivity Karl Alex Mueller
1987 80386 microprocessor (25 MHz) Intel
1989 Sega Genesis (console) Sega
1989 First commercial handheld GPS receiver (Magellan NAV 1000) Magellan Navigation Inc.
1989 Silicon-germanium transistors IBM fellow Bernie Meyerson
1990 486 microprocessor (33MHz) Intel
1994 Pentium processor (60/90 MHz, 166.2 mips) Intel
1994 Bluetooth Ericsson
1994 First DVD player ever made Tatung Company
1995 PlayStation (console) Sony Computer Entertainment
1996 Alpha 21164 processor (550 MHz) Digital Equipment
1996 P2SC processor (15 million transistors) IBM
1997 Deep Blue (IBM RS/6000SP supercomputer) defeats world chess champ Garry Kasparov IBM
2001 Xbox (console) Microsoft
2001 iPod Apple Inc.
2007 iPhone Apple Inc.
2011 IBM Watson defeated two of Jeopardy's greatest champions IBM
2011 Wii (console) Nintendo

Consumer Electronics[edit]

1843-1923: From electromechanics to electronics[edit]

  • 1843: Watchmaker Alexander Bain (inventor) develops the basic concept of displaying images as points with different brightness values.
  • 1848: Frederick Collier Bakewell invents the first wirephoto machine, an early fax machine
  • 1861: Grade school teacher Philipp Reis presents his telephone in Frankfurt, inventing the loudspeaker as a by-product.
  • 1867: French poet and philosopher Charles Cros (1842 - 1888) presents the construction principle of a phonograph in his 'paréophone', which turned out not to be a commercial success at the time.
  • 1867: James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879) develops a theory predicting the existence of electromagnetic waves and establishes Maxwell's equations to describe their properties. Together with the Lorentz force law, these equations form the foundation for classical electrodynamics and classical optics as well as electric circuits.
  • 1874: Ferdinand Braun discovers the rectifier effect in metal sulfides and metal oxides.
  • 1877: Thomas Edison (1847 - 1931) invents the first phonograph, using a tin foil cylinder. For the first time sounds could be recorded and played. A phonograph horn with membrane and needle was arranged in such a way that the needle had contact to the tinfoil.
  • 1880: the American physicist Charles Sumner Tainter discovers that many disadvantages of Edison's cylinders can be eliminated if the soundtrack is arranged in spiral form and engraved in a flat, round disk. Technical problems soon ended these experiments. Still, Tainter is regarded as the inventor of the gramophone record.
  • 1884: Paul Nipkow obtains a patent for his Nipkow disk, an image scanning device that reads images serially, which constitutes the foundation for mechanical television. Two years later his patent runs out.
  • 1886: Heinrich Hertz succeeds in proving the existence of electromagnetic waves for the first time - now the groundwork for wireless telegraphy and radio broadcasting in physical science is laid.
  • 1887: Unaware of Charles Sumner Tainter's experiments, German-American Emil Berliner has his phonograph patented. The turntable rotates at 150 RPM and is operated by a crank handle. A steel needle reads the data and transfers the vibrations mechanically to a membrane inside the horn. Berliner used a disk instead of a cylinder primarily to avoid infringing on Edison's patent. Quickly it becomes obvious that flat Gramophone records are easier to duplicate and store.
  • 1888:
  • 1890:
  • approximately 1893: The invention of the selenium phototube allows the conversion of brightness values into electrical signals. The principle is applied in wirephoto and television technology for a short time. Selenium is used in light meters for the next 50 years.
Cinématographe camera by the Lumière brothers in 1895 (ref 86.5822) at the French Museum of Photography in Bièvres, Essonne, France
  • 1897
    • Ferdinand Braun invents the "inertialess cathode ray oscillograph tube", a principle which remained unchanged in television picture tubes.
    • The Italian Guglielmo Marconi transmits wireless telegraph messages by electromagnetic waves over a distance of five kilometers.
  • 1898
  • 1899: The dog "Nipper" is used in "His Master's Voice", the trademark for gramophones and records.
  • 1902
    • Otto von Bronk patented his "Method and apparatus for remote visualization of images and objects with temporary resolution of the images in parallel rows of dots". This patent, originally developed for phototelegraphy, impacted the development of color television, particularly the NTSC implementation.
    • For the first time audio records are printed with paper labels in the middle.
  • 1903: Guglielmo Marconi provides evidence that wireless telegraphic communication is possible over long distances, such as across the Atlantic. He used a transmitter developed by Ferdinand Braun.
  • 1904
    • For the first time, double-sided records, and those with a diameter of 30 cm are produced, increasing playing time up to 11 minutes (5.5 minutes per side). These are created by Odeon in Berlin and debuted at the Leipzig Spring Fair.
    • The German physicist Arthur Korn developed the first practical method for telegraphy.
  • 1905: The Englishman Sir John Ambrose Fleming invents the first electron tube.
  • 1906
    • Robert von Lieben patented his "inertia working cathode-ray-relays". By 1910 he developed this into the first real tube amplifier, by creating a triode. His invention of the triode is almost simultaneously created by the American Lee de Forest.
    • Max Dieckmann and Gustav Glage use the Braun tube for playback of 20-line black-and-white images.
    • The first jukebox with records comes on the market.
    • American Major General HHC Dunwoody file for a patent for a carborundum steel detector for receiving radio broadcasts, an improved version of the Cat's-whisker detector. It is sometimes credited as the first semiconductor in history. The envelope detector is an important part of every radio receiver. Since these simple receivers have no active (amplifying) components, only strong local stations can be received.
  • 1907: Rosenthal puts in his image telegraph for the first time a photocell.
  • 1911: First film studios are created in Hollywood and Potsdam- Babelsberg .
  • 1912: The first radio receiver is created, in accordance with the Audion principle.
  • 1913: The legal battle over the invention of the electron tube between Robert von Lieben and Lee de Forest is decided. The electron tube is replaced by a high vacuum in the glass flask with significantly improved properties.
    • Alexander Meissner patented his process "feedback for generating oscillations", by his development of a radio station using an electron tube .
    • The Englishman Arthur Berry submits a patent on the manufacture of printed circuits by etched metal.
  • 1915: Carl Benedicks leads basic studies in Sweden on the electrical properties of silicon and germanium. Due to the emerging tube technology, however, interest in semiconductors remains low until after the Second World War.
  • 1917
    • Based on previous findings of the Englishman Oliver Lodge, the Frenchman Lucien Levy develops a radio receiver with frequency tuning using a resonant circuit.
  • 1919: Charlie Chaplin founded the Hollywood film production and distribution company United Artists
  • 1920: The first regularly operating radio station KDKA goes on air on 2 November 1920 in Philadelphia, USA. It is the first time electronics are used to transmit information and entertainment to the public at large. The same year in Germany an instrumental concert was broadcast on the radio from a long-wave transmitter in Wusterhausen.
  • 1922: J. McWilliams Stone invents the first portable radio receiver. George Frost builds the first "car radio" in his Ford Model T.
  • 1923
    • The 15 year old Manfred von Ardenne is granted his first patent for an electron tube having a plurality of electrodes. Siegmund Loewe (1885-1962) builds with the tube his first radio receiver "Loewe Opta-".
    • The Hungarian engineer Dénes Mihály patented an image scanning with line deflection, in which each point of an image is scanned ten times per second by a selenium cell.
    • August Karolus (1893-1972) invents the Kerr cell, an almost inertia-free conversion of electrical pulses into light signals. He was granted a patent for his method of transmitting slides.
    • Vladimir Kosma developed the first television camera tube, the Ikonoskop, using the Braun tube.
    • The German State Secretary Karl August Bredow founded the first German broadcasting organization. By lifting the ban on broadcast reception and the opening of the first private radio station, the development of radio as a mass medium begins.

1924-1959: From cathode ray tube to stereo audio and TV[edit]

  • 1924: the first radio receivers are exhibited at the Berlin Radio Show
  • 1925
    • Brunswick Records in Dubuque, Iowa produced their first record player, the Brunswick Panatrope with a pickup, amplifier and loudspeaker
    • In the American Bell Laboratories, a method for recording of records obtained by microphone and tube amps for series production. Also in Germany working on it is ongoing since 1922. 1925 appear the first electrically recorded disks in both countries.
    • At the Leipzig Spring Fair, the first miniature camera "Leica" is presented to the public.
    • John Logie Baird performs the first screening of a living head with a resolution of 30 vertical lines using a Nipkow disk.
    • August Karolus demonstrated in Germany television with 48 lines and ten image changes per second.
  • 1926
    • Edison developed the first "LP". By dense grooves (16 grooves on 1 mm) and the reduction of speed to 80 min -1 (later 78 min -1 ) increases the playing time up to 2 times 20 minutes. He carries himself with the decline of his phonograph business.
    • The German State Railroad offers a cordless telephone service in moving trains between Berlin and Hamburg - the idea of mobile telephony is born.
    • John Logie Baird developed the first commercial television set in the world. It was not until 1930, he is called a " telescreen sold "at a price of 20 pounds.
  • 1927
    • The first fully electronic music boxes ("Jukeboxes") used in the USA on the market.
    • German Grammophon on sale due to a license agreement with the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company. Its first fully electronic turntables.
    • The first industrially manufactured car radio , the "Philco Transitone" from the "Storage Battery Co." in Philadelphia, USA, comes on the market.
    • The first shortwave radio - Rundfunkübertragung overseas broadcast by the station PCJJ the Philips factories in Eindhoven in the Dutch colonies.
    • Opening of the first regular telegraphy -Dienstes between Berlin and Vienna.
    • First commercial sound films ("The Jazz Singer", USA) using the "Needle sound" back in sync with the film screening for LPs over loudspeakers.
    • First public television broadcasts in the UK by John Logie Baird between London and Glasgow and in the USA by Frederic Eugene Ives (1882-1953) between Washington and New York.
    • The American inventor Philo Taylor Farnsworth (1906-1971) developed in Los Angeles, the first fully electronic television system in the world.
    • John Logie Baird developed the first videodisc player. 30-line television images are stored on shellac records. At 78 RPM mechanically scanned, the images can be played back on his "telescreen". It could not play sound nor keep up with the rapidly increasing resolution of television. Therefore, it takes more than 40 years before the first commercial optical disc players come onto the market.
  • 1928: Fritz Pfleumer gets the first tape recorder patent. It replaces steel wire with paper coated in iron powder. According to Valdemar Poulsen (1898) to the second crucial pioneer of magnetic sound, image and data storage
    • Dénes Mihály presented in Berlin a small circle, the first authentic television broadcast in Germany, having worked at least since 1923 in this field.
    • August Karolus and the company Telefunken put on the "fifth Great German Radio Exhibition Berlin 1928" the prototype of a television receiver, with an image size of 8 cm × 10 cm and a resolution of about 10,000 pixels, a much better picture quality than previous devices.
    • Meanwhile, there are in New York (USA) already the first regular television broadcasts of the experiment station WGY, which the General Electric Company (GE) operates. Irregular television news and dramas radiate from these stations by 1928. Also in the USA the first commercially produced television receiver of the Daven Corporation in Newark is offered for $75.
    • John Logie Baird transmits the first television pictures internationally, and the same across the Atlantic from London to New York. He also demonstrated the world's first color television transmission in London.
  • 1929
    • Edison withdraws from the phono business - the disk has ousted the cylinder.
    • The company Columbia Records developed the first portable record player that can be connected to each tube radio. It also created the first radio / phonograph combinations, the usual precursor to the 1960s music chests.
    • The German physicist Curt Stille (1873-1957) leads the "German Cinema Society" a magnetic sound system before, using a perforated steel band as phonograms. First, this "Magnettonverfahren" has no success. Only much later it is rediscovered for amateur films, because it provides an easy way for dubbing. Before silence has been a "Daylygraph" developed called Magnettongerät with amplifier and equalizer and a mature Magnettondiktiergerät called "Textophon".
    • Based on patents, which he had purchased of silence, brings the Englishman E. Blattner the " Blattnerphone "the first magnetic sound recording on the market. It records on a thin steel band.
    • The first sound film using optical sound premiers. Since the early 1920s, various people have developed this method. The same optoelectronic method also allows for the first time the post-processing of recorded music to sound recordings of it.
    • The director Carl Froelich (1875-1953) turns "The Night Belongs to Us", the first German sound film.
    • 20th Century Fox presents in New York on an 8 m × 4 m big screen the first widescreen movie.
    • The radio station Witzleben begins in Germany with the regular broadcasting of television test broadcasts, initially on long wave with 30 lines (= 1,200 pixels) at 12.5 image changes per second. It appear first blueprints for television receiver.
    • John Logie Baird starts in the UK on behalf of the BBC with regular experimental television broadcasts to the public.
    • Frederic Eugene Ives transmits a color television from New York to Washington.
  • 1930
  • 1931
    • The British engineer and inventor Alan Dower Blumlein (1903-1942) invents "Binaural Sound", today called "Stereo". He developed the stereo record and the first three-way speaker. He makes experimental films with stereo sound. Then he becomes leader of the development team for the EMI -405-line television system.
    • The company RCA Victor presents to the public the first real LP record, the 35 cm diameter and 33.33 RPM give sufficient playing time for an entire orchestral work. But the new turntables are initially so expensive that they are only gain broad acceptance after the Second World War - then as vinyl record.
    • The French physicist René Barthélemy leads in Paris the first public television with clay before. The BBC launches first Tonversuche in the UK.
    • Public World Premiere of electronic television - without electro-mechanical components such as the Nipkow disk - on the "eighth Great German Radio Exhibition Berlin 1931 ". Doberitz / Pomerania is the first German location for a tone-TV stations.
    • Manfred von Ardenne can be the principle of a color picture tube patent: Narrow strips of phosphors in the three primary colors are closely juxtaposed arranged so that they complement each other with the electron flow to white light. A separate control of the three colors has not yet provided.
  • 1932
    • The company AEG and BASF start for the magnetic tape method of Fritz Pfleumer to care (1928). They develop new devices and tapes, in which celluloid is used instead of paper as a carrier material.
    • In Britain, the BBC sends first radio programs time-shifted instead of live.
    • The company telephone and radio apparatus factory Ideal AG (today Blaupunkt) provides a car radio using Bowden cables to control it from the steering column.
  • 1933
    • After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany is broadcasting finally a political tool. Systematic censorship is to prevent opposition and spread the "Aryan culture". Series production of the " People's recipient VE 301 "starts.
    • Edwin Howard Armstrong demonstrates that frequency-modulated (FM) radio transmissions are less susceptible to interference than amplitude-modulated (AM). However, practical application is long delayed.
    • In the USA the first opened drive-in theater.
  • 1934: First commercial stereo recordings find little favor - the necessary playback devices are still too expensive. The term "High Fidelity" is embossed around this time.
  • 1935
    • AEG and BASF place at the Berlin Radio Show, the tape recorder " Magnetophon K1 "and the appropriate magnetic tapes before. In case of fire in the exhibition hall all four exhibited devices are destroyed.
    • In Germany the world's first regular television program operating for about 250 mostly public reception points starts in Berlin and the surrounding area. The mass production of television receivers is - probably due to the high price of 2,500 Reichsmarks - not yet started.
    • At the same time, the research institute of the German Post (RPF) begins with development work for a color television methods , but which are later reinstated due to the Second World War.
  • 1936
    • Olympic Games in Berlin broadcast live.
    • "Olympia suitcase", battery-powered portable radio receiver, introduced.
    • The first mobile television camera (180 lines, all-electronic) is used for live television broadcasts of the Olympic Games.
    • Also in the UK are first regular television broadcasts - now for the perfect electronic EMI system, which soon replaced the mechanical part Baird system - broadcast.
    • Video telephony connections between booths in Berlin and Leipzig. Later connections from Berlin to Nuremberg and Munich added.
    • The Frenchman Raymond Valtat reports on a patent, which describes the principle of working with binary numbers abacus.
    • Konrad Zuse works on a dual electromechanical computing machine that is ready in 1937.
  • 1937
    • First sapphire needle for records of the company Siemens
    • The interlace method is introduced on TV in order to reduce image flicker. The transmitter Witzleben now radiates television to the new standard with 441 lines and 25 image changes, ie 50 fields of each 220 half-line from. Until the HDTV era into the interlace or interlace method remains in use.
    • First movie encoder make it possible not to send the TV live, but to rely on recordings.
  • 1938
    • The improved AEG tape-recorder " Magnetophon K4 "is first used in radio studios. The belt speed is 77 cm / s, which at 1000 m length of tape a playing time of 22 minutes results.
    • Werner Flechsig invents with the shadow mask method for separate control of the three primary colors in a color picture tube.
  • 1939
    • On the "16th Great German Radio and television broadcasting exhibition Berlin 1939 ", the" German Unity television receiver E1 "and announces the release of free commercial television. Due to the difficult political and economic situation, only about 50 devices are sold instead of the planned 10,000.
    • In the USA the first regular television broadcasts take place.
  • 1940
    • The development of television technology for military purposes increases the resolution to 1029 lines at 25 frames per second. Commercial HDTV television reached that resolution almost half a century later.
    • The problem of band noise with tape devices is reduced dramatically by the invention of radio frequency bias of Walter Weber and Hans-Joachim von Braunmühl.
  • 1942 : The first all-electronic computer is used by John Vincent Atanasoff completed, but quickly fades into oblivion. Four years later the ENIAC completed - the beginning of the end of Electromechanics in computers and calculators.
  • 1945-1947 : American soldiers capture in Germany some tape recorders. This and the nullity German patents leads to the development of the first tape recorders in the United States. The first home device " Sound Mirror "by the Brush Development Co. is there on the market.
  • 1948
    • The American physicist and Industrial Edwin Herbert Land (1909-1991) launches the first instant camera, Polaroid camera Model 95 on the market.
    • Three American engineers at Bell Laboratories (John Bardeen , Walter Brattain and William Shockley example ) invent the transistor. Its lesser size and power compared with electron tubes brings (from 1955) portable radio receivers starting its march through all areas of electronics.
    • The Hungarian-American physicist Peter Carl Goldmark (1906-1977) invents the vinyl record (first published 1952), much less noisy than their predecessors shellac. Thanks to micro-groove (100 grooves per cm) can play 23 minutes per side. The LP is born. This one is the redemption of the claim "high fidelity one step closer" to the end of the shellac era.
    • The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) leads the music format with 45 RPM records, later to conquer the market for cheap players. The first publication in Germany in this format appears 1953rd
    • The British physicist Dennis Gabor (1900-1979) invents holography. This method of recording and reproducing image with coherent light allows three-dimensional images. It was not until 1971 when the procedure gained practical importance, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics.
  • 1949
    • In Germany, the first ultra-short (take FM -) channels on their regular program operation.
    • Experimentally since 1943, series production since 1949 there are for professional use stereo - Tonbandgeräte and matching ribbons. Also portable devices for reporters, initially propelled by a spring mechanism, has been around since 1949
  • 1950
    • In the USA the first finished recorded are audio tapes marketed.
    • Also in the USA brings the company Zenith the first TV with cable remote control for channel selection on the market.
  • 1951
    • The CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) broadcasts in New York the first color television program in the world, but using the field sequential standard, not reaching to the resolution of the black and white television and was to be incompatible.
    • With the " tape recorder F15 "from AEG 's first home tape recorder appears on the German market.
    • RCA Electronic Music is the first synthesizer prior to the creation of artificial electronic sounds.
  • 1952
    • Reintroduction of regular television broadcasts in Germany after the Second World War.
    • 20th Century Fox developed with "Cinemascope" the most successful wide-screen process to better compete with television. Only some 50 years later pulls the TV with the 16: 9 size screen after.
  • 1953
    • The "National Television System Committee" (Abbreviated as NTSC) normalized in the USA named after her black-and-white-compatible NTSC -Farbfernseh process. A year later, this method is introduced in the United States.
    • The car radio top model "Mexico" from Becker for the first time to an FM area (in mono) and an automatic tuning.
  • 1954
    • RCA developed for the first apparatus for recording video signals on magnetic tapes. 22 km magnetic tape are needed per hour. By 1956, succeeds the company Ampex through the use of multiple tracks, the tape speed to more practicable 38.1 cm / s lower.
    • The European Broadcasting Union is founded "Euro Vision".
    • First regular television broadcasts in Japan.
  • 1955
    • The second generation "TRADIC" (Transistorized Digital Computer), first to use only transistors therefore much smaller and more powerful than its predecessor tube computers.
    • The Briton Narinder S. Kapany investigated the propagation of light in fine glass fibers (optical fibers).
    • The first wireless remote control for a television US-based Zenith consists of a better flashlight, with which one lights up in one of the four devices corners to turn the unit on or off, change the channel or mute the sound.
  • 1956
    • The company Metz introduces radio device type 409 / 3D. First mass production of printed circuit boards. This follows since the 1930s, several improvements to the manufacturing technology.
    • The company Ampex introduces the "VR 1000" the first video recorder. That same year, CBS uses it for the first magnetic video tape recording (VTR) from. Although other programs are produced in color since 1954, the VTR cannot record color.
  • 1957 : The Frenchman Henri de France (1911-1986) developed the first generation of color TV system SECAM ( Système électronique couleur avec mémoire ), which avoids some of the problems of the NTSC method. The weaknesses of the SECAM system be fixed in later modifications of the standard for the most part.
  • 1958
    • By merging the Edison patents and the Berliner, Blumlein recording method is stereo - Schallplatten commercially viable. The company Mercury Records launches the first stereo record on the market.
    • The company Ampex expands the video recorder with the Model "VR 1000 B" to the color capability.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Isaac Asimov:Biographical Encyclopedia of science and Engineering, London, 1975 ISBN 0-330-24323-3
  2. ^ Elektrik Mühendisliği, s.259-260, Kemal İnan pp 245-263
  3. ^ Fritz E. Froehlich, Allen Kent, The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 17, page 36. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  4. ^ The Electrical Engineer. (1888). London: Biggs & Co. Pg., 239. [cf., "[...] new application of the alternating current in the production of rotary motion was made known almost simultaneously by two experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and the subject has attracted general attention from the fact that no commutator or connection of any kind with the armature was required."]