Timeline of feminism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following is a timeline of the history of feminism.
4th century BCE
- Reforms under sharia law provide women in the Muslim world with new rights, including prohibition of female infanticide and the recognition of women's full personhood.
- Philosopher Ibn Rushd argues that women are equal to men in all respects and possess equal capacities to shine in peace and in war.
- 1381 – Many women play prominent roles in the British Peasants’ Revolt of 1381.
- According to Simone de Beauvoir, French writer Christine de Pizan (1364 – c. 1430), the author of The Book of the City of Ladies and Epître au Dieu d'Amour (Epistle to the God of Love), is the first woman to denounce misogyny and write about the relation of the sexes.
- 1529 – Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa publishes Declamatio de nobilitate et praecellentia foeminei sexus (Declamation on the Nobility and Preeminence of the Female Sex), declaring the theological and moral superiority of women.
- 1622-1626 – Marie de Gournay publishes The Equality of Men and Women and The Ladies' Grievance, two protofeminist works.
- François Poullain de la Barre writes various texts arguing for social equality between men and women.
- 1781 – In Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, philosopher Jeremy Bentham argues for gender equality.
- 1790 – Nicolas de Condorcet's De l'admission des femmes au droit de cité (For the Admission to the Rights of Citizenship For Women) argues for women's suffrage.
- 1792 – Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, saying that women are essential to the nation and deserving of an education.
- Caroline Norton campaigns extensively for women's rights, helping induce the British Parliament to pass the Custody of Infants Act 1839, the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857, and the Married Women's Property Act 1870.
- Queen Victoria calls feminism the "mad, wicked folly of 'Woman's Rights".
- 1843 – Marion Kirkland Reid publishes A Plea for Woman, which proposes a transatlantic Western agenda for women's rights, including voting rights.
- 1848 – The Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention, is held in Seneca Falls, New York.
- 1850s – Women including Barbara Leigh Smith, Bessie Rayner Parkes, and Anna Jameson meet at London's Langham Place to discuss legislative reforms.
- 1859 – The British Society for Promoting the Employment of Women is established.
- 1869 – John Stuart Mill publishes The Subjection of Women, possibly written jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill, arguing for equality between the sexes.
- 1881 – The Isle of Man is the first free-standing jurisdiction to grant women the right to vote.
- 1910s – During World War I, women enter the labor first in large numbers for the first time.
- 1920 – The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, guaranteeing women the right to vote in the United States.
- 1928 – In the United Kingdom, the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928 gives women electoral equality with men.
- 1946 – The United Nations establishes a Commission on the Status of Women.
- 1949 – Simone de Beauvoir publishes The Second Sex.
- 1960 – The first contraceptive pill, Enovid, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- 1963 – Betty Friedan publishes The Feminine Mystique, widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
- 1964 – Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 becomes law in the U.S., barring employment discrimination on account of sex, race, etc. by private employers, employment agencies, and unions.
- 1972 – American feminists Gloria Steinem and Letty Cottin Pogrebin co-found Ms. magazine.
- 1972 – Title IX of the United States Education Amendments of 1972 is enacted.
- 1973 – The Supreme Court of the United States rules in Roe v. Wade that laws prohibiting abortion are unconstitutional. States are constitutionally allowed to place regulations on abortion which fall short of prohibition after the first trimester.
- 1975 – International Women's Year is celebrated.
- 1990s – The Riot grrrl movement, sometimes seen as the beginning of third-wave feminism, begins.
- 1992 – The "Year of the Woman" sees four women enter the United States Senate to join the two already there.
- 1993 – Janet Reno is nominated and confirmed as the first female U.S. Attorney General.
- 1994 – The Gender Equity in Education Act becomes law in the U.S. It bans sex-role stereotyping and gender discrimination in the classroom.
- 1994 – Marital rape is declared illegal in the United Kingdom as part of the Criminal Justice Act.
- History of feminism
- Timeline of feminism in the United States
- Timeline of women's suffrage
- Timeline of women's rights (other than voting)
- Baruch, Elaine Hoffman, Women in Men's Utopias, in Rohrlich, Ruby, & Elaine Hoffman Baruch, eds., Women in Search of Utopia, op. cit., p.  and see p. 211 (Plato supporting "child care" so women could be soldiers), citing, at p.  n. 1, Plato, trans. Francis MacDonald Cornford, The Republic (N.Y.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1973), Book V.
- The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2003), p.339
- Ahmad, Jamil (September 1994), "Ibn Rushd", Monthly Renaissance 4 (9), retrieved 2008-10-14
- de Beauvoir, Simone, English translation 1953 (1989). The Second Sex. Vintage Books. p. 105. ISBN 0-679-72451-6.
- Crawford, Elizabeth (2013). Women's Suffrage Movement: A Reference Guide, 1866–1928. London: Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 9781135434021.
- Grayling, A. C. (2007). Toward the Light of Liberty. New York: Walker & Co. p. 212. ISBN 9780802716361.
- Reid, Marion. A plea for Women (1843). Edinburgh: Polygon, 1988.
- "Ms magazine website". About Ms. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
- Steinem, Gloria. "Who is Gloria?". Gloria Steinem Official Website. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
- "Roe v. Wade". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- By EMILY EAKINPublished: March 30, 2002 (2002-03-30). "Listening for the Voices of Women – New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-10-31.