Timeline of food

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Main article: food

The timeline of food is a chronological list of events, inventions and developments in the history of human food.

Prehistoric times[edit]

A hearth with cooking utensils
  • 2.5-1.8 myr ago: Earliest estimate for invention of cooking, by phylogenetic analysis.[1]
  • 2 myr ago: Hominids shift away from the consumption of nuts and berries to begin the consumption of meat.[2][3]
  • 250,000 years ago: Hearths appear, accepted archeological estimate for invention of cooking.[4]
  • 40,000 years ago: First evidence of human fish consumption: isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish.[5][6]
  • 30,000 years ago: Earliest archaeological evidence for flour, which was likely processed into an unleavened bread, dates to the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe.[7]
  • 25,000 years ago: The fish-gorge, a kind of fish hook, appears.[8]
  • 13,000 BCE: Contentious evidence of oldest domesticated rice in Korea.[9] Their 15,000-year old age challenges the accepted view that rice cultivation originated in China about 12,000 years ago.[9] These findings were received by academia with strong skepticism,[10] and the results and their publicizing has been cited as being driven by a combination of nationalist and regional interests.[11]
  • 11,500 - 6200 BCE: Genetic evidence published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) shows that all forms of Asian rice, both indica and japonica, spring from a single domestication that occurred 8,200–13,500 years ago in China of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon.[12]

Neolithic[edit]

Fresh figs cut open showing the flesh and seeds inside

4000-0 BCE[edit]

Ripening olives
Modern aquaculture
  • Earliest archaeological evidence for leavened bread is from ancient Egypt. The extent to which bread was leavened in ancient Egypt remains uncertain.[26]

0-1000[edit]

  • 8th century: The original type of sushi, known today as narezushi (馴れ寿司, 熟寿司), first developed in Southeast Asia and spread to south China, is introduced to Japan.[44][45]
  • 8th century: Chronicles from monasteries mention Roquefort being transported across the Alps[46]
  • 9th century: First record of cucumbers cultivation in France[28]
  • ~800: Cod becomes an important economic commodity in international markets. This market has lasted for more than 1,000 years, enduring the Black Death, wars and other crises, and is still an important Norwegian fish trade.[47]
  • ~800: By this date, watermelon reaches India.[28]
  • 822: First mention of hops added to beer, by a Carolingian Abbot[48]
  • 879: Gorgonzola cheese is mentioned for the first time.[46]
  • 961: Watermelons, introduced by the Moorish, reported to be cultivated in Cordoba, Spain.[28]
  • 997: The term "pizza" first appears "in a Latin text from the southern Italian town of Gaeta [...], which claims that a tenant of certain property is to give the bishop of Gaeta 'duodecim pizze' ['twelve pizzas'] every Christmas Day, and another twelve every Easter Sunday".[49][50]

1000-1500[edit]

Bog butter from A Descriptive Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, 1857

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

An examen chimique du pommes de terre ("A chemistry exam of the potatoes") by Antoine-Augustin Parmentier promoted the introduction of potatoes to France.
  • 18th century: Soufflé appears in France. Cakes and pastries also begin to appear, thanks to the increasing availability of sugar and the rising of the chef profession.[58]
  • 18th century: Pizza begins to appear in Naples.[59]
  • Early 1700s: Introduction of potatoes in Russia.[56]
  • ~1700: Sparkling beer as we know it appears, due to maturation in bottles becoming available.[58]
  • 1719: Potatoes first introduced in North America: Scottish-Irish settlers bring them to New Hampshire.[56]
  • 1740: The harsh winter of 1740 damages many crops but not potatoes, hastening their adoption in Europe.[16]
  • 1770: Potato introduced in Australasia by Captain James Cook.[56]
  • 1772: Antoine-Augustin Parmentier writes the treaty Examen chymique des pommes de terres, promoting the introduction of potato in France.[60]
  • 1774-1779: First shops selling ice cream appear in North America.[61]
  • 1778: Captain James Cook introduces watermelons to the Hawaii islands.[28]
  • 1794: Potatoes are finally firmly part of the Dutch cuisine.[16]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "06.14.99 - Meat-eating was essential for human evolution, says UC Berkeley anthropologist specializing in diet". Berkeley.edu. 1999-06-14. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  3. ^ "Meat in the human diet: an anthropological perspective. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  4. ^ Pennisi: Did Cooked Tubers Spur the Evolution of Big Brains?
  5. ^ Yaowu Hu Y, Hong Shang H, Haowen Tong H, Olaf Nehlich O, Wu Liu W, Zhao C, Yu J, Wang C, Trinkaus E and Richards M (2009) "Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (27) 10971-10974.
  6. ^ First direct evidence of substantial fish consumption by early modern humans in China PhysOrg.com, 6 July 2009.
  7. ^ Revedin, A.; Aranguren, B.; Becattini, R.; Longo, L.; Marconi, E.; Lippi, M. M.; Skakun, N.; Sinitsyn, A.; Spiridonova, E.; Svoboda, J. (2010). "Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (44): 18815–18819. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10718815R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1006993107. PMC 2973873. PMID 20956317.  edit
  8. ^ Kenneth F. Kiple (30 April 2007). A Movable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-46354-6. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "World's 'oldest' rice found", Dr David Whitehouse". BBC News. October 21, 2003. Retrieved April 30, 2011. 
  10. ^ Kim, Minkoo (2008). Habu, Junko; Fawcett, Clare; Matsunaga, John M., ed. Evaluating multiple narratives: Beyond nationalist, colonialist, imperialist archaeologies. New York: Springer. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-387-76459-7. "Most scholars were highly skeptical of Lee's report [...] Most specialists agree that rice is not indigenous to the Korean peninsula. The conventional perspective in East Asian archaeology is that rice cultivation started along the banks of the Yangtze River in southern China and subsequently moved northward." 
  11. ^ Kim, Minkoo (2008). "Multivocality, Multifaceted Voices, and Korean Archaeology". Evaluating Multiple Narratives: Beyond Nationalist, Colonialist, Imperialist Archaeologies. New York: Springer. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-387-76459-7. 
  12. ^ Molina, J.; Sikora, M.; Garud, N.; Flowers, J. M.; Rubinstein, S.; Reynolds, A.; Huang, P.; Jackson, S.; Schaal, B. A.; Bustamante, C. D.; Boyko, A. R.; Purugganan, M. D. (2011). "Molecular evidence for a single evolutionary origin of domesticated rice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (20): 8351. doi:10.1073/pnas.1104686108.  edit
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  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Potato (white)". The Cambridge World History of Food. Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
  17. ^ Davidson, s.v. Olives
  18. ^ McGovern PE, Zhang JZ, Tang JG et al. C (2004) Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 17593–17598.
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  21. ^ Zohar, I.; Dayan, T.; Galili, E.; Spanier, E. (2001). "Fish Processing During the Early Holocene: A Taphonomic Case Study from Coastal Israel". Journal of Archaeological Science 28 (10): 1041. doi:10.1006/jasc.2000.0630.  edit
  22. ^ a b Vergano, Dan (January 19, 2011). "Grapes domesticated 8,000 years ago". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-05-04. 
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  24. ^ Subbaraman, Nidhi (12 December 2012). "Art of cheese-making is 7,500 years old". Nature. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 
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