Timeline of low-temperature technology
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18th century BC – 18th century 
- c. 1700 BC – Zimri-Lin, ruler of Mari in Syria commanded the construction of one of the first ice houses near the Euphrates.
- c. 500 BC – The yakhchal (meaning "ice pit" in Persian;) is an ancient Persian type of refrigerator. The structure was formed from a mortar resistant to heat transmission, in the shape of a dome. Snow and ice was stored beneath the ground, effectively allowing access to ice even in hot months and allowing for prolonged food preservation. Often a badgir was coupled with the yakhchal in order to slow the heat loss.
- 1396 AD - Ice storage warehouses called "Dong-bing-go (meaning "east ice storage warehouse" in Korean) and Seo-bing-go ("west ice storage warehouse") were built in Han-Yang (currently Seoul, Korea). The buildings housed ice that was collected from the frozen Han River in January (by lunar calendar). The warehouse was well-insulated, providing the royal families with ice into the summer months. These warehouses were closed in 1898 AD but the buildings are still intact in Seoul.
- 1650 – Otto von Guericke designed and built the world's first vacuum pump and created the world's first ever vacuum known as the Magdeburg hemispheres to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that 'Nature abhors a vacuum'.
- 1656 – Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke built an air pump on this design.
- 1662 – Boyle's law (gas law relating pressure and volume) is demonstrated using a vacuum pump
- 1665 – Boyle theorizes a minimum temperature in New Experiments and Observations touching Cold.
- 1679 – Denis Papin – safety valve
- 1702 – Guillaume Amontons first calculates absolute zero to be −240 °C using an air thermometer, theorizing at this point the gas would reach zero volume and zero pressure.
- 1756 – The first documented public demonstration of artificial refrigeration by William Cullen
- 1782 – Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace invent the ice-calorimeter
- 1784 – Gaspard Monge liquefied the first gas producing liquid sulfur dioxide.
- 1787 – Charles's law (Gas law, relating volume and temperature)
19th century 
- 1802 – John Dalton wrote "the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids"
- 1802 – Gay-Lussac's law (Gas law, relating temperature and pressure).
- 1803 – Domestic ice box
- 1803 – Thomas Moore of Baltimore, Md. received a patent on refrigeration.
- 1805 – Oliver Evans designed the first closed circuit refrigeration machine based on the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.
- 1809 – Jacob Perkins patented the first refrigerating machine
- 1810 – John Leslie freezes water to ice by using an airpump.
- 1811 – Avogadro's law a gas law
- 1823 – Michael Faraday liquified ammonia to cause cooling
- 1824 – Sadi Carnot– the Carnot Cycle
- 1834 – Ideal gas law
- 1834 – Jacob Perkins obtained the first patent for a vapor-compression refrigeration system.
- 1834 – Jean-Charles Peltier discovers the Peltier effect
- 1844 – Charles Piazzi Smyth proposes comfort cooling
- c.1850 – Michael Faraday makes a hypothesis that freezing substances increases their dielectric constant.
- 1851 – John Gorrie patented his mechanical refrigeration machine in the US to make ice to cool the air
- 1856 – James Harrison patented an ether liquid-vapour compression refrigeration system and developed the first practical ice-making and refrigeration room for use in the brewing and meat-packing industries of Geelong, Victoria.
- 1857 – Carl Wilhelm Siemens, the Siemens cycle
- 1858 – Julius Plücker observed for the first time some pumping effect due to electrical discharge.
- 1859 – Ferdinand Carré – The first gas absorption refrigeration system using gaseous ammonia dissolved in water (referred to as "aqua ammonia")
- 1862 – Alexander Carnegie Kirk invents the Air cycle machine
- 1864 – Charles Tellier patented a refrigeration system using dimethyl ether
- 1869 – Charles Tellier installed a cold storage plant in France.
- 1871 – Carl von Linde built his first ammonia compression machine.
- 1876 – Carl von Linde patented equipment to liquefy air using the Joule Thomson expansion process and regenerative cooling
- 1877 – Raoul Pictet and Louis Paul Cailletet, working separately, develop two methods to liquefy oxygen.
- 1879 – Bell-Coleman machine
- 1882 – William Soltau Davidson fitted a compression refrigeration unit to the New Zealand vessel Dunedin
- 1883 – Zygmunt Wróblewski condenses experimentally useful quantities of liquid oxygen
- 1885 – Zygmunt Wróblewski published hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.
- 1888 – Loftus Perkins develops the "Arktos" cold chamber for preserving food, using an early ammonia absortion system.
- 1892 – James Dewar invents the vacuum-insulated, silver-plated glass Dewar flask
- 1895 – Carl von Linde files for patent protection of the Hampson–Linde cycle for liquefaction of atmospheric air or other gases (approved in 1903).
- 1898 – James Dewar condenses liquid hydrogen by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask.
20th century 
- 1905 – Carl von Linde obtains pure oxygen and nitrogen.
- 1906 – Willis Carrier patents the basis for modern air conditioning.
- 1908 – Heike Kamerlingh Onnes liquefies helium.
- 1911 – Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discloses his research on metallic low-temperature phenomenon characterised by no electrical resistance, calling it superconductivity.
- 1915 – Wolfgang Gaede – the Diffusion pump
- 1920 – Edmund Copeland and Harry Edwards use iso-butane in small refrigerators.
- 1922 – Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters invent the 3 fluids absorption chiller, exclusively driven by heat.
- 1924 – Fernand Holweck – the Holweckpump
- 1926 – Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd invent the Einstein refrigerator.
- 1926 – Willem Hendrik Keesom solidifies helium.
- 1926 – General Electric Company introduced the first hermetic compressor refrigerator
- 1929 - David Forbes Keith of Toronto, Ontario, Canada received a patent for the Icy Ball which helped hundreds of thousands of families through the Dirty Thirties.
- 1933 – William Giauque and others – Adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration
- 1937 – Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, John F. Allen, and Don Misener discover superfluidity using helium-4 at 2.2 K
- 1937 – Frans Michel Penning invents a type of cold cathode vacuum gauge known as Penning gauge
- 1944 – Manne Siegbahn, the Siegbahn pump
- 1951 – Heinz London invents the principle of the dilution refrigerator
- 1955 – Willi Becker turbomolecular pump concept
- 1957 – Lewis D. Hall, Robert L. Jepsen and John C. Helmer ion pump based on Penning discharge
- 1959 – Kleemenko cycle
- 1972 – David Lee, Robert Coleman Richardson and Douglas Osheroff discover superfluidity in helium-3 at 0.002 K.
- 1973 – Linear compressor
- 1978 – Laser cooling demonstrated in the groups of Wineland and Dehmelt.
- 1983 - Orifice-type pulse tube refrigerator invented by Mikulin, Tarasov, and Shkrebyonock
- 1986 – Karl Alexander Müller and J. Georg Bednorz discover high-temperature superconductivity
- 1995 – Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman create the first  Bose–Einstein condensate, using a dilute gas of Rubidium-87 cooled to 170 nK. They won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2001 for BEC.
See also 
- List of timelines
- Liquefaction of gases
- History of superconductivity
- History of thermodynamics
- Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology
- Timeline of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and random processes
- Industrial gas
- Low-temperature technology
- William Cullen, Of the Cold Produced by Evaporating Fluids and of Some Other Means of Producing Cold, in Essays and Observations Physical and Literary Read Before a Society in Edinburgh and Published by Them, II, (Edinburgh 1756)
- 1803 – Thomas Moore
- 1844 – Charles Piazzi Smyth
- 1851 John Gorrie
- 1851 Patent 8080
- Hydrogen through the Nineteenth Century
- Vacuum Science & Technology Timeline
- "New State of Matter Seen Near Absolute Zero". NIST.