Timeline of music in the United States (1880–1919)

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Timeline of music in the United States
Music history of the United States
Colonial erato the Civil WarDuring the Civil WarLate 19th centuryEarly 20th century40s and 50s60s and 70s80s to the present

This is a timeline of music in the United States from 1880 to 1919.


  • George Upton's "Women in Music" is the "first of many articles and reviews by prominent male critics which sought to trivialize and undermine the achievements of what was considered an alarming number of new women composers in the realm of 'serious' classical music".[1]
  • The Native American Sun Dance is banned.[2]
  • John Knowles Paine's second symphony, In Spring, premiers in Boston, and is "received with unparalleled success".[3]
  • Gussie Lord Davis has his first hit with "We Sat Beneath the Maple on the Hill", making him the first African American songwriter to succeed in Tin Pan Alley.[4]
  • Patrick Gilmore's Twenty-Second Regimental Band becomes the first fully professional ensemble of any kind in the country to be engaged in performances full-time, year-round.[5]


  • Henry Lee Higginson forms the Boston Symphony Orchestra; Higginson would personally run the Orchestra for almost four decades.[6][7]
  • The Thomas B. Harms music publishing company is established solely to publish popular music, then referring to parlor music.[8]
  • Music and Some Highly Musical People: Remarkable Musicians of the Colored Race, With Portraits, by James M. Trotter is the first revisionist look at the minstrel show, chronicling the "extraordinary breadth of black musicianship".[9]
  • Tony Pastor becomes an established theater owner on 14th Street in New York City, where he becomes the first person "to bid... for women customers in the variety theater", bringing that field out of "disreputable saloons" and transforming it "into decent entertainment that respectable women could enjoy".[10][11]


Mid-1880s music trends
  • The Office of Indian Affairs outlaws a wide range of Native American customs and rituals, having begun with the Sun Dance in 1880.[2]
  • Norwegian American choirs begin to form organizations, putting together festivals and other periodic gatherings to celebrate Norwegian culture and music.[22]







Late 1880s music trends




  • The Chicago Symphony Orchestra forms, with income from backers who pledged $1000 for each of three years. The backers formed an Orchestral Association, which hired a music director. Many cities subsequently used the same model, including Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati and Minneapolis.[6][7]
  • Leopold Vincent publishes the Alliance and Labor Songster, a pioneering early collection of labor songs.[71]
  • Carnegie Hall is built in New York City as a venue for classical performances.[72] It will become the foremost concert stage in the city.[73]
  • Changes in copyright law under the International Copyright Act of 1891 make it impossible to publish foreign music without payment to the original composer or publisher.[74] This stimulates the establishment of American subsidiaries of foreign publishing companies.[75]
  • A Trip to Chinatown is first published; it can be considered one of the first examples of American musical theater, as it consists of a single plot that the entire production revolves around.[7]
  • Charles Davis Tillman (1861–1943) publishes "The Old Time Religion" to his largely white audience.[76]


  • Bohemian composer Antonín Dvořák arrives for a stay in the United States as director of the National Conservatory in New York.[77] He becomes a fierce advocate for cultural and musical nationalism, and is very interested in American music incorporating African American and Native American music.[7][12]
  • Papa Jack Laine, a white drummer and saxophonist from New Orleans, claims that he is the first to use the first saxophone in the proto-jazz bands of New Orleans. He is sometimes said to have formed the first ragtime band as well.[78] Laine is considered one of the first white jazz musicians.[79]
  • John Philip Sousa forms a band that set a new standard for American professional bands, having left the U.S. Marine Band.[80] He and his band will be the most prominent and influential professional symphonic group at the peak of popularity for bands of that sort.[7]
  • Charles K. Harris premiers "After the Ball", a waltz typical of the time,[8] which is said to be the most popular song of the decade,[81] and the biggest hit of the century.[82] It is interpolated into a play, and the sheet music is said to have sold more than five million copies.[8]
  • Harry Lawrence Freeman becomes the first African American to have an opera he wrote produced, his first work, Epthelia. He will become known for combining secular and sacred African American music with traditional Western opera.[83]
Early 1890s music trends


Mid 1890s music trends
  • The massacres of numerous Armenians in Turkey leads to the first wave of large-scale Armenian immigration to the United States, and the beginning of Armenian American music.[94]
  • The public exhibition of motion pictures, almost always with live music played locally, begins.[102]
  • The bands of John Robichaux and Buddy Bolden in New Orleans become the top dance bands of the era, and frequently competitive, both economically and in actual performances. These bands are a significant precursor of jazz.[103]




Late 1890s music trends
  • The first music festival celebrating Finnish American culture are organized by various Finnish temperance societies.[22]





Early 1900s music trends






  • Victor Herbert, a popular songwriter, publishes the operetta Mlle. Modiste, which is successful and launches the hit song "Kiss Me Again".[8]
  • Most blues performers born before this year generally considered themselves musicians whose repertoire included a wide variety of musical styles; those born later will mostly view themselves as playing a distinct genre.[204]
  • The first large-scale Filipino immigration to the United States begins, thus beginning the Filipino American musical tradition.[205]
  • Hawaiian music is commercially recorded by Columbia and Victor Records, achieving surprising success throughout the country.[38]
  • Arthur Farwell publishes Folk-Songs of the West and South, a collection of songs that include "The Lone Prairee", which Farwell called the first cowboy song to be printed, both words and music".[206]
  • Robert Motts founds the first permanent black theater, in Chicago, the Pekin Theatre.[207]
  • The Philadelphia Concert Orchestra becomes the first black symphony in the North.[186]
  • Ernest Hogan creates a vaudeville act that is the "first syncopated music concert in history".[208] The performers are the Memphis Students, organized by James Reese Europe and later led by Will Marion Cook. The show featured a '"dancing conductor", Will Dixon, who danced rhythms to keep the band performing tightly, and the band's drummer, Buddy Gilmore, used unusual noisemaking devices besides drummers. Unorthodox folk instruments are also used in place of the traditional brass and woodwind lineup. The group was the first to "introduce the concept of the 'singing band' to the entertainment world", and performed in a style now known as barbershop music for some songs.[209]
  • Hallie Anderson begins promoting a well-attended Annual Reception and Ball. She is the first major American woman conductor.[210]
  • Harvard University grants the first PhD in music in the country.[152]
  • A standardized piano roll, capable of being fitted to any model of instrument, is introduced.[30]




  • Arturo Toscanini becomes the conductor of the Metropolitan Opera; he is lauded for "his energy, the command he brought to the podium, his demands for perfection, and his uncanny musical memory."[226]
  • Scott Joplin publishes the education School of Ragtime, "a landmark in the development and diffusion of classic ragtime".[158]
  • The first black bandmasters are appointed to the U.S. Army, for the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry and the Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Infantry regiments.[186]
  • Edward L. Gruber composes "The Caissons Go Rolling Along", which, as "The Army Goes Rolling Along", will become the official song of the U.S. Army.[227]
  • Frederick Converse's Iolan, Or, the Pipe of Desire is the first American full opera scores to be published abroad.[43]
  • Antonio Maggio's "I Got the Blues" is the first published song to use the word blues.[132]
  • N. Howard "Jack" Thorp's Songs of the Cowboys is the first published collection of cowboy music.[228]
  • Sound recordings, along with photography and cinematography, are added to the Berne Convention, an international copyright agreement which the United States is not yet a signatory to.[47]



Early 1910s music trends






Mid-1910s music trends



Alton Adams, the first black bandmaster in the United States Navy
  • The U.S. Navy appropriates the St. Thomas Juvenile Band, led by Alton Adams; this is the first black band and bandmaster in the Navy.[326][327][328]
  • The Original Dixieland Jazz Band makes the first jazz recordings,[132][282][329][330] though the white band's style is meant for white audiences with little awareness of African American music practices, and the band is unable to impress black audiences or jazz enthusiasts.[295][331][332]
  • English folk song collector Cecil Sharp publishes an anthology of songs from western North Carolina, Folk Songs of the Southern Appalachians, with Olive Dame Campbell;[333] this is the "first major scholarly collection of the mountain people's music".[334]
  • The October Revolution in Russia leads to political change, soon resulting in state support for professional, virtuoso balalaika orchestras; these groups come to be seen as "role models" by similar groups in the United States.[247]
  • The Supreme Court rules that the "public performance of music contributed to the ability of an establishment to make profits even if no special admission was charged for that music".[74]
  • With the United States' entry into World War 1, warrior customs among the Plains Native Americans are briefly revived, as many ceremonies and rituals are allowed, after many years of being banned, for the duration of the war.[2]
  • Harry T. Burleigh, one of the most prominent African American composers of his time, publishes "Deep River", the first of many classically arranged spirituals.[83]
  • George M. Cohan writes "Over There", which will become the most popular song of World War I.[335]
  • W. Benton Overstreet's "Jazz Dance", popularized by vaudevillean Estelle Harris at Chicago's Grand Theatre, is an early use of the word jazz and is used by "more black vaudeville acts than any other song ever published".[282]
  • The Navy shuts down Storyville, the prostitution district of New Orleans, because the Secretary of the Navy believed it threatened the moral integrity of the armed forces;[330] the result is an exodus of black musicians, who had played in the bars and clubs of Storyville, to cities like Memphis and Chicago.[314] Many of the musicians are hired by Northern bands because their style was considered a novelty that is thought to increase an ensemble's commercial potential; the Northerners, however, tended to adopt the "hot", bluesy style themselves.[285]
  • Leo Sowerby, bandmaster of service bands during World War I composes "Tramping Tune".[328]
  • W. C. Handy's band makes some of the earliest major recordings by African American artists at a session for the Columbia Phonograph Company.[264]
  • The most famous riverboat bandleader of the early jazz era, Fate Marable, forms his first band. He will play with a wealth of well-remembered recording artist, though he will only play on one record, from 1924.[336]
  • Art Hickman, a San Francisco bandleader, publishes "Rose Room". Hickman and his pianist-arranger, Ferde Grofé, are influential figures, who "are generally given credit for inventing the type of dance band which" dominates American popular music for the first half of the 20th century; they were among the earliest to "write separate music for the reed and brass sections, combining the higher and lower instruments in each section into choirs... for dancing rather than listening." Hickman was also probably the first to hire three saxophones, enabling the use of more complex and richer harmonies.[337]


Late 1910s music trends
  • The wind ensembles that have dominated local community bands since the Civil War begin to decline in importance.[80]
  • More than 60,000 African Americans from Texas, Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas move to Chicago, especially in the city's South Side. The black population boom "ushered in the city's jazz age, widening the market for black musical entertainment", including cabarets, dance halls, and vaudeville and movie theaters.[338]
  • Tin Pan Alley songwriters capitalize on the Hawaiian music fad, creating songs with thematic elements evoking Hawaii.[38]
  • Stride piano grows popular in New York City.[339]


  • Popular bandleader James Reese Europe is murdered; he becomes the first African American honored with a public funeral in New York City.[353]
  • Tin Pan Alley publishes songs that spark a fad for blues-like music; these songs include syncopated foxtrots like "Jazz Me Blues", pop songs that were marketed as blues like "Wabash Blues", as well as actual blues songs.[354]
  • Prohibition begins, driving the consumption of alcohol into secret clubs and other establishments, many of which became associated with the developing genre of jazz.[355]
  • The first permanent orchestra is established in Los Angeles.[7][258]
  • Carl Seashore's Measures of Musical Talent is a system of assessing musical aptitude that becomes widely adopted but also inspires controversy.[33][152]
  • Merle Evans begins leading the Ringling-Barnum Band, becoming the most famous circus bandleader in the country, especially known for leading the other performers with one hand while simultaneously playing the cornet.[356]
  • Canadian-born black composer R. Nathaniel Dett is the first to arrange a spiritual in a classical oratorio, with Chariot Jubilee.[83]
  • Irving Berlin's "You Cannot Make Your Shimmy Shake on Tea" is one of many songs from the era that expressed opposition to Prohibition. Other songs, like "Drivin' Nails in My Coffin (Every Time I Drink a Bottle of Booze)" expressed support for the abolition of alcohol.[357]
  • James Sylvester Scott publishes three rags, "which are among the most demanding of all published piano ragtime": "New Era Rag", "Troubadour Rag" and "Pegasus: A Classic Rag".[358]
  • George Gershwin's "Swanee", performed by Al Jolson, becomes a "tremendous hit" and Gershwin's "big breakthrough".[359]
  • The National Association of Negro Musicians is founded, after Nora Holt organizes a black musicians summit in Chicago.[360]
  • Ryles Jazz Club opens in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It will become the oldest and most renowned jazz club in Cambridge, and the second-most in the Boston area.[361]


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  135. ^ a b Bergey, Barry, "Government and Politics", pgs. 288–303, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  136. ^ a b Peretti, pg. 50
  137. ^ Bird, pg. 28
  138. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 52
  139. ^ Jones, pgs. 144–145
  140. ^ Chase, pg. 337
  141. ^ Klitz, pg. 56
  142. ^ Southern, pg. 320; Southern specifies Jasen and Tichenor, pg. 17 as among the scholars referred to.
  143. ^ Clarke, pgs. 59, 66
  144. ^ Komara, pg. 767
  145. ^ Fabbri, Franco; John Shepherd. "Genre". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 401–404. 
  146. ^ Clarke, pg. 72
  147. ^ Bird, pg. 84
  148. ^ Crawford, pg. 541
  149. ^ Chase, pg. 368
  150. ^ Southern, pg. 303; Southern notes that A Trip to Coontown was actually off Broadway at a "rather obscure theater on Third Avenue".
  151. ^ Clarke, pg. 103
  152. ^ a b c d e f g Colwell, Richard; James W. Pruett and Pamela Bristah. "Education". New Grove Dictionary of Music. pp. 11–21. 
  153. ^ Sheehy, Daniel; Steven Loza. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 718–733. 
  154. ^ Southern, pg. 82
  155. ^ Southern, pg. 269
  156. ^ Laing, Dave. "Agent". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 532–533. 
  157. ^ Crawford, pg. 543
  158. ^ a b Chase, pg. 416
  159. ^ Southern, pg. 322
  160. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 41
  161. ^ Chase, pg. 424
  162. ^ a b Southern, pg. 295
  163. ^ Southern, pg. 300
  164. ^ Heskes, pg. 84
  165. ^ Bird, pg. 47
  166. ^ Crawford, pgs. 465–466
  167. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 478
  168. ^ Chase, pg. 338
  169. ^ Southern, pg. 299
  170. ^ Southern, pg. 319
  171. ^ a b c d e Paul C. Echols. "Early-music revival". The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, Volume II: E-K. pp. 2–6. 
  172. ^ Birge, pg. 145
  173. ^ Clarke, pg. 103-104
  174. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 438
  175. ^ Southern, pg. 268
  176. ^ Struble, pg. 71
  177. ^ Darden, pgs. 162–163
  178. ^ a b c Burnim, Mellonee V. "Religious Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. 
  179. ^ a b Southern, pg. 282
  180. ^ Laing, Dave. "Bootleg". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 481. 
  181. ^ Laing, Dave. "Label". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. p. 620. 
  182. ^ Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Janesville. Wisconsin Public Television. WPNE-TV. 2008-01-17. 45 minutes in. See also reference to "A Perfect Day" published by Bond in 1910 infra.
  183. ^ Crawford, pg. 502
  184. ^ Brooks, David, cited in Chase, pg. 434
  185. ^ Bowers, Jane, Zoe C. Sherinian and Susan Fast, "Snapshot: Gendering Music", pgs. 103–115, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  186. ^ a b c d e f g h i Southern, pg. 222
  187. ^ Laing, Dave. "Record Industry". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 637–641. 
  188. ^ Clarke, pg. 100
  189. ^ Crawford, pg. 534; Crawford calls it the "first black-produced show to run at a regular Broadway theater"
  190. ^ Peretti, pg. 51
  191. ^ Southern, pg. 304
  192. ^ Clarke, pg. 63
  193. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 231
  194. ^ a b Horn, David; David Sanjek. "Victor". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 768–769. 
  195. ^ Pruter, Robert; Paul Oliver and The Editors. "Chicago". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  196. ^ Southern, pg. 308
  197. ^ a b Southern, pg. 310
  198. ^ Buckley, David; John Shepherd and Berndt Ostendorf. "Death". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 200–204. 
  199. ^ Bird, pgs. 80-81
  200. ^ Abel, pgs. 50–51; William Lewis Cabell, the United Confederate Veterans' Vice-President denounced it as sacrilegious onstage at the convention, while others voiced similar sentiments to the newsmagazine Confederate Veteran
  201. ^ a b Loza, Steven. "Hispanic California". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 734–753. 
  202. ^ a b c d Southern, pg. 284
  203. ^ Théberge, Paul. "Amplifier". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 505–506. 
  204. ^ Evans, David. "Blues". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 637–649. 
  205. ^ Trimillos, Ricardo D. "Filipino Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1024–1027. 
  206. ^ Chase, pg. 355
  207. ^ Southern, pg. 296
  208. ^ Southern, pg. 302
  209. ^ Southern, pg. 345–346
  210. ^ a b Southern, pg. 349
  211. ^ Crawford, pg. 469
  212. ^ Chase, pg. 506, 508
  213. ^ Southern, pg. 291
  214. ^ a b Barnard, Stephen; Donna Halper and Dave Laing. "Radio". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 451–461. 
  215. ^ Millard, Andre. "Gramophone". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 512. 
  216. ^ Laing, Dave. "Advertising of Popular Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 530–532. 
  217. ^ Clarke, pg. 228
  218. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 526
  219. ^ Gedutis, pg. 42
  220. ^ Crawford, pgs. 541–542
  221. ^ Abel, pg. 47
  222. ^ Chase, pg. 373
  223. ^ Clarke, pg. 47
  224. ^ Struble, pg. 11
  225. ^ Bird, pg. 253
  226. ^ Crawford, pg. 583
  227. ^ U.S. Army Bands
  228. ^ a b Oliver, Paul. "Song Collecting". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 43–46. 
  229. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 527
  230. ^ Laing, Dave. "Copyright". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 481–485. 
  231. ^ Sanjek, David and Will Straw, "The Music Industry", pgs. 256–267, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Sanjek and Straw claim that this was the "first time in the country's history (that a) price for the use of a piece of private property was codified by federal law"
  232. ^ Clarke, pg. 229; Clarke says that this was the "first time in history that the government intervened directly between supplier and user of a product".
  233. ^ Southern, pg. 306
  234. ^ Oliver, Paul. "Circuit". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 541–542. 
  235. ^ a b c Clarke, pg. 68; Clarke cites this to the Oxford English Dictionary
  236. ^ Crawford, pg. 552
  237. ^ a b Peretti, pg. 65
  238. ^ Chase, pg. 332
  239. ^ Elson, pg. 23
  240. ^ Sonneborn, D. Atesh. "Snapshot: Sufi Music and Dance". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1042–1046. 
  241. ^ Clarke, pg. 40
  242. ^ Cusic, pg. 70
  243. ^ Lankford, pg. 6
  244. ^ Crawford, pg. 609
  245. ^ Chase, pg. 543
  246. ^ Leger, James K. "Música Nuevomexicana". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 754–769. 
  247. ^ a b Livingston, Tamara E. and Katherine K. Preston, "Snapshot: Two Views of Music and Class", pgs. 55–62, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  248. ^ Koskoff, pg. 70
  249. ^ Southern, pg. 453
  250. ^ Moore, pg. 170
  251. ^ Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Janesville. Wisconsin Public Television. WPNE-TV. 2008-01-17. 0:45 minutes in. See also reference to Bond's "I Love You Truly" first published in 1901 supra.
  252. ^ Crawford, pg. 564
  253. ^ Crawford, pg. 399
  254. ^ Crawford, pg. 546
  255. ^ Chase, pg. 421
  256. ^ Southern, pg. 330
  257. ^ Crawford, pgs. 555–556
  258. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 581
  259. ^ a b Darden, pg. 135
  260. ^ Chase, pg. 457
  261. ^ Chase, pg. 544
  262. ^ a b U.S. Army Bands
  263. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 247
  264. ^ a b Spotlight Biography: William Christian Handy
  265. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 45
  266. ^ Street, John. "Politics". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 299–294. 
  267. ^ a b Southern, pg. 338
  268. ^ Southern, pg. 339
  269. ^ Some authors, like Upkopodu, pg. 75, call "The Memphis Blues" the first published blues composition.
  270. ^ Bird, pg. 45, Bird says that Handy began publishing the "first commercial blues"
  271. ^ Crawford, pg. 546; Crawford points out that this leads to dancing becoming an integral part of popular music in the United States, and that more than 100 new dances were introduced between 1912 and 1914.
  272. ^ Crawford, pg. 585
  273. ^ "Black Music Concerts in Carnegie Hall, 1912–1915". The Black Perspective in Music 6: 71–88. 1978. doi:10.2307/1214304. 
  274. ^ Darden, pg. 71
  275. ^ Darden, pg. 143
  276. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 280
  277. ^ Chase, pg. 390
  278. ^ a b Chase, pg. 423
  279. ^ Southern, pgs. 288–289
  280. ^ Southern, pg. 292
  281. ^ Crawford, pg. 566
  282. ^ a b c d e f Southern, pg. 366
  283. ^ Romero, Brenda M. "Great Lakes". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 451–460. 
  284. ^ a b Clarke, pg. 126
  285. ^ a b Jones, pg. 111
  286. ^ Chase, pg. 449
  287. ^ Chase, pg. 450
  288. ^ Southern, pg. 298
  289. ^ Southern, pg. 278
  290. ^ Southern, pg. 345
  291. ^ Millard, Andre. "Cylinders". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 508–509. 
  292. ^ Bird, pgs.106-107
  293. ^ Bird, pg. 127
  294. ^ Darden, pg. 199
  295. ^ a b c Garofalo, Reebee. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 705–715. 
  296. ^ Crawford, pg. 538
  297. ^ Crawford, pg. 547
  298. ^ Chase, pg. 333
  299. ^ Southern, pg. 347
  300. ^ Crawford, pg. 569; Crawford notes that the event was so controversial that it was still a topic of conversation among the Harvard University faculty in 1919, when Virgil Thomson began studying there.
  301. ^ Darden, pgs. 134–135
  302. ^ Clarke, pgs. 72-73
  303. ^ Slobin, Mark. "Jewish Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 933–945. 
  304. ^ Souchon, pg. 43
  305. ^ Crawford, pg. 568; Crawford notes that this process was complete by the mid-1920s.
  306. ^ Crawford, pg. 759
  307. ^ Cowdery, James R. and Anne Lederman, "Blurring the Boundaries of Social and Musical Identities", pgs. 322–333, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  308. ^ Chase, pg. 375
  309. ^ Jones, pg. 146
  310. ^ Southern, pg. 382
  311. ^ Southern, pg. 286
  312. ^ Bird, pg. 223
  313. ^ Bird, pg. 234
  314. ^ a b Southern, pg. 367
  315. ^ Darden, pg. 163
  316. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 268
  317. ^ Erbsen, pg. 13, quote cited to Sharp's diary
  318. ^ Rahkonen, Carl. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 820–830. 
  319. ^ Levy, Mark. "Eastern European Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 908–918. 
  320. ^ Gedutis, pg. 149
  321. ^ Chase, pg. 472
  322. ^ Southern, pg. 458
  323. ^ Southern, pgs. 289–290; Southern lists Stanley Lee Henderson (Sumner High School), Walter Dyett (Wendell Phillips High School) and Lincoln High's Alonzo Lewis and William Levi Dawson, as those who followed in Smith's footsteps.
  324. ^ Southern, pg. 331
  325. ^ Bird, pgs. 24-25
  326. ^ Crawford, pg. 466
  327. ^ Southern, pg. 307
  328. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 249
  329. ^ Jones, pg. 143
  330. ^ a b Bird, pg. 17-19
  331. ^ Crawford, pgs. 566–567
  332. ^ Chase, pg. 507
  333. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 31
  334. ^ Crawford, pgs. 600–601
  335. ^ Chase, pg. 374
  336. ^ Clarke, pg. 72; Clarke says that Marable sole recording "is said to be terrible".
  337. ^ Clarke, pg. 123
  338. ^ Crawford, pg. 627
  339. ^ Bird, pg. 116
  340. ^ Clarke, pgs. 185-186
  341. ^ Haskins, Rob, "Orchestral and Chamber Music in the Twentieth Century", pgs. 173–178, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  342. ^ "A Moment in Time". Kansas Historical Society. February 1997. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2008. 
  343. ^ Gates and Appiah, pg. 918
  344. ^ Chase, pg. 350–351
  345. ^ Chase, pg. 545
  346. ^ Southern, pg. 353
  347. ^ Laing, Dave; John Shepherd. "Tour". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 567–568. 
  348. ^ Clarke, pg.100; Clarke notes that this music was called jazz, though it was not.
  349. ^ Peretti, pg. 66
  350. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 251
  351. ^ U.S. Army Bands
  352. ^ Smith, Jeff. "The Film Industry and Popular Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 499–504. 
  353. ^ Crawford, pg. 554
  354. ^ Crawford, pg. 562
  355. ^ Crawford, pg. 567
  356. ^ Preston, Katherine K.; Susan Key, Judith Tick, Frank J. Cipolla and Raoul F. Camus. "Snapshot: Four Views of Music in the United States". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 554–569. 
  357. ^ Buckley, David; Dave Laing. "Alcohol". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 149–152. 
  358. ^ Chase, pg. 419, citing William Bolcom
  359. ^ Chase, pg. 475
  360. ^ Southern, pg. 312
  361. ^ Bird, pg. 176

Further reading[edit]

  • Baker, Theodore (1881). Uber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden (in German). Liepzig: Breitkopf u. Härtel. 
  • Berry, Jason; Jonathan Foose and Tad Jones (1986). Up from the Cradle of Jazz. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. 
  • Densmore, Frances (1913). "Chippewa Music". Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution) 2 (53). 
  • Samuel A. Floyd (ed.), ed. (1990). Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays. New York: Greenwood Press. 
  • Herzog, George (1935). "Plains Ghost Dance and Great Basin Music". American Anthropologist 38 (3): 403–419. doi:10.1525/aa.1935.37.3.02a00040. 
  • Howard, James H. (1955). "The Pan-Indian Culture of Oklahoma". Scientific Monthly 18 (5): 215–220. 
  • David Jasen; Trebor Tichenor (1978). Rags and Ragtime. New York. p. 17. 
  • Lomax, John Avery (1938 (1911)). Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads. New York: Macmillan.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Marks (1997). Music and the Silent Film: Contexts and Case Studies, 1895–1924. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Helen Myers, ed. (1993). Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies. New York: Norton. 
  • Oakley, Giles (1976). The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues. New York: Taplinger. 
  • Schuller, Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Fife, Austin E.; Alta S. Fife (1966). Songs of the Cowboys, by n. Howard ('Jack') Thorp: Variants, Commentary, Notes and Lexicon. New York: C.N. Potter. 
  • Sharp, Cecil J.; Maud Karpeles (1960 (1924)). English Folk Songs From the Southern Appalachians. London: Oxford University Press.  Check date values in: |date= (help)