Timeline of nursing history

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Prior to the 17th century[edit]

  • 1-500 AD (approximately)- Nursing care mostly included hygiene and comfort needs of persons and families. Religious organizations were the provided carers.[1]
  • 55 AD - Phoebe is nursing histories most noted deaconess.[2]
  • 300 - Entry of women into nursing (Crisp & Taylor, 2009)[3]
  • 380 AD - The first general hospital is established in Rome by Fabiola.[4]

17th century[edit]

  • The Reformation - The 17th century was the time of the Reformation when the breakdown of religious orders meant that monasteries, hospitals and nursing care facilities were closed in most Protestant areas.[5]
  • 1633 Sisters of Charity founded.[6]
  • 1633 – The founding of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Servants of the Sick Poor by Sts. Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac.[7] The community would not remain in a convent, but would nurse the poor in their homes, "having no monastery but the homes of the sick, their cell a hired room, their chapel the parish church, their enclosure the streets of the city or wards of the hospital."[8]
  • 1645 – Jeanne Mance establishes North America's first hospital, l'Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal.
  • 1654 and 1656 – Sisters of Charity care for the wounded on the battlefields at Sedan and Arras in France.
  • 1660 – Over 40 houses of the Sisters of Charity exist in France and several in other countries; the sick poor are helped in their own dwellings in 26 parishes in Paris.

17th-18th century were considered the "age of reason". A lot of myths were contradicted by scientific fact (Daly et al.,2010)[9]

19th century[edit]

  • 1835 Nursing Society of Philadelphia
  • 1850 instructional school for nurses opened by NSP--
  • 1853 Crimean war
  • 1854 Nightingale appointed as the Superintendent of Nursing Staff
  • 1856 A charitable organisation known as the "Nightingale Fund for Nursing" was founded in Britain, to commemorate Nightingale's work in the Crimean War (Daly,Speedy & Jackson (2010)[10]
  • 1856 The Melbourne Lying-in Hospital and Infirmary for Diseases peculiar to Women and Children established. Speedy, S.& Jackson, D.(2010).Contexts of Nursing Chatswood,Australia
  • 1861–1865 The Civil war, American Army nurses corps
  • 1872, 73 formal nursing training programs were established, establishment of formal education

1800s[edit]

  • 1840- Settlement of New Zealand as a colony and the establishment of state hospitals.[11]

1810s[edit]

  • 1811 - The opening of Sydney Hospital. Convict men and women undertook the nursing. (Crisp & Taylor, 2009)[12]

1820s[edit]

1830s[edit]

  • 1838 - The first trained nurses arrived in Sydney, they were five Irish Sisters of Charity (Crisp & Taylor 2009).

1840s

  • 1840 - Settlement of New Zealand as a colony and the establishment of state hospitals (Crisp & Taylor,2009).
  • 1841 - People considered to be mentally ill were considered criminals. The first case of insanity in New Zealand's society was recorded in 1841 (Papps, E, 2002).
  • 1844 – Dorothea Dix testifies to the New Jersey legislature regarding the state's poor treatment of patients with mental illness.
  • 1844 - Florence Nightingale travels to Kaiserworth, Germany to start to learn nursing from the Institution of Deaconesses. She stayed for three months.
  • 1847 - Wellington Hospital was established, The first New Zealand Hospital. Giselle's Journal, http://mylittleculturediary.blogspot.co.nz/2012/02/first-new-zealand-hospital-labyrinth.html (Barber, L., & Towers, R. (1976). Wellington Hospital 1847-1976. Wellington: Wellington Hospital Board.)
  • 1848 -The Yarra Bend Asylum was opened so that those mentally ill could be moved out of gaol. This Asylum was later known as Melbourne. (Crisp, J., &Taylor, C.(2009).''Fundamentals of nursing(3rd ed.,p. 4).Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier Australia)

1850s[edit]

Florence Nightingale
  • 1850 – Florence Nightingale, a pioneer of modern nursing, begins her training as a nurse at the Institute of St. Vincent de Paul at Alexandria, Egypt [5]
  • 1851 - Florence Nightingale completed her nursing training at Kaiserwerth, Germany, a Protestant religious community with a hospital facility. She was there for approximately 3 months, and at the end, her teachers declared her trained as a nurse. Wojnar, D. (2010). Florence Nightingale. In Martha Raile Alligood & Anne Marriner Tomey (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed., pp. 71–90).
  • 1853 – Florence Nightingale went to Paris to study with the Sisters of Charity and was later appointed superintendent of the English General Hospitals in Turkey. (Crisp and Taylor 2009)[13]
  • 1854 - The first lunatic asylum built. Opened in Wellington, New Zealand.(Crisp & Taylor,2009)
  • 1854 – Florence Nightingale and 38 volunteer nurses are sent to Turkey on October 21 to assist with caring for the injured of the Crimean War.
  • 1854 - In a letter written November 15, 1854, to Dr Bowman, Florence Nightingale gives definite statistics: on Thursday last [i.e.Nov8]we had 1715 sick and wounded in this hospital (among whom, 120 cholera patients) and 650 serverly wounded in...the General Hospital...when a message came to me to prepair for 510 wounded.... Seymer, L. R. (1932). A general history of nursing. London, England: Faber and Faber
  • 1855 – Mary Seacole leaves London on January 31 to establish a "British Hotel" at Balaklava in the Crimea.
  • 1856 – Biddy Mason is granted her freedom and moves to Los Angeles. She works as a nurse and midwife and becomes a successful businesswoman.
  • 1856- The Melbourne lying-in Hospital and Infirmary for diseases Peculiar to Women and Children established. Daly, J. Speedy, S. & Jackson, D. (2010) Contexts of Nursing Chatswood, Australia
  • 1857 – Ellen Ranyard creates the first group of paid social workers in England and pioneers the first district nursing programme in London. [6]
  • 1857 - The sisters of Charity opened the first St Vincent's Hospital at Sydney's Pott's Point. Today, the St Vincent's hospitals provide a considerable proportion of public health services.[14]
  • 1859 - Florence Nightingale published her views on nursing care in "Notes on Nursing" The basis of nursing practice was based on her idea's from this (Wesley, 1994)

1860s[edit]

  • 1860 - In May 1860 advertisements appeared seeking young lady nurses for training, but responses were not overwhelming; however, in July 1860 15 hand-picked probationers entered the Nightingale Training School, and the pattern for modern nursing came into being.[15]
  • 1860 - Florence Nightingale publishes "Note on Nursing: What it is and what it is not"[16]
  • 1860 -Crisp & Taylor (2010) state that the Nightingale training school for nurses in England at the St Thomas' hospital, London was established at this time.
  • 1860-1883 - As 16,000 single women emigrated to New Zealand 582 identified their occupation as a nurse (including monthly nurse, sick nurse, trained nurse, nurse girl, midwife, hospital nurse or professional nurse.)[17]
  • 1861 – Sally Louisa Tompkins opens a hospital for Confederate soldiers in July. She is later made an officer in the army, the only woman to receive that honor.
  • 1863 - The International Red Cross was established in Geneva, Switzerland, by five private individuals (Sciencemuseum, n.d).
  • 1865 - Mary Tattershall a nurse who served in the Crimean War arrived and was Timaru Hospitals first Matron (MacDonald, 1990).
  • 1867 – Jane Currie Blaikie Hoge publishes her memoirs of nursing in the Union Army, The Boys in Blue.
  • 1868 - Lucy Osburn and her four Nightingale nurses arrived at Sydney Infirmary(to become Sydney Hospital).(Crisp, J., & Taylor, C.(2009)Milestones in nursing history. Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing(3rd ed., p. 4).Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier Australia.
  • 1868 - Sir Henery Parkes requested that Nightingale is to provide trained nurses for New South Wales. (Crisp, J., & Taylor, C. (2009) Milestones in nursing history. Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing(3rd ed., p. 4).Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier Australia.
  • 1868 - Cathinka Guldberg, who had trained as a Deaconess at Kaiserswerth, started the first nursing school in Norway at the Deaconess Institute of Christiania and became its first director ( Seymer,1932,p. 148).[18]

1870s[edit]

  • 1870 - New Zealand had 37 hospitals as a result of the population increase of the gold rush.(Potter and Perry's fundamentals of nursing,Crisp and Taylor.2009.p. 4)
  • 1871 - Nightingale-trained matron appointed to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne.[19]
  • 1873 – Linda Richards is graduated from the New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses and officially becomes America's First Trained Nurse.
  • 1873 – The nation's first nursing school, based on Florence Nightingale's principles of nursing, opens at Bellevue Hospital, New York City
  • 1876 – The Japanese term ("Kangofu" or nurse) is used for the first time. [7]
  • 1879 – Mary Eliza Mahoney is graduated from the New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses and becomes the first black professional nurse in the U.S. [8]
  • 1874 - Group of Anglican nuns arrive in South Africa (Bloemfontein) to work as nurses. Among them was Sr. Henrietta Stockdale who started the first training for nurses in Africa.

[20]

1880s[edit]

Clara Barton
  • 1881 – Clara Barton becomes the first President of the American Red Cross, which she founded
  • 1881 - Created the first Portuguese Nursing School at Coimbra, Portugal
  • 1884 – Mary Agnes Snively, the first Ontario nurse trained according to the principles of Florence Nightingale, assumes the position of Lady Superintendent of the Toronto General Hospital’s School of Nursing.
  • 1885 - Following the Hospital and Charitable Aids Act, conditions improved (MacDonald,1990).
  • 1885 – The first nurse training institute is established in Japan, thanks to the pioneering work of Linda Richards. [9]
  • 1886 - The first regular training school in India is established in Bombay, with funds provided by the governor general.[21]
  • 1886 – The Nightingale, the first American nursing journal, is published.[22]
  • 1886 – Spelman Seminary establishes the first nursing program specifically for African-Americans.[23]
  • 1888 - The monthly journal The Trained Nurse begins publication in Buffalo, New York.[24]

1890s[edit]

Lillian Wald
  • 1890 – Kate Marsden, founder of the St. Francis Leprosy Guild, travels to Yakutia, Siberia in search of a herb reputed to cure leprosy. [10]
  • 1891 - Cape Colony establishes the 1st nursing registration in the British Empire[21]
  • 1891 - The Hampton University School of Nursing began as the Hampton Training School for Nurses in conjunction with The Kings Chapel Hospital for Colored and Indian Boys and the Abbey Mae Infirmary. This school was started on the campus of Hampton Institute at Strawberry Banks in what is now the City of Hampton, Virginia. On this campus sits the Emancipation Oak, the site of the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation in the South. Alice Bacon was instrumental in starting the Hampton Training School for Nurses. The school was commonly called Dixie Hospital, now known as the Sentara Hampton CarePlex, and its first graduate was Anna DeCosta Banks. Elnora D. Daniel, the first Black nurse to serve as the president of a university [Chicago State University] was Dean of Hampton University School of Nursing in the 1980s. [11]
  • 1882 - Inspector of hospitals in New Zealand sent for Nightingale nurses from Britain.[25]
  • 1893 – Lillian Wald, the founder of Visiting Nurse Service of New York in the U.S., begins teaching a home class on nursing for Lower East Side (New York) women after a trying time at an orphanage where children were maltreated.
  • 1893 – The Nightingale Pledge, composed by Lystra Gretter, is first used by the graduating class at the old Harper Hospital in Detroit, Michigan in the spring.
  • 1893 - Ellen Dougherty (New Zealand's first State Registered Nurse) begun working as Matron of Palmerston North Hospital. Kellaway, J., & Maryan, M. (1993). A century of care: Palmerston North Hospital 1893- 1993. Double Bay: Focus Books.
  • 1897 – The American Nurses Association holds its first meeting in February, as the "Associated Alumnae of Trained Nurses of the United States and Canada".
  • 1897 – Jane Delano becomes Superintendent of Bellevue Hospital. [12]
  • 1899 – Japan establishes a licensing system for modern nursing professionals with the introduction of the "Midwives Ordinance". [13]
  • 1899 – Anna E. Turner goes to Cuba on a cattle boat with nine other nurses to serve two years at a yellow fever hospital in Havana. [14]
  • 1899 – The International Council of Nurses is formed.
  • 1899 - Australasian Trained Nurses Association is founded in New South Wales (Crisp & Taylor, 2009)
  • 1899-1902 - During the 1899-1902 South African (Boer) War, nurses from Canada, Australia and New Zealand serve as private citizens or with the British nursing forces.

20th century[edit]

1900s[edit]

French nurse's uniform, 1900

1910s[edit]

Edith Cavell
Chief Nurse Higbee, USN
  • 1910 - Akenehi Hei, the first qualified Maori Nurse in New Zealand dies on November 28, 1910 after contracting Typhoid from family members.[30]
  • 1914 - New Zealand Nurses worked alongside the British, Australian, American and Canadian nurses in World War I (Rodgers, 1994)
  • 1915 – Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad on October 12 for helping hundreds of Allied soldiers escape to the Netherlands.
  • 1915 – The New Zealand Army Nursing Service set up in 1915, largely at the urging of Hester Maclean (1863–1932).
  • 1916 – The Royal College of Nursing is founded.
  • 1917 - Mrs. Annie Kamauoha is recognized as Hawaii's first graduate Nurse from the Queen's Hospital Training School for Nurses. Her Pin was designed by Queen Liliuokalani and was presented to her by the Queen before the Queen died later that year.
  • 1917 - Sandra Lewensen examined the position of nursing history within

the standardized curriculum established by the National League for Nursing Education in 1917, as well as teaching strategies used over the 20th century, pointing out that history was always part of the curriculum but declined in emphasis and time dedicated to it (Lewenson, S.. (2004)Inegrating nursing history into the curriculum. Journal of Professional Nursing 20(6) 376–77.)

1920s[edit]

  • 1921 – Sophie Mannerheim, a pioneer of modern nursing in Finland, accepts the chairmanship of the Finnish Red Cross.
  • 1922 - Filipino Nurses Association was founded.The FNA was admitted as member of the International Council of Nurses (ICN) in 1929.The FNA which was renamed Philippine Nurses Association (PNA) in 1962 continues to uphold its vision to uplift the ideals and spirit of the nursing profession in the country and to win for the profession the respect and recognition of the international community
  • 1923 – The Nursing Act of 1919 becomes effective and Ethel Gordon Fenwick is the first nurse registered in the UK.
  • 1923 – Yale School of Nursing becomes the first autonomous school of nursing in the U.S. with its own dean, faculty, budget, and degree meeting the standards of the University. The curriculum was based on an educational plan rather than on hospital service needs. [19]
  • 1923 – Mary Breckinridge, the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service, travels 700 miles on horseback surveying the health needs of rural Kentuckians. [20]
  • 1923 – The first Brazilian higher education institution of nursing, named after nursing pioneer Ana Néri, is launched in Rio de Janeiro by Carlos Chagas, aiming at implementing the "Nightingale model" nationwide. [21]
  • 1925 - New Zealand attempted to have a nursing programme avaialable at the University of Otago (Crisp, Taylor, Douglas & Rebeiro, 2013)
  • 1926 - 20 July New Zelands's first sister was appointed by the board at Auckland hospital New Zealand.References:Brown, M., Masters, D., & Smith, B. (1994). Nurses of Auckland: The History of the General Nursing Programme in the Auckland School of nursing. Auckland, New Zealand. Authors.
  • 1929 – The Japanese Nursing Association is established. [22]

1930s[edit]

  • 1931 – The Forgotten Frontier, a documentary about the Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky, is filmed.
  • 1933 - Australian Capital Territory nursing registration commenced[31]
  • 1937 – Sister Elizabeth Kenny publishes her first book, Infantile Paralysis and Cerebral Diplegia: Method of Restoration of Function.
  • 1938 – The Nurses Memorial in Arlington National Cemetery is erected in Section 21 (the "Nurses Section") to honor nurses who served in the armed forces during World War I. Over 600 nurses are buried at Arlington. [23]
  • 1939 - Registering of nursing aides commenced in New Zealand[32]

World War II[edit]

U.S. Navy Nurse and released POW aboard USS Benevolence, 1945.

1940s[edit]

  • 1942 - Beveridge Report recommends comprehensive health care funded through National Insurance.[34]
  • 1943 - Mary Elizabeth Lancaster (Carnegie) is appointed the acting director of the Division of Nursing Education at Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia. Through her direction the first baccalaureate nursing program in the Commonwealth of Virginia is created.[35]
  • 1943 - The southern state of Delaware was the first to admit the African American nurses to membership as a state nurses.(Penn nursing science(http://www.nursing.upenn.edu/nhhc/Pages/timeline_1930-1959.aspx?slider1=1))
  • 1944 - Ludwig Guttmanns Spinal Unit at Stoke, Mandeville was formally opened on 1 February with one patient and twenty-six beds (Allan, 2004)
  • 1944 - The first baccalaureate nursing program in the Commonwealth of Virginia is created at the Hampton University School of Nursing.
  • 1948 – The National Health Service is launched on July 5.
  • 1949 – Mary Elizabeth Carnegie is the first black person elected to the board of the Florida Nurses Association with the right to speak and vote. [24]
  • 1949 - Formation of College of Nursing Australia.(Crisp & Taylor, 2009)

1950s[edit]

  • 1951 – The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses merges with the American Nurses Association. [25]
  • 1951 – Males join the United Kingdom same register of nurses as females for the first time.[citation needed]
  • 1951 – [National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service]NAPNES along with professional nursing organizations and the U.S. Department of Education created Vocational Nursing standards for education and the LPN / LVN level of nursing was created in the United States.
  • 1952 – The introduction of sedatives transforms mental health nursing.[citation needed]
  • 1952 -[36] Hildegard Peplau presents Interpersonal Relations Theory. (Nursing Theorists, 2002) Tomey, A., & Alligood, M., (2002). Nursing Theorists and their work (5th ed). United States of America: Missouri.
  • 1953 - The National Students Nurses' Association (NSNA) is established. (Fundamentals of Nursing, 2013)
  • 1954 – One of the first PhD programs in nursing is offered at the University of Pittsburgh.[26]
  • 1955 – Elizabeth Lipford Kent becomes the first African American to earn a PhD in nursing. [27]
  • 1956 – The Columbia University School of Nursing is the first in the U.S. to grant a master's degree in a clinical nursing specialty. [28]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

  • 1971 – Florence Wald and her associates found Hospice, Inc., thus establishing the hospice movement in the United States of America
  • 1971 - The Carpenter report was released, this was a review released by New Zealand centered around the nursing education system, the report advocated training nurses in an educational environment. The government however decided that polytechs not universities were more appropriate for this, however the consequences of this were that nurses were only diploma level not degree level. (Crisp & Taylor: Potter and Perry's fundamentals of nursing 3e 2009)
  • 1973 - Christchurch and Wellington Polytechnics offer diploma-level nursing education; Massey and Victoria Universities (Wellington) start their post-registration bachelor degrees.[42]
  • 1974 - The classic definition of health which has endured for many years, was actually provided by the World Health Organization (Crisp. J & Taylor. C Potter and Perry's fundamentals of nursing 3e(2009))
  • 1975 - First nursing diploma program in Australia in a College of Advanced Education (CAE) in Melbourne, followed quickly by programs in New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia.[43]
  • 1976 - The first master's degree program in nursing for a historically Black College or University (HBCU) founded at Hampton University School of Nursing.
  • 1976 - The Nurses' Health Study began[44]
  • 1976 - Roy Adaptation Theory published, Sister Callista Roy nursing theorist
  • 1977 - The M. Elizabeth Carnegie Nursing Archives is created by Dr. Patricia E. Sloan at the Hampton University School of Nursing. This is the only repository for memorabilia on minority nurses in the United States. The focus of the archives is African American nurses.
  • 1978 – Estelle Massey Osborne becomes the first black nurse to be inducted as honorary fellow in the American Academy of Nursing. [30]
  • 1978 – Barbara Nichols is the first black nurse to be elected president of the American Nurses Association. [31]
  • 1978 – Elizabeth Carnegie is the first black to be elected president of the American Academy of Nursing. [32]
  • 1979 – The first iteration of a clinical doctorate, a nursing doctorate (ND), was established at Case Western Reserve University.[45]
  • 1979 - Dr Watson's first book published, based on her theory of caring.[46]

1980s[edit]

  • 1980s – In America, the MSN degree became the required degree for advanced practice nurse certification. Nurse Practitioners with certificates were grandfathered in. The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA) first required a Masters Degree in order to sit for the boards in 1999.
  • 1980 - Viola Davis Brown of Kentucky is the first African American nurse to lead a state office of public health nursing in the United States
  • 1980 – The Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing, based upon the activities of daily living, is published.
  • 1982 - Florence Nightingale Trust was created where they had Florence Nightingales letters, artifacts and publications made viewable to the public and protected at the Florence Nightingale Museum [Florence nightingale museum. (2012). Nursing History Review, 20209-211. ] doi:10.1891/1062-8061.20.209
  • 1983 – The importance of human rights in nursing is made explicit in a statement adopted by the International Council of Nurses.
  • 1983 – UKCC becomes the profession's new regulatory body in the UK.
  • 1984 - Under the Australian federal government plan, tertiary education for all Australian nurses was adopted.

Daly,J., Speedy, S., & Jackson D.Context of nursing (3e). Chatsworth, Australia.Churchill Livingstone.

1990s[edit]

Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson
  • 1990 – Florence Nightingale's birthday (May 12) is declared the official Nursing Day in Japan. [35]
  • 1992 – Eddie Bernice Johnson is the first nurse elected to the U.S. Congress.
  • 1992 - "Degree programs began in New Zealand polytechnics following Education Amendment Act 1990 allowing polytechnics to offer degrees." (Crisp & Taylor, 2013, p. 5)[47]
  • 1999 – Elnora D. Daniel is the first black nurse elected president of a major university, Chicago State University. [36]
  • 1999 - The first doctor of philosophy degree program in nursing for a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) is founded at Hampton University School of Nursing. This doctoral program is unique in that it is the only doctoral program in the country that focuses on family and family related nursing research.
  • 1999 - I define caring as a "nuturing way of relating to a valued 'other' toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility" (Swanson,1991,p. 162)

21st century[edit]

2000s[edit]

  • 2000 - Review of undergraduate nursing education by New Zealand Nursing Council[48]
  • 2001 - A Waikato based Neonatal Nurse became the New Zealands first Nurse Practitioner on December 11, 2001. Barrett, E. (2009). Waikato nurse NZ's First Nurse Practitioner. Retrieved from http://www.waikatodhb.govt.nz/news/pageid/2145848141
  • 2002 – The Nursing and Midwifery Council takes over from the UKCC as the UK's regulatory body.
  • 2003 - Primary Health Care framework document is released by New Zealand Ministry of Health.[49]
  • 2004 – The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) recommends that all advanced practice nurses earn a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree.[50]
  • 2004 - The Health Practitioners Competence Assurance (2003) Act comes into full power on the 18 September, in New Zealand, these cover the requirements for nurses to have current competences relating to their scope of practice.[51]
  • 2007 – ICN Conference is held in Yokohama, Japan.
  • 2008 - National Council for State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) issues final report: "NCSBN Consensus Model for APRN Regulation: Licensure, Accreditation, Certification & Education." [37]
  • 2009 - Carnegie Foundation releases the results of its study of nursing education, "Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation". [38]
  • 2010 - Institute for the Future of Nursing (IFN) releases evidence-based recommendations to lead change for improved health care. [39]
  • 2010 - A national regestration for all nurses and midwives came into force in Australia in July 2010. (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2010)[52]
  • 2010 - Nurses' Health Study 3 begins enrolling: Female RNs, LPNs, and nursing students 20-46 are encouraged to join this long-term women's health study. Study remains open until 100,000 nurses are enrolled. Join and learn more at www.nhs3.org [40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Craven, R.F., & Hirnle, C.,J.(2003). Fundamentals of Nursing, Human Health and Function,(4th,ed))
  2. ^ Grippando & Mitchell, 1994 (as cited in Craven & Hirnle, 2009)
  3. ^ Crisp, J., Taylor, C. (2009). Potter and perry's fundamentals of nursing(3rd ed). Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier.
  4. ^ Grippando & Mitchell, 1994 (as cited in Craven & Hirnle, 2009).
  5. ^ Grippando & Mitchell,1994 (as cited in Craven and Hirnle, 2007)
  6. ^ Crisp, J. & Taylor, C. (2013). Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing (4th ed.) Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier
  7. ^ Susan E. Dinan, Women and Poor Relief in Seventeenth-Century France. The Early History of the Daughters of Charity (Ashgate, 2006)
  8. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913. p. 605. 
  9. ^ Daly, J., Speedy, S., Jackson, D. (2010). Contexts of nursing (3rd ed.) Marrickville, Elsevier.
  10. ^ Daly J., Speed S & Jackson D. (2010) Contexts of Nursing (3e).Chatswood,Australia: Churchill Livingstone
  11. ^ Crisp, J., & Taylor, C. (2009). Potter & perrys fundamentals of nursing(3rd ed.). Chatswood, Australia:Elsevier.
  12. ^ Crisp & Taylor (2009) Fundamentals of Nursing, Milestones in Nursing History: Elsevier, Australia.(3rd Ed., Ch, 1, pp 4.) Pub. Houstan, L.
  13. ^ Crisp, J., & Taylor, C. (2009). Potter & Perry's fundamentals of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, Elsevier Australia: Libby Houston
  14. ^ (Crisp & Taylor,2009)
  15. ^ M. Masson A Pictorial History Of Nursing (1985).
  16. ^ See online edition
  17. ^ Orchard, S. (1997). More ‘ woman of good character’: Nurses who came to new Zealand as immigrant settlers during the period 1860 to 1883. In N.Chick & J.Rodgers (Eds.) Looking back, moving forward: Essays in the history of New Zealand nursing and midwifery (pp. 5–16). Palmerston North: Department of Nursing and Midwifery Massey University.
  18. ^ Seymer.R.L. (1932). A general history of nursing. London; Faber & Faber Limited.
  19. ^ . Crisp, J., Taylor, C. (2013). Potter and perry's fundamentals of nursing(4th ed). Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier.
  20. ^ Pioneers of Professional Nursing in South Africa, Loots, I & Vermaak, M. Publisher P.J. de Villiers Bloemfontein 1975
  21. ^ a b c Bullough and Bullough, The Emergence of Modern Nursing (1969) p 144
  22. ^ see online
  23. ^ see online
  24. ^ see online
  25. ^ Potter & Perry (2013). Fundamentals of Nursing. Australia: Elsevier. p. 5. ISBN 9780729541107. 
  26. ^ McLauchlan, G. (1989). The illustrated encyclopedia of New Zealand. Auckland: David Bateman
  27. ^ "In Memory of Nurses." Washington Post. May 3, 1905.
  28. ^ http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/heritage/photos/disc11/IMG0062.asp
  29. ^ Crisp.J,Taylor.C,Douglas.C,Rebeiro.G(2013)Potter and Perry's fundamentals of nursing (4th ed). Australia:Elsevier.
  30. ^ Dow, D. (2009). Remembering the unsung heroines. New Zealand Doctor, 36.
  31. ^ Crisp, J., & Taylor, C. (2009). Potter and Perry's : fundamentals of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier Australia.
  32. ^ http://www.nzno.org.nz/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=oOwndMOjzeE%3D&tabid=338
  33. ^ See "The Army Nurse Corps in World War II" online
  34. ^ http://www.nursingtimes.net/nhs-nursing-in-the-1950s/461928.article
  35. ^ http://nursing.hamptonu.edu
  36. ^ 35. Crisp, J., Taylor, C., Douglas. C., & Rebeiro, G. (Eds). (2013). Fundamentals of Nursing. (4th ed.). Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier.
  37. ^ See online
  38. ^ "=http://www.pna-ph.org/about_history.asp". 
  39. ^ see [1] online]
  40. ^ see [2] online]
  41. ^ Adlam, K; Dotchin, M. Hayward, S. (2009). "Nursing first year of practice, past, present and future: documenting the journey in New Zealand". Journal Of Nursing Management 17: 570. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00932.x. 
  42. ^ Crisp. J & Taylor. C (2009) Potter & Perry's fundamentals of nursing (3rd ed) 4. Australia, Mosby Inc, Elsevier Inc.
  43. ^ Crisp, J., Taylor, C., Douglas, C., & Rebeiro, G. (2013). Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of nursing (4th ed). NSW, Australia: Mosby Elsevier. ISBN 9780729541107
  44. ^ http://www.nhs3.org
  45. ^ http://nurse-practitioners.advanceweb.com/Article/DNP-Coming-Into-Focus.aspx
  46. ^ (Parker & Smith,2010) Parker, M.E., & Smith, M.C. (2010). Nursing Theories and nursing practice (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.
  47. ^ Crisp, J., & Taylor, C. (2013). Potter and Perry's : fundamentals of nursing (4th ed.). Chatswood, Australia: Houston.
  48. ^ Crisp and Taylor, 2009
  49. ^ Crisp, J.,& Taylor, C. (Eds.). (2005) Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of nursing. (2nd ed.). Sydney, Australia: Elsevier.
  50. ^ see online
  51. ^ see online
  52. ^ Daly, J., Speedy, S., & Jackson, D. (2010). Contexts of Nursing. (3rd ed). Sydney, Australia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
  • Wesley, R. L. (1994). Nursing theories and models 2nd ed. USA: Springhouse Pub Co.
  • Rodgers, Jan. A. "A Paradox of Power and Marginality: New Zealand Nurses' Professional Campaign During War." Diss. U of Palmerston North, 1994. Print.
  • D'Antonio, Patricia. American Nursing: A History of Knowledge, Authority, and the Meaning of Work (2010), 272pp excerpt and text search
  • Davies, Celia, ed. Rewriting Nursing History (1980),
  • Dingwall, Robert, Anne Marie Rafferty, Charles Webster. An Introduction to the Social History of Nursing (Routledge, 1988)
  • Dock, Lavinia Lloyd. A Short history of nursing from the earliest times to the present day (1920)full text online; abbreviated version of her four volume A History of Nursing vol 3 online
  • Donahue, M. Patricia. Nursing, The Finest Art: An Illustrated History (3rd ed. 2010), includes over 400 illustrations; 416pp; excerpt and text search
  • Fairman, Julie and Joan E. Lynaugh. Critical Care Nursing: A History (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Judd, Deborah. A History of American Nursing: Trends and Eras (2009) 272pp excerpt and text search
  • Lewenson, Sandra B., and Eleanor Krohn Herrmann. Capturing Nursing History: A Guide to Historical Methods in Research (2007)
  • Reverby, Susan M. Ordered to Care: The Dilemma of American Nursing, 1850–1945 (1987) excerpt and text search
  • Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Historical Encyclopedia of Nursing (2004), 354pp; from ancient times to the present

Britain and Commonwealth[edit]

  • Bostridge. Mark. Florence Nightingale: The Making of an Icon (2008)
  • Crisp, J., & Taylor, C. Potter & Perrys fundamentals of nursing (3rd ed. 2009). Chatswood,Australia:Elsevier.
  • Helmstadter, Carol, and Judith Godden, eds. Nursing before Nightingale, 1815–1899 (Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2011) 219 pp. on England
  • Middleton, J. (2008, January 10). NHS nursing in the 1950s. NursingTimes.net. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/nhs-nursing-in-the-1950s/461928.article
  • Nelson, Sioban, and Ann Marie Rafferty, eds. Notes on Nightingale: The Influence and Legacy of a Nursing Icon (2010) 172 pp.
  • Sweet, Helen. "Establishing Connections, Restoring Relationships: Exploring the Historiography of Nursing in Britain," Gender and History, Nov 2007, Vol. 19 Issue 3, pp565–580

U.S.[edit]

  • Campbell, D'Ann. Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era (1984) ch 2, on military nurses in World War Two
  • D'Antonio, Patricia. American Nursing: A History of Knowledge, Authority, and the Meaning of Work (2010), 272pp excerpt and text search
  • Judd, Deborah. A History of American Nursing: Trends and Eras (2009) 272pp excerpt and text search
  • Kalisch, Philip Arthur, and Beatrice J. Kalisch. The Advance of American Nursing (2nd ed. 1986); retitled as American Nursing: A History (4th ed. 2003), the standard history
  • Reverby, Susan M. Ordered to Care: The Dilemma of American Nursing, 1850-1945 (1987) excerpt and text search
  • Sarnecky, Mary T. A history of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps (1999)