Timeline of probability and statistics

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A timeline of probability and statistics

Before 1600[edit]

  • 9th Century - Al-Kindi was the first to use statistics to decipher encrypted messages and developed the first code breaking algorithm in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, based on frequency analysis. He wrote a book entitled "Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages", containing detailed discussions on statistics[1]
  • 1560s (published 1663) – Cardano's Liber de ludo aleae attempts to calculate probabilities of dice throws
  • 1577 – Bartolomé de Medina defends probabilism, the view that in ethics one may follow a probable opinion even if the opposite is more probable

17th century[edit]

  • 1654 – Pascal and Fermat create the mathematical theory of probability,
  • 1657 – Huygens's De ratiociniis in ludo aleae is the first book on mathematical probability,
  • 1662 – Graunt's Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality makes inferences from statistical data on deaths in London,
  • 1693 – Halley prepares the first mortality tables statistically relating death rate to age,

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Singh, Simon (2000). The code book : the science of secrecy from ancient Egypt to quantum cryptography (1st Anchor Books ed. ed.). New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-49532-3. 
  2. ^ Wright, Sewall (1921). "Correlation and causation". Journal of Agricultural Research 20 (7): 557–585. 

External links[edit]