Timeline of quantum computing

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This is a timeline of quantum computing.

1970s[edit]

  • 1975 – R. P. Poplavskii publishes "Thermodynamical models of information processing" (in Russian)[1] which showed the computational infeasibility of simulating quantum systems on classical computers, due to the superposition principle.
  • 1976 – Polish mathematical physicist Roman Stanisław Ingarden publishes a seminal paper entitled "Quantum Information Theory" in Reports on Mathematical Physics, vol. 10, 43–72, 1976. (The paper was submitted in 1975.) It is one of the first attempts at creating a quantum information theory, showing that Shannon information theory cannot directly be generalized to the quantum case, but rather that it is possible to construct a quantum information theory, which is a generalization of Shannon's theory, within the formalism of a generalized quantum mechanics of open systems and a generalized concept of observables (the so-called semi-observables).

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

  • 1996
    • Lov Grover, at Bell Labs, invented the quantum database search algorithm. The quadratic speedup is not as dramatic as the speedup for factoring, discrete logs, or physics simulations. However, the algorithm can be applied to a much wider variety of problems. Any problem that had to be solved by random, brute-force search, could now have a quadratic speedup.
    • The United States Government, particularly in a joint partnership of the Army Research Office (now part of the Army Research Laboratory) and the National Security Agency, issues the first public call for research proposals in quantum information processing.
    • David P. DiVincenzo, from IBM, proposed a list of minimal requirements for creating a quantum computer.[8]
  • 1999 – Samuel L. Braunstein and collaborators showed that there was no mixed state quantum entanglement in any bulk NMR experiment. Pure state quantum entanglement is necessary for any quantum computational speedup, and thus this gave evidence that NMR computers would not yield benefit over classical computer. It was still an open question as to whether mixed state entanglement is necessary for quantum computational speedup[10]

2000s[edit]

  • 2001
    • First execution of Shor's algorithm at IBM's Almaden Research Center and Stanford University. The number 15 was factored using 1018 identical molecules, each containing seven active nuclear spins.
    • Noah Linden and Sandu Popescu proved that the presence of entanglement is a necessary condition for a large class of quantum protocols. This, coupled with Brauenstein's result (see 1999 above), called the validity of NMR quantum computation into question.[11]
    • Emanuel Knill, Raymond Laflamme, and Gerard Milburn show that optical quantum computing is possible with single photon sources, linear optical elements, and single photon detectors, launching the field of linear optical quantum computing.
  • 2002 – The Quantum Information Science and Technology Roadmapping Project, involving some of the main participants in the field, laid out the Quantum computation roadmap.

2005[edit]

  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign scientists demonstrate quantum entanglement of multiple characteristics, potentially allowing multiple qubits per particle.
  • Two teams of physicists have measured the capacitance of a Josephson junction for the first time. The methods could be used to measure the state of quantum bits in a quantum computer without disturbing the state.[14]
  • In December, the first quantum byte, or qubyte, is announced to have been created by scientists at The Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information at the University of Innsbruck in Austria, with the formal paper published in the December 1 issue of Nature.
  • Harvard University and Georgia Institute of Technology researchers succeeded in transferring quantum information between "quantum memories" – from atoms to photons and back again.

2006[edit]

  • Materials Science Department of Oxford University, cage a qubit in a buckyball (a Buckminster fullerene particle), and demonstrated quantum "bang-bang" error correction.[15]
  • Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign use the Zeno Effect, repeatedly measuring the properties of a photon to gradually change it without actually allowing the photon to reach the program, to search a database without actually "running" the quantum computer.[16]
  • Vlatko Vedral of the University of Leeds and colleagues at the universities of Porto and Vienna found that the photons in ordinary laser light can be quantum mechanically entangled with the vibrations of a macroscopic mirror.[17]
  • Samuel L. Braunstein at the University of York along with the University of Tokyo and the Japan Science and Technology Agency gave the first experimental demonstration of quantum telecloning.[18]
  • Professors at the University of Sheffield develop a means to efficiently produce and manipulate individual photons at high efficiency at room temperature.[19]
  • New error checking method theorized for Josephson junction computers.[20]
  • First 12 qubit quantum computer benchmarked.[21]
  • Two dimensional ion trap developed for quantum computing.[22]
  • Seven atoms placed in stable line, a step on the way to constructing a quantum gate, at the University of Bonn.[23]
  • A team at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands created a device that can manipulate the "up" or "down" spin-states of electrons on quantum dots.[24]
  • University of Arkansas develops quantum dot molecules.[25]
  • Spinning new theory on particle spin brings science closer to quantum computing.[26]
  • University of Copenhagen develops quantum teleportation between photons and atoms.[27]
  • University of Camerino scientists develop theory of macroscopic object entanglement, which has implications for the development of quantum repeaters.[28]
  • Tai-Chang Chiang, at Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, finds that quantum coherence can be maintained in mixed-material systems.[29]
  • Cristophe Boehme, University of Utah, demonstrates the feasibility of reading spin-data on a silicon-phosphorus quantum computer.[30]

2007[edit]

  • Subwavelength waveguide developed for light.[31]
  • Single photon emitter for optical fibers developed.[32]
  • New material proposed for quantum computing.[33]
  • Single atom single photon server devised.[34]
  • First use of Deutsch's Algorithm in a cluster state quantum computer.[35]
  • University of Cambridge develops electron quantum pump.[36]
  • Superior method of qubit coupling developed.[37]
  • Successful Demonstration of Controllably Coupled Qubits.[38]
  • Breakthrough in applying spin-based electronics to silicon.[39]
  • Scientists demonstrate quantum state exchange between light and matter.[40]
  • Diamond quantum register developed.[41]
  • Controlled-NOTquantum gates on a pair of superconducting quantum bits realized.[42]
  • Scientists contain, study hundreds of individual atoms in 3D array.[43]
  • Nitrogen in buckyball used in quantum computing.[44]
  • Large number of electrons quantum coupled.[45]
  • Spin-orbit interaction of electrons measured.[46]
  • Atoms quantum manipulated in laser light.[47]
  • Light pulses used to control electron spins.[48]
  • Quantum effects demonstrated across tens of nanometers.[49]
  • Light pulses used to accelerate quantum computing development.[50]
  • Quantum RAM blueprint unveiled.[51]
  • Model of quantum transistor developed.[52]
  • Long distance entanglement demonstrated.[53]
  • Photonic quantum computing used to factor number by two independent labs.[54]
  • Quantum bus developed by two independent labs.[55]
  • Superconducting quantum cable developed.[56]
  • Transmission of qubits demonstrated.[57]
  • Superior qubit material devised.[58]
  • Single electron qubit memory.[59]
  • Bose-Einstein condensate quantum memory developed[60]
  • D-Wave Systems claims to have working 28-qubit quantum computer, though this claim has yet to be verified.[61]
  • New cryonic method reduces decoherence and increases interaction distance, and thus quantum computing speed.[62]
  • Photonic quantum computer demonstrated.[63]
  • Graphene quantum dot spin qubits proposed.[64]

2008[edit]

  • Graphene quantum dot qubits[65]
  • Quantum bit stored[66]
  • 3D qubit-qutrit entanglement demonstrated[67]
  • Analog quantum computing devised[68]
  • Control of quantum tunneling[69]
  • Entangled memory developed[70]
  • Superior NOT gate developed[71]
  • Qutrits developed[72]
  • Quantum logic gate in optical fiber[73]
  • Superior quantum Hall Effect discovered[74]
  • Enduring spin states in quantum dots[75]
  • Molecular magnets proposed for quantum RAM[76]
  • Quasiparticles offer hope of stable quantum computer[77]
  • Image storage may have better storage of qubits[78]
  • Quantum entangled images[79]
  • Quantum state intentionally altered in molecule[80]
  • Electron position controlled in silicon circuit[81]
  • Superconducting Electronic Circuit Pumps Microwave Photons[82]
  • Amplitude spectroscopy developed[83]
  • Superior quantum computer test developed[84]
  • Optical frequency comb devised[85]
  • Quantum Darwinism supported[86]
  • Hybrid qubit memory developed[87]
  • Qubit stored for over 1 second in atomic nucleus[88]
  • Faster electron spin qubit switching and reading developed[89]
  • Possible non-entanglement quantum computing[90]
  • D-Wave Systems claims to have produced a 128 qubit computer chip, though this claim has yet to be verified.[91]

2009[edit]

  • Carbon 12 purified for longer coherence times[92]
  • Lifetime of qubits extended to hundreds of milliseconds[93]
  • Quantum control of photons[94]
  • Quantum entanglement demonstrated over 240 micrometres[95]
  • Qubit lifetime extended by factor of 1000[96]
  • First Electronic Quantum Processor Created[97]
  • Single molecule optical transistor[98]
  • NIST reads, writes individual qubits[99]
  • NIST demonstrates multiple computing operations on qubits[100]
  • A combination of all of the fundamental elements required to perform scalable quantum computing through the use of qubits stored in the internal states of trapped atomic ions shown[101]
  • Researchers at University of Bristol demonstrate Shor's algorithm on a silicon photonic chip[102]
  • Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble[103]
  • Scalable flux qubit demonstrated[104]
  • Photon machine gun developed for quantum computing[105]
  • Quantum algorithm developed for differential equation systems[106]
  • First universal programmable quantum computer unveiled[107]
  • Scientists electrically control quantum states of electrons[108]
  • Google collaborates with D-Wave Systems on image search technology using quantum computing[109]
  • A method for synchronizing the properties of multiple coupled CJJ rf-SQUID flux qubits with a small spread of device parameters due to fabrication variations was demonstrated[110]

2010[edit]

  • Ion trapped in optical trap[111]
  • Optical quantum computer with three qubits calculated the energy spectrum of molecular hydrogen to high precision[112]
  • First germanium laser brings us closer to 'optical computers'[113]
  • Single electron qubit developed[114]
  • Quantum state in macroscopic object[115]
  • New quantum computer cooling method developed[116]
  • Racetrack ion trap developed[117]
  • 5/2 quantum Hall liquids developed[118]
  • Quantum interface between a single photon and a single atom demonstrated[119]
  • LED quantum entanglement demonstrated[120]
  • Two photon optical chip[121]
  • Microfabricated planar ion traps[122][123]
  • Qubits manipulated electrically, not magnetically[124]

2011[edit]

  • Entanglement in a solid-state spin ensemble[125]
  • NOON photons in superconducting quantum integrated circuit[126]
  • Quantum antenna[127]
  • Multimode quantum interference[128]
  • Magnetic Resonance applied to quantum computing[129]
  • Quantum pen[130]
  • Atomic "Racing Dual"[131]
  • 14 qubit register[132]
  • D-Wave claims to have developed quantum annealing and introduces their product called D-Wave One. The company claims this is the first commercially available quantum computer[133]
  • Repetitive error correction demonstrated in a quantum processor[134]
  • Diamond quantum computer memory demonstrated[135]
  • Qmodes developed[136]
  • Decoherence suppressed[137]
  • Simplification of controlled operations[138]
  • Ions entangled using microwaves[139]
  • Practical error rates achieved[140]
  • Quantum computer employing Von Neumann architecture[141]
  • Quantum spin Hall topological insulator[142]
  • Two Diamonds Linked by Quantum Entanglement could help develop photonic processors[143]

2012[edit]

  • Physicists create a working transistor from a single atom[144]
  • A method for manipulating the charge of nitrogen vacancy-centres in diamond[145]
  • Bell-based randomness expansion with reduced measurement independence.[146]
  • D-Wave claims a quantum computation using 84 qubits.[147]
  • Reported creation of a 300 qubit quantum simulator.[148]
  • 1QB Information Technologies (1QBit) founded. World's first dedicated quantum computing software company.[149]
  • Decoherence suppressed for 2 seconds at room temperature by manipulating Carbon-13 atoms with lasers.[150]

2013[edit]

  • Coherent superposition of an ensemble of approximately 3 billion qubits for 39 minutes at room temperature. The previous record was 2 seconds.[151]

2014[edit]

References[edit]

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