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A depiction of the "long serpent" rocket launcher from the 11th century book
. The holes in the frame are designed to keep the fire arrows separate.
This article gives a concise
. timeline of rocket and missile technology
1st Century [ edit ]
11th century [ edit ]
11th century AD - The first documented record of
gunpowder and the fire arrow, an early form of rocketry, appears in the Chinese text Wujing Zongyao 11th century AD -
Gunpowder is developed in China. Rockets and fireworks evolved with use in weaponry in China.
17th Century ~ 18th Century [ edit ]
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi launched in a 7-winged rocket using 50 okka (140 lbs) of gunpowder from Sarayburnu, the point below Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. [1 ] 1650 -
Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima ("Great Art of Artillery, the First Part") is printed in Amsterdam, about a year before the death of its author, Kazimierz Siemienowicz. 1798 -
Tipu Sultan, the King of the state of Mysore in India, develops and uses iron rockets against the British Army. 1799 - The British Army develops the
Congreve rocket based on weapons used against them by Tipu Sultan.
19th century [ edit ]
Claude Ruggieri a black Italian living in France launched animals on rockets, and recovered them using parachutes. He was prevented from launching a child by police. His rockets were capable of launching rams. [2 ] 1813 - "A Treatise on the Motion of Rockets" by
William Moore – first appearance of the rocket equation 1865 -
Jules Verne publishes From the Earth to the Moon as a humorous science fantasy story about a space gun launching a manned spacecraft equipped with rockets for landing on the Moon, but eventually used for another orbital maneuver.
20th century [ edit ]
Hermann Oberth publishes Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen ("By Rocket into Planetary Space").
Woman in the Moon, considered to be one of the first "serious" science fiction films.
1941 - Jet Assisted Take Off
JATO installed on US Army Air Corp Ercoup aircraft occurred on 12 August in March Field, California.
1942 - A V-2 rocket becomes the first man-made object in
Willy Ley publishes The Conquest of Space
1952 - Wernher von Braun discusses the technical details of a manned exploration of
Mars in . The Mars Project
1953 - Colliers Magazine publishes a series of articles on man's future in space, igniting the interest of people around the world. The series includes numerous articles by Ley and von Braun, illustrated by Chesley Bonestell.
1957 - The USSR launches
Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite.
1958 - The U.S. launches
Explorer 1, the first American artificial satellite, on a Jupiter-C rocket.
1958 - US launches their first ICBM, the
Atlas-B (the Atlas-A was a test article only).
1961 - the USSR launches
Vostok 1, Yuri Gagarin reached a height of 327 km above Earth and was the first man to orbit earth.
1963 - The USSR launches
Vostok 6, Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman (and first civilian) to orbit earth. She remained in space for nearly three days and orbited the earth 48 times.
1963 - US
X-15 rocket-plane, the first reusable manned spacecraft (suborbital) reaches space, pioneering reusability, carried launch and glide landings.
1965 - USSR Proton rocket, highly successful launch vehicle with notable payloads, Salyut 6 & Salyut 7, Mir & ISS components
1965 - Robert Salked investigates various single stage to orbit spaceplane concepts
[4 ] [5 ] [6 ]
1966 - USSR
Luna 9, the first soft landing on the Moon
1966 - USSR launches
Soyuz spacecraft, longest-running series of spacecraft, eventually serving Soviet, Russian and International space missions.
1969 - US
, first men on the Moon, first lunar surface extravehicular activity. Apollo 11
21st century [ edit ]
2004 - US-based, first privately developed, manned (suborbital) spaceflight,
SpaceShipOne demonstrates reusability
SpaceX Falcon 9, the first rocket belonging to a private company, successfully launched, carrying the first private spacecraft Dragon to visit ISS
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]