Timeline of same-sex marriage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Legal recognition of
same-sex relationships
Marriage
Recognized
Previously performed but not invalidated
  1. Can be registered also in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  2. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage

*Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

This page contains a timeline of significant events regarding same-sex marriage and legal recognition of same-sex couples worldwide. It begins with the history of same-sex unions during ancient times, which consisted of unions ranging from informal and temporary relationships to highly ritualized unions, and continues to modern-day state-recognized same-sex marriage. Events concerning same-sex marriages becoming legal in a country or in a country's state are listed in bold.

Ancient times[edit]

Various types of same-sex marriages have existed,[1] ranging from informal, unsanctioned relationships to highly ritualized unions.[2]

Cicero mentions the marriage (using the Latin verb for "to marry", i.e. nubere) of the son of Curio the Elder, but he does it in a metaphorical form to criticize his enemy Antonius. Cicero states thus that the younger Curio was "united in a stable and permanent marriage" to Antonius.[3] Martial also mentions a number of same-sex marriages, but always in derisory terms against people whom he wants to mock.[4]

Practices and rituals for same sex unions were more recognized in Mesopotamia than in ancient Egypt.[5] In ancient Assyria, there was nothing wrong with homosexual love between men.[6][7][8][8] The Almanac of Incantations contained prayers giving equal standing to the love of a man for both a woman and a man.[9]

At least two of the Roman Emperors were in same-sex unions; and in fact, thirteen out of the first fourteen Roman Emperors held to be bisexual or exclusively homosexual.[10] The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nero, who is reported to have married two other men on different occasions. First with one of his freedman, Pythagoras, to whom Nero took the role of the bride, and later as a groom Nero married a young boy, who resembled one of his concubines,[11] named Sporus.

Adolescent emperor Elagabalus referred to his chariot driver, a blond slave from Caria named Hierocles, as his husband.[12] He also married an athlete named Zoticus in a lavish public ceremony in Rome amidst the rejoicings of the citizens.[13]

These same-sex marriages continued until Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. A law in the Theodosian Code (C. Th. 9.7.3) was issued in 342 AD by the Christian emperors Constantius II and Constans. This law prohibited same-sex marriage in ancient Rome and ordered that those who were so married were to be executed.[14][15]

In the Middle Ages, a same-sex marriage between the two men Pedro Díaz and Muño Vandilaz in the Galician municipality of Rairiz de Veiga in Spain occurred on 16 April 1061. They were married by a priest at a small chapel. The historic documents about the church wedding were found at Monastery of San Salvador de Celanova.[16]

In ancient India same-sex marriage was more common. One example being a Princess named Shikhandi (born Shikhandini) who was married off to another princess by her father King Drupada.[citation needed] According to traditions in South India, Krishna married Iravan to fulfill one of his three last wishes.[citation needed]

The Siwa Oasis in Egypt had an historical acceptance of male homosexuality and even rituals of same-sex marriage — traditions that Egyptian authorities have sought to repress, with increasing success, since the early 20th century.[17] The German egyptologist George Steindorff explored the oasis in the year 1900 and reported that homosexual relations were common and often extended to a form of marriage[18]

1970s[edit]

1970[edit]

  • On May 18, 1970, two University of Minnesota students, Richard John 'Jack' Baker and James Michael McConnell applied to Hennepin County District Court clerk Gerald Nelson for a marriage license. He denied the application, because the applicants were both men. Baker and McConnell sued Nelson, claiming Minnesota law on marriage made no mention of gender. The trial court was not impressed with the argument, agreeing with Nelson. The state Supreme Court agreed with the lower court. When Baker-McConnell went to the U.S. Supreme Court, the couple was rebuffed again.

1971[edit]

Michael McConnell (l) and Jack Baker apply at the Hennepin County courthouse for a license to marry.
  • October 15: The Supreme Court of the US state of Minnesota upholds the decision of a lower court that denying a marriage license to a same-sex couple did not violate the U.S. Constitution."[19] This was in reference to a marriage application filed by activist Jack Baker and Michael McConnell in 1970, which garnered extensive media attention. An appeal of that decision ended when the U.S. Supreme Court accepted the case as required by a law in effect but then dismissed it "for want of a substantial federal question".[19] (see Baker v. Nelson). Until 1973, there was no restriction on gender in any marriage statute in any state within the U.S.

1973[edit]

  • January 1: Maryland becomes the first state in the US to statutorily ban same-sex marriage.[20] In the following two decades, other states joined Maryland in statutorily banning same-sex marriage, reaching almost the totality of US states by 1994.

1974[edit]

1975[edit]

  • March 26: Boulder County clerk Clela Rorex issues first US same-sex marriage license. During the following month, she issued five more same-sex marriage licenses. Boulder District Attorney deferred the licenses, which became void. The matter never reached the courts.[22][23][24]

1979[edit]

  • June: The Netherlands adopts an "Unregistered Cohabitation" scheme as a civil status in rent law, becoming the first country in the world where same-sex couples could apply for limited rights.[25]

1980s[edit]

1989[edit]

  • October 1: Denmark becomes the first country in the world to legally recognize same-sex unions, after passing a bill legalizing "registered partnerships" in a 71–47 vote.[26]

1990s[edit]

1993[edit]

  • April 30: Norway approves a registered partnerships bill, becoming the second country in the world (after Denmark) to provide legal recognition for same-sex couples. It came into effect on 1 August.
  • May 5: The Supreme Court of the US state of Hawaii rules in Baehr v. Lewin that the Hawaii state statute limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples is presumed to be unconstitutional unless the state can present a "compelling state interest" justifying the same-sex marriage ban.

1994[edit]

  • June 23: The Parliament of Sweden approves a registered partnerships bill in a 171–141 vote.[27] It became legal on 1 January 1995.

1996[edit]

1997[edit]

  • July 5: The Netherlands passes a registered partnerships bill.[32] It became law on 1 January 1998.[25]

1998[edit]

1999[edit]

  • January 12: Belgium approves a registered partnerships bill.[34] It became law on 1 January 2000.[34]
  • September 22: Governor Gray Davis from the US state of California signs a domestic partnerships bill into law that provided limited rights for same-sex couples.[35]
  • November 15: The Parliament of France approves legislation (art. 515-1 et s. Code civil) that:
  1. creates a relationship register for both gay and straight couples (called "Pacte civil de solidarité" abbreviated as "PaCS"); and
  2. redefines the non-registered partnership as the stable union between two adults regardless of their gender (before this law, previous decisions of the French highest Court ruled that there could be no couple without appearance of marriage, therefore excluding gay people from any vision of family).

2000s[edit]

2000[edit]

  • April 26: Governor Howard Dean from the US state of Vermont signs a civil unions bill into law after the state's Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples were entitled to the same rights as opposite sex couples, thus making Vermont the first state in the U.S. to give full marriage rights to same-sex couples.[37] It became law on 1 July.
  • November: Germany approves a bill to legalize "Life partnerships". It became law on 1 August 2001.
  • December 21: Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands signs into law the first same-sex marriage bill in the world. It had previously cleared the country's Senate on 19 December in a 49–26 vote[38] and the House of Representatives on 12 September in a 109–33 vote.[39] The law came into effect on 1 April 2001.

2001[edit]

Two men marrying in Amsterdam, in the first month after the Netherlands became the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage (2001).
  • January 14: Two same-sex marriages are performed in Ontario, Canada.[40] Although registration of the marriages was initially denied, a successful court challenge upheld their legality on 10 June 2003, thus retroactively making them the first legal same-sex marriages in modern times.[41]
  • April 1: Laws that permit marriage for same-sex couples and grant same-sex couples adoption rights in the Netherlands come into effect. Four same-sex couples are married at the stroke of midnight by the Mayor of Amsterdam.
  • September 28: The Parliament of Finland approves a Registered Partnerships bill in a 99–84 vote.[42] The law came into effect on 1 March 2002.

2003[edit]

  • February 13: King Albert II of Belgium signs a bill legalizing same-sex marriage into law, making Belgium the second country in the world to legalize civil marriage for same-sex couples, after the Netherlands. The bill previously passed the Chamber of Representatives in a 91–22 vote on 30 January 2003 and the Senate in a 46–15 vote on 13 December 2002. It came into effect on 1 June.
  • May 1: The British Columbia Court of Appeal becomes the first provincial court of appeal to rule that the Canadian government must legally recognize same-sex marriage.
  • June 10: A court of appeals in Canada legalizes same-sex marriage in the province Ontario, ruling that restricting marriage to heterosexual couples contravened the equality provisions in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[43] Thus, making Ontario the first jurisdiction in the Americas to legalize same-sex marriages.
  • September 17: A registered partnership bill receives Royal Assent in Tasmania, Australia. It was previously approved by the state Legislative Council on 27 August and by the state House of Assembly on 25 June.[44] It came into effect on 1 January 2004.[45]
  • November 18: The Supreme Court of the US state of Massachusetts orders the Legislature to open marriage to same-sex couples in the landmark Goodridge v. Department of Public Health ruling. The Court also rules that if the Legislature fails to do so in 180 days, same-sex couples will be able to marry without any impediment.

2004[edit]

  • January 12: The Legislature of the US state of New Jersey passes a registered partnerships bill. It came into effect on 10 July.
  • February/March: A number of jurisdictions in the U.S. begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples, including San Francisco, California (12 February), Sandoval County, New Mexico (20 February), New Paltz, New York (27 February), Multnomah County, Oregon (3 March) and Asbury Park, New Jersey (9 March). The licenses were later nullified (not necessarily in Sandoval County, New Mexico).
  • April: The US state of Maine adopts a registered partnerships bill. The law came into effect on 30 July.[46]
  • May 12: The Parliament of Luxembourg approves a civil partnerships bill.[47][48] It came into effect on 1 November.
  • May 17: Same-sex marriage becomes legal in the US state of Massachusetts after the Legislature failed to take any action in the 180 days period given by the state's Supreme Court. It became the first US state to legalize same-sex marriage.[49]
  • November 5: A judge in Saskatchewan, Canada, rules that same-sex couples must enjoy the right to equal marriage in that province.
  • November 17: United Kingdom's parliament legalizes civil partnerships for same-sex couples. The bill received Royal Assent the next day and it took effect on 5 December 2005.
  • November 30: The Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa rules that the common law concept of marriage must be extended to include same-sex couples.
  • December 8: The government of Israel indicates that it will recognize same-sex partnerships for certain benefits.
  • December 8: The Parliament of New Zealand approves a civil unions law by a vote of 65 to 55. The bill came into effect on 26 April 2005.

2005[edit]

  • March 23: The Principality of Andorra legalizes same-sex unions.[50]
  • April 20: Governor Jodi Rell from the US State of Connecticut signs a same-sex civil unions bill into law after passing the State Senate 26 to 8 earlier that day. The bill was previously approved on 13 April by the State House of Representatives in an 85–63 vote. It came into effect on 1 October.
  • June 5: A registered partnership law is approved in Switzerland by 58 percent of voters after opponents organized a ballot measure.[51] It came into effect on 1 January 2007.
  • June 22: A registered partnerships bill is approved in Slovenia giving same-sex couples limited rights.[52] It came into effect on 23 July 2006.
  • June 23: A judge in New Brunswick, Canada, rules that same-sex couples have the right to equal marriage in that province.
  • June 30: The Congress of Deputies of Spain passes a same-sex marriage bill for a second time, overruling the rejection of the Spanish Senate a week before. The law took effect on 3 July, after it was publicized in the official government registry. King Juan Carlos I granted the law Royal Assent the day after passage.
  • July 19: The Senate of Canada legalizes same-sex marriage, making Canada the first country in the Americas to legalize same-sex marriage. It became law on 20 July after receiving Royal Assent. Eight of ten provinces and one of three territories in Canada already allowed same-sex marriage before being recognized federally.
  • December 1: In the case of Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie, the Constitutional Court of South Africa unanimously finds the restriction of marriage to opposite-sex couples to be unconstitutional, giving the country's Parliament one year to introduce same-sex marriage.

2006[edit]

  • March 15: The Czech Republic's parliament passes a registered partnership law with 101 votes (out of 177) overriding President Václav Klaus, who previously vetoed the law on 16 February[53] after it was approved by the lower and upper house in 2005. The law came into effect on 1 July.[54]
  • May 18: King Albert II of Belgium signs a bill allowing adoption by same-sex couples into law after it was approved by the country's Senate on 20 April in a 34–33 vote.
  • October 25: The Supreme Court of the US state of New Jersey unanimously rules in favor of marriage equality; 4–3 give the legislature six months to legalize same-sex marriage or civil unions. The three dissenting justices dissented because they believed same-sex couples should have the full right to marry.[55]
  • November 9: The Legislative Assembly of Mexico City passes a civil union law, making it the first jurisdiction in Latin America to legally recognize same-sex unions.
  • November 21: Israel's supreme court rules that same-sex marriages performed abroad will be formally registered by the Israeli Interior Ministry. This ruling makes equal the status of same-sex couples and other Israeli couples who cannot be married by the formal religious institutions in Israel (e.g. couples from different religions).
  • November 29: Deputy President Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka of South Africa signs the Civil Union Act into law, legalising same-sex marriage.[56] The bill was passed by the National Assembly in a 229–41 vote on 14 November, and 36–11 by the National Council of Provinces on 28 November. The first wedding took place on 1 December.
  • December 7: The Parliament of Canada rejects Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s motion to re-open the equal marriage debate. The motion was defeated 175–123, and every political party had more MPs supporting same-sex marriage than in the previous vote. The prime minister declared the issue "settled".
  • December 21: Governor Jon Corzine from the US state of New Jersey signs a bill legalizing civil unions into law.[57] It took effect on 19 February 2007.

2007[edit]

  • January 12: The Mexican state of Coahuila legalizes civil unions, being the first state to do so in Mexico and the second entity (after Mexico D.F.).
  • April 21: Governor Chris Gregoire from the US state of Washington signs a domestic partnerships bill into law.[58] It came into effect on 22 July.
  • May 9: Governor Ted Kulongoski from the US state of Oregon signs a domestic partnerships bill into law. It came into effect on 1 February 2008.
  • May 31: Governor John Lynch from the US state of New Hampshire signs a civil unions bill into law. It came into effect on 1 January 2008.
  • August 30: A court of the US state of Iowa strikes down its ban on same-sex marriage as a result of a legal challenge. About 20 couples obtained marriage licenses and one couple married before the judge issued a stay of his ruling pending appeal.[59]
  • December 27: President Tabaré Vázquez of Uruguay signs a civil unions bill into law, becoming the first country in Latin America to approve a law giving legal recognition to same-sex couples.[60] The bill was previously approved by the country's legislature on 19 December.[61] It came into effect on 1 January 2008.[62]

2008[edit]

  • April 15: A bill legalizing registered relationships receives Royal Assent in Victoria, Australia. It was previously approved by the State Legislative Council on 10 April and by the State Legislative Assembly on 12 March. The law came into effect on 1 December.[63]
  • May 8: The Legislative Assembly of the ACT, Australia, passes a bill legalizing civil partnerships for same-sex couples.[64] It came into effect on 19 May.
First same-sex wedding in San Francisco, California.
  • May 15: The Supreme Court of the US state of California legalizes same-sex marriage in the landmark In re Marriage Cases ruling. The ruling took effect on 16 June.
  • May 22: Governor Martin O'Malley of the US state of Maryland signs into law two bills legalizing domestic partnerships. They came into effect on 1 July.
  • May 29: Governor David Paterson from the US state of New York signs an executive order mandating state agencies to recognize same-sex marriages performed out-of-state equally under the law. New York thus became the first US state that didn't allow same-sex marriages, but whose state agencies recognized same-sex marriages performed elsewhere.
  • June 17: Norway's upper house legalizes same-sex marriage in a 23–17 vote. The bill was previously approved by the lower house on 11 June in an 84–41 vote.[65] It came into effect on 1 January 2009.
  • September 28: Ecuador's new Constitution is approved by 63.9% of voters, legalizing civil unions for same-sex couples.[66][67] The country's first same-sex civil union was performed on 12 August 2009.[68]
  • October 10: The Supreme Court of the US state of Connecticut legalizes same-sex marriage in the landmark Kerrigan and Mock v. Connecticut Department of Public Health ruling.[69] Same-sex weddings started on 12 November.
  • November 4: A referendum seeking to constitutionally ban same-sex marriages in the US state of California is approved by 52.2% of voters;[70] thus overturning same-sex marriage in California, this event being noteworthy because it has been the only time in modern history that same-sex marriage has been overturned.
  • November 19: The Supreme Court of Nepal orders the government to legalize same-sex marriage.

2009[edit]

  • January 28: The Constitutional Court of Colombia rules that same-sex couples are entitled to the same rights as heterosexual couples in common-law marriages. The ruling means that civil and political rights such as nationality, residency, housing protection, and state benefits are now granted to same-sex partners.[71]
  • April 1: The Parliament of Sweden legalizes same-sex marriage in a 226–22 vote.[72] The law came into effect on 1 May.
  • April 3: The Supreme Court of the US state of Iowa legalizes same-sex marriage in the landmark Varnum v. Brien ruling.[73] Same-sex weddings started on 27 April.
  • April 7: The US state of Vermont legalizes same-sex marriage after a 23–5 vote in the State Senate and a 100–49 vote in the House of Representatives, overriding Governor Jim Douglas, who had vetoed the law a day earlier.[74] The bill came into effect on 1 September.
  • April 20: The Parliament of Hungary legalizes registered partnerships in a 199–159 vote.[75] The law came into effect on 1 July.
  • May 6: Governor John Baldacci from the US state of Maine signs a same-sex marriage bill into law.[76] The bill was previously approved 89-58 by the House of Representatives a day earlier and 21-14 by the State Senate on 30 April. However, opponents organized a referendum that took place on 3 November.
  • May 18: Governor Chris Gregoire from the US state of Washington signs the so-called "everything-but-marriage" registered partnerships bill into law.[77][78] It was passed by the State Senate on 10 March and by the House of Representatives on 15 April. However, opponents organized a referendum that took place on 3 November.
  • May 26: California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8, constitutionally banning same-sex marriage, but rules that previously officiated same-sex marriages shall remain valid.
  • May 31: The Assembly of the US state of Nevada legalizes domestic partnerships by a 28–14 vote,[79] overriding a veto from Governor Jim Gibbons after the Senate did the same on 30 May by a 14–7 vote.[80] The law came into effect on 1 October.[80]
  • June 3: Governor John Lynch from the US State of New Hampshire signs a bill legalizing same-sex marriage into law after being approved 14–10 by the State Senate and 198–176 by the House of Representatives.[81] The law took effect on 1 January 2010.
  • June 29: Governor Jim Doyle from the US state of Wisconsin signs into law a bill legalizing registered partnerships. The bill was previously approved by the State Assembly in a 50–48 vote on 13 June[82] and by the State Senate in a 17–16 vote on 17 June.[82] The law came into effect on 3 August.
  • July 1: The US state of Colorado begins recognizing designated beneficiary agreements.[83]
  • July 6: The District of Columbia starts recognizing same-sex marriages performed in other US states, although same-sex marriages cannot be performed in DC itself.
  • November 3: A referendum in the US state of Maine repeals an approved same-sex marriage bill before it took effect,[84] while a referendum in the US state of Washington upholds the so-called "everything-but-marriage" registered partnerships bill,[85] which came into effect on 3 December.
  • December 18: District of Columbia Mayor Adrian Fenty signs a same-sex marriage bill into law.[86] The bill was previously approved by the D.C. Council on 15 December.[87] It came into effect on 3 March 2010.[88]
  • December 18: The Federal Council (upper house) of Austria's passes a bill legalizing registered partnerships in a 44–8 vote.[89] The bill was previously passed by the National Council (lower house) on 10 December in a 110–64 vote.[90] It came into effect on 1 January 2010.
  • December 28: The first same-sex marriage in Argentina and Latin America is conducted in Ushuaia, province of Tierra del Fuego. The couple first planned to marry in Buenos Aires on 1 December after a city court ruled that it should be issued a marriage license;[91] however, a national judge blocked the marriage from taking place in Buenos Aires. The couple successfully married in Ushuaia thanks to Governor Fabiana Ríos's intervention.[92]
  • December 29: Mexico City's Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard signs a same-sex marriage bill into law.[93] The bill was previously approved on 21 December by the Legislative Assembly in a 39–20 vote. It took effect on 3 March 2010.[94] Civil unions in Mexico City had been available since 2007, but full marriage was not yet recognized.[95]

2010s[edit]

2010[edit]

  • May 17: President of Portugal Aníbal Cavaco Silva signs a same-sex marriage bill into law, making Portugal the sixth country in Europe, and eighth country overall, to legalize same-sex marriages.[96] The country's Assembly previously approved the bill in its second reading on 11 February.[97] It took effect on 5 June.[98]
  • May 19: A registered partnerships bill receives Royal Assent in New South Wales, Australia.[99] The bill was previously approved by the state upper House in 12 May in a 32–5 vote and by the state lower House on 11 May in a 62–9 vote. The law came into effect on 1 July.[100]
  • June 11: The Parliament of Iceland unanimously approves a law legalizing same-sex marriage by a vote of 49–0.[101] The law took effect on 27 June.
  • June 27: Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir, Iceland's Prime minister, becomes the world's first head of government to enter a same-sex marriage.[102]
  • July 19: President Mary McAleese of Ireland signs into law a bill legalizing Civil Partnerships. It was previously passed by the Seanad in a 48–4 vote on 8 July.[103] The law came into effect on 1 January 2011.[104]
President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández, signs the bill legalizing same-sex marriage.
  • July 21: President Cristina Fernandez of Argentina signs a same-sex marriage bill into law,[105] making Argentina the first country in Latin America to legalize same-sex marriage. The bill was previously approved by the country's Senate 33-27 on 15 July[106] and 125–109 by the Chamber of Deputies on 5 May.[107] The first marriage took place on 30 July.[108]
  • August 4: U.S. District Court of Northern California declares that Proposition 8, a 2008 California-electorate ban on same-sex marriage, violates due process and equal protection clauses in the U.S. Constitution.[109] Supporters of the proposition eventually appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, which issued a ruling in 2013.
  • August 5: The Supreme Court of Mexico votes 8–2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law.[110] On the following days, it also voted to mandate that all 31 states of Mexico must recognize same-sex marriages performed in other jurisdictions (on 10 August, on a 9–2 vote)[111] and to uphold a Mexico City law permitting same-sex couples entering into marriages to adopt children (on 16 August, on a 9–2 vote).[112]
  • August 10: The Supreme Court of Costa Rica issues a 5–2 ruling to halt a referendum on same-sex civil unions which was scheduled for 5 December after stating that minority rights shouldn't be decided by the majority.[113]

2011[edit]

  • January 10: The Court of Appeal of the province of Saskatchewan in Canada rules that marriage commissioners cannot refuse to wed same-sex couples on religious grounds.[114]
  • January 31: Governor Pat Quinn from the US state of Illinois signs a civil unions bill into law.[115] The bill was previously approved 32–24 by the state Senate on 1 December[116] and 61–52 by the state House of Representatives on 30 November.[117] It came into effect on 1 June.[118]
  • February 23: Governor Neil Abercrombie from the US state of Hawaii signs a civil unions bill into law.[119] The bill was previously approved 18–5 by the state Senate on 16 February[120] and 31–19 by the state House of Representatives on 11 February.[121] It came into effect on 1 January 2012.[122]
  • March 15: The Isle of Man legalizes civil partnerships.[123] The law came into effect on 6 April.[124]
  • March 16: The Parliament of Liechtenstein passes a registered partnerships bill in a 24–0 vote.[125] However, opponents organized a referendum that took place on 19 June.[126]
  • May 5: The Supreme Court of Justice of Brazil unanimously legalizes civil unions for same-sex couples.[127][128]
  • May 11: Governor Jack Markell from the US state of Delaware signs a civil unions bill into law.[129] The bill was previously approved 26–15 by the state Assembly on 14 April[130] and 13–6 by the state Senate on 7 April.[131] It came into effect on 1 January 2012.[122]
  • June 19: Voters of Liechtenstein approve a registered partnerships bill by 68.8% after opponents organized a ballot measure.[126] The law took effect on 1 September.[126]
  • June 24: Governor Andrew Cuomo from the US state of New York signs a same-sex marriage bill into law. The bill was previously approved two hours early 33–29 by the state Senate and 80–63 by the state Assembly on 5 June.[132] It came into effect on 24 July.[133]
  • July 1: A civil unions bill in the US state of Rhode Island becomes effective, Independent Governor Lincoln Chafee signed the bill on 2 July 2011 but the law was made retroactive from 1 July 2011.[134] The bill was previously approved 21–16 by the state Senate on 29 June[135] and by the Assembly in a 62–11 vote on 20 May.[136]
  • July 12: A civil partnerships bill is unanimously approved in Jersey.[137] It took effect on 2 April 2012.[138]
  • July 26: The Constitutional Court of Colombia rules that same-sex couples have the right to form a family and orders the Congress to pass legislation addressing the issue of same-sex marriage before 20 June 2013. If such a law is not passed until then, same-sex couples will be able to apply for marriage-like rights automatically.[139][140]
  • August 1: Same-sex marriage is in effect legalized by the Suquamish tribe in the US state of Washington for tribe members.[141]
  • October 25: The Supreme Court of Justice of Brazil rules that two women can legally be married.[142]
  • November 28: First same-sex marriages are held in Quintana Roo, Mexico, because the state's civil code doesn't state sex or gender requirements for marriage.[143]
  • November 30: The state parliament of Queensland, Australia, passes a civil partnerships bill in a 47–40 vote.[144] The law came into effect on 23 February 2012.[145]
  • December 7: The Judicial Court of the Brazilian state of Alagoas extends marriage to same-sex couples.[146][147]

2012[edit]

  • February 13: Governor Christine Gregoire from the US state of Washington signs a same-sex marriage bill into law. The bill was priorly approved 55–43 by the state House on 8 February[148] and 28–21 by the state Senate on 1 February.[149] However, opponents organized a referendum that took place on 6 November.
  • March 1: Governor Martin O'Malley from the US state of Maryland signs a same-sex marriage bill into law.[150] The bill was previously approved by the Senate, 25–22, on 23 February[151] and by the House, 72–67, on 17 February.[152] However, opponents organized a referendum that took place on 6 November.
  • May 14: Governor Lincoln Chafee from the US state of Rhode Island signs an executive order to recognize same-sex marriages performed out-of-state equally under the law.[153]
  • June 7: The Parliament of Denmark legalizes same-sex marriage in an 85–24 vote, becoming the eighth country in Europe, and eleventh overall, to do it.[154][155] The law took effect on 15 June.[154] Denmark was previously the first country to legally recognize same-sex couples through registered partnerships in 1989.[156]
  • June 10: A judicial court in Uruguay declares a foreign same-sex marriage valid, making it the first legal same-sex marriage in the country.[157] The ruling also affirmed that local laws already permit same-sex marriage, even if they don't state it literally, and that Uruguayans married overseas can go to a judge to have their marriages recognized.[158]
  • July 5: The Judicial Court of the Brazilian state of Sergipe issued "Provimento nº 06/2012", extending marriage to same-sex couples. [159]
  • October 10: The Judicial Court of the Brazilian state of Bahia extends marriage to same-sex couples. The ruling came into effect on 26 November.[161][162]
  • October 10: Same-sex marriage is legalized in the Caribbean Netherlands after the Dutch Parliament passed a law extending its same-sex marriage law to the region.[163] The first same-sex marriage was performed on Saba on 4 December 2012 between a Dutch and a Venezuelan man, both residing in Aruba.[164]
  • November 6: The Spanish Constitutional Court upholds the country's same-sex marriage law after the ruling People's Party filed a lawsuit arguing that it was unconstitutional. After the ruling, the Spanish Minister of Justice said that the government will accept the verdict and drop plans to change the law.[165]
  • November 6: Voters in the US states of Maine, Maryland, and Washington approve same-sex marriage laws in referendums, becoming the first US states to legalize same-sex marriage through this process,[166][167] while voters in the US state of Minnesota become the first to reject a constitutional amendment seeking to ban same-sex marriage in their state.[168] The laws of Washington, Maine and Maryland, came into effect on 6 December 2012, 29 December 2012[169] and 1 January 2013[170] respectively.
  • December 5: Supreme Court of Mexico unanimously finds the same-sex marriage ban in the southern state of Oaxaca unconstitutional, paving the way for same-sex marriages nationally.[172] Same-sex marriage is already legal in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo and in Mexico City.
  • December 18: The Justice Court of the Brazilian state of São Paulo extends marriage to same-sex couples.[175] Same-sex marriages were already offered in six other Brazilian states and in the country's Federal District. The ruling came into effect on 1 March 2013.[176]

2013[edit]

  • March 7: The Justice Court of the Brazilian state of Ceará rules, from 15 March on, that notaries statewide are required to perform same-sex marriages.[177]
  • March 21: Governor John Hickenlooper from the US state of Colorado signs a civil unions bill into law.[181] The bill was previously approved by the House of Representatives on 12 March in a 39–26 vote[182] and by the Senate in a 21–14 vote on 11 February.[183] It came into effect on 1 May.
  • March 22: The Bundesrat of Germany passes a state-level initiative which will open marriage to same-sex couples. The bill will advance in the Bundestag where an identical bill was rejected in 2012. The legislation was proposed by 5 states of Germany.[184]
  • March 26: The Judiciary Power of the Brazilian State of Paraná extends marriage to same-sex couples.[185]
  • April 10: The Chamber of Deputies of Uruguay legalizes same-sex marriage with 71 affirmative votes (out of 92) in its second reading,[187] making Uruguay the second country in Latin America, after Argentina, and twelfth overall, to legalize same-sex marriage. The law was previously passed by the Senate on 2 April by a 23–8 vote.[188] The bill was signed into law on 3 May 2013.[189] It came into force on 5 August 2013.[190]
  • April 14: The Constitutional Convention of Ireland, which was charged with making recommendations to the Irish Government in respect of changes to the country's Constitution, votes overwhelmingly (79%) in favour of amending the Constitution to allow for same sex marriage.[191] The Irish Government will respond to the decision within 4 months. An Tanaiste, Eamon Gilmore, the Deputy Prime Minister of Ireland, states in July that a referendum to introduce same sex marriage in Ireland may take place in 2014.
  • April 17: The Parliament of New Zealand legalizes same-sex marriage by a 77–44 vote in the bill's third reading,[192][193] making New Zealand the first country in Oceania, and thirteenth overall, to legalize same-sex marriage. The bill received Royal Assent two days later.[194] It came into effect on 19 August 2013.
  • April 17: The General Magistrate of Justice of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, Valmir de Oliveira Silva, authorizes local judges to perform same-sex marriages if they agree to do so.[195] The ruling states that couples must register their request in the civil registry and then wait 15 days for the district to decide whether to perform it or not.[196]
  • April 26: The Judicial Court of the Brazilian state of Rondônia publishes a Provision (008/2013-CG) which extends marriage to same-sex couples and the conversion of stable unions into marriages throughout the State.[197]
  • May 2: Governor Lincoln Chafee from the US state of Rhode Island signs a same-sex marriage bill into law. The bill was passed shortly before with a final 56–15 vote in the House of Representatives [201] and on 24 April by the state Senate in a 26–12 vote.[202] It came into effect on 1 August 2013.
  • May 7: Governor Jack Markell from the US state of Delaware signs a same-sex marriage bill into law. The bill was passed shortly before by the state Senate by a 12–9 vote[203] and on 23 April by the House of Representatives by a 23–18 vote.[204] It took effect on 1 July 2013.
  • May 14: The Justice's National Council of Brazil legalizes same-sex marriage in the entire country by a 14–1 vote, making Brazil the third country in South America, after Argentina and Uruguay, and fifteenth in the world to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide. The Council's ruling orders all civil register of the country to grant same-sex marriages.[205][206] The ruling was published on 15 May and took effect on 16 May 2013.[207][208]
  • May 14: Governor Mark Dayton from the US state of Minnesota signs a same-sex marriage bill into law.[209][209] The bill was passed a day before by the state Senate by a 37–30 vote and on 9 May by the House of Representatives by a 75–59 vote. It came into effect on 1 August 2013.
The National Assembly of France gives final approval to the same-sex marriage bill by a 331–225 vote.
  • May 18: President François Hollande of France signs a same-sex marriage bill into law,[210] making France the fourteenth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage. The bill was introduced to the National Assembly by the government on 14 November 2012, who approved it by a 329–229 vote on 12 February 2013.[211] The Bill was then sent to the Senate who approved it with amendments by a 179–157 vote on 12 April.[212] As parts of it were changed, the Bill was thus sent back to the lower house on 17 April for a final scrutiny and passed on 23 April by a 331–225 vote.[213] The law was validated by the Constitutional Council of France on 17 May. François Hollande, President of France, signed it into law on 18 May.[210][214] It took effect on 19 May 2013, making France the thirteenth country to effectively implement same sex marriage.[210]
  • June 20: Deadline given by the Colombian Constitutional Court for Parliament to legislate on same-sex unions ends. Notaries across the country begin performing "marital contracts" for same-sex couples, however, LGBT activists advice people not to engage in those contracts as they did not exist in the country's laws. In the following days, several couples make petitions to civil judges to have their relationships recognized through marriage.[215][216]
  • June 24: The Santa Ysabel Tribe announce their recognition of same-sex marriage, becoming the first tribe in California to do so.[217]
  • July 1: Same-sex marriages begin in the US state of Delaware.
  • July 24: Colombia's first same-sex marriage takes place in Bogotá after a local judge accepted the marriage petition of a male couple.[222]
  • July 30: The Mexican state of Colima allows same-sex civil unions.[223]
  • August 1: Same-sex marriages begin in the US states of Minnesota and Rhode Island.
  • August 19: Same-sex marriages begin in New Zealand.
  • November 5: The Government of Ireland announces a same-sex marriage referendum to take place before the summer of 2015.
  • November 13: Governor Neil Abercrombie from the US state of Hawaii signs a bill granting marriage to same-sex couples, making Hawaii the fifteenth such US state. The legislation was approved by the state Senate by a 19–4 vote on 12 November and previously by the House by a 30–19 vote on 8 November. This legislation started to be debated on 28 October 2013.[231]
  • November 20: Governor Pat Quinn from the US state of Illinois signs a bill granting marriage to same-sex couples. The legislation was previously approved by the House by a 61–54 vote on 5 November and by the Senate by a 34–21 vote on 14 February.[232][233][234]
  • November 20: The Scottish Parliament passes the Marriage and Civil Partnership Bill through the first Stage by a 98–15 vote.[235] The bill was previously approved by the Equal Opportunities Committee.[236]
  • December 1: Croatia passes a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and defining marriage as strictly a union between a man and woman. The amendment was passed via a referendum with 65% of voters voting for it.[237]
  • December 12: The High Court of Australia decides unanimously that a legislative act granting marriage to same-sex couples in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) "cannot operate concurrently with the federal Marriage Act 1961." The court said that such marriages have no effect under the act and that it is matter of the federal Parliament to amend the federal marriage law.[238] The ACT passed legislation granting marriage to same-sex couples in a 9–8 party-line vote on 22 October.[239] The first marriages were solemnized on 7 December but have been annulled as unconstitutional.[240]
  • December 19: The Supreme Court of the US state of New Mexico ordered state officials to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples in the case Griego v. Oliver.[241]

2014[edit]

  • February 4: The Scottish Parliament approved the Marriage and Civil Partnership Bill through the third Stage by a 105–18 vote.[242] On November 20, 2013, the Parliament passed the bill through the first stage by a 98–15 vote[235] and then ended the second stage on January 16. The bill received royal assent on March 12.
  • February 10: Nevada declares that it will no longer seek to defend the state's same-sex marriage ban in court, after a 9th Circuit Court ruling that potential jurors cannot be removed from a trial during jury selection solely because of sexual orientation, which contained the words: "In its words and its deed, [the Supreme Court's decision in Windsor v. United States] established a level of scrutiny for classifications based on sexual orientation that is unquestionably higher than rational basis review. … In short, Windsor requires heightened scrutiny."
  • February 13: The U.S. District Court for Virginia found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Bostic v. Rainey.[243]
  • February 21: The U.S. District Court for Illinois found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Lee and others v. Orr and ordered that Cook County's officials must issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Other counties followed several days later.[244] Illinois had already signed into law a legislation granting marriage to same-sex couples on November 20, 2013 which took effect on 1 June 2014[245]
  • February 26: The U.S. District Court for Western Texas found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case De Leon v. Perry.[246]
  • March 13: Legislation to allow same-sex marriage in England and Wales came into force, with the first same-sex marriages due to take place on March 29, 2014.[247]
  • March 21: The Parliament of Gibraltar approved the Civil Partnership bill 2014 through the third reading in a 16–0 vote.'[248]
  • March 21: The U.S. District Court for Michigan found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case DeBoer v. Snyder.[249]
  • April 9: The Italian Civil Court of Grosseto ordered the recognition of a same-sex marriage contracted abroad.[250]
  • April 14: The Parliament of Malta approved the Civil Unions bill 2014 through the third reading in a 37–0.[251]
  • April 23: The Supreme Court of Mexico unanimously found the same-sex marriage ban in the southern state of Oaxaca unconstitutional. As a final decision the Court set a precedent in the State of Oaxaca.[citation needed] The Court ordered the state officials to comply with the ruling.[252]
  • May 9: The Circuit Court of Pulaski County of the U.S. state of Arkansas found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Wright v. Arkansas. After approximately 450 same-sex couples received marriage licenses in several Arkansas counties, the Arkansas Supreme Court suspended Judge Piazza's ruling after a week on May 16, 2014 and enforced a stay while the decision is appealed by Arkansas' Democratic Attorney General Dustin McDaniel.[253]
  • May 13: The U.S. District Court of Idaho struck down the marriage laws prohibiting same-sex couples from marrying in the case Latta v. Otter. Same-sex marriage in Idaho would have become legal on 16 May 2014 at 9:00 a.m. MDT but the ruling was eventually stayed by an appeals court.[254][255]
  • May 19: U.S. District Court of Oregon found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Geiger v. Kitzhaber, legalizing same-sex marriage in Oregon.
  • May 20: The U.S. District Court of Pennsylvania found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Whitewood v. Wolf, legalizing same-sex marriage in Pennsylvania.
  • June 1: Legislation granting the right to marry took effect in Illinois.[245]
  • June 6: The U.S. District Court for Wisconsin found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Wolf v. Walker.
  • June 18: The Chamber of Deputies of Luxembourg approved legislation that grants same-sex couples the right to marry in 56–4 vote and the law takes effect January 1 2015.[256] On June 24 the Council of State gave its consent to skip a second vote on the measure.[257] The bill was promulgated by Grand Duke Henri on July 4 and was published in the official gazette on 17 July.
  • June 25: The U.S. District Court of Indiana found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Baskin v. Bogan.
  • June 25: The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit found the Utah ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Kitchen v. Herbert but stayed pending appeal. The decision was delivered by a three-judge panel with a 2–1 split vote in favor of upholding a lower court opinion decided on December 20, 2013.[258]
  • July 1: The U.S. District Court for Kentucky found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Love v. Beshear.
  • July 9: The District Court of the Adams County, Colorado, ruled unconstitutional the state ban on same-sex marriage in the case Brinkman v. Long. The ruling was stayed for further appeal.
  • July 10: The District Court of the Boulder County, Colorado, ruled in favor for the county official who defied the state ban on same-sex marriage when the 10th Circuit issued and stayed the opinion in the case Kitchen v. Herbert. Denver and Pueblo county announced that they will issue marriage licenses for same-sex couples too.
  • July 15: The Croatian Parliament approved the Life Partnership bill in a 89–16 vote.
  • July 18: The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit found the Oklahoma ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional in the case Bishop v. United States but stayed pending appeal.[259] The decision was in favor of upholding a lower court opinion decided on January 14, 2014.[260]
  • July 25: The District Court of the Miami-Dade County, Florida, ruled unconstitutional the state ban on same-sex marriage in the case Pareto v. Ruvin.[261] This is the second ruling in favor of same-sex couples in 8 days, the first was decided by the District Court of the Monroe County, Florida in the case Huntsman v. Haevilin.[262] Both cases are stayed pending the appeal.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Origins and Role of Same-Sex Relations In Human Societies – James Neill – Google Boeken. Google Books. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  2. ^ Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia. Google Books. 28 January 1993. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Cicero Philippic 18 February, 2.45 See old translation at: http://old.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0021&layout=&loc=18 February, 2.45
  4. ^ Martial 12.42, 1.35, 3.93, 12.95. Old Translations of passages at: http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book12.htm http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book01.htm http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book03.htm
  5. ^ Martial, 465
  6. ^ Martial, 468.
  7. ^ Gay Rights Or Wrongs: A Christian's Guide to Homosexual Issues and Ministry, by Mike Mazzalonga, 1996, p.11
  8. ^ a b The Nature Of Homosexuality, Erik Holland, page 334, 2004
  9. ^ Bullough, p. 53
  10. ^ Hinsch, Bret. (1990). Passions of the Cut Sleeve. University of California Press. pp. 35–36.
  11. ^ Nero missed her so greatly after her death that on learning of a woman who resembled her he at first sent for her and kept her; but later he caused a boy of the freedmen, whom he used to call Sporus,..."he formally "married" Sporus, and assigned the boy a regular dowry according to contract;" q.v., Suetonius Nero 28; Dio Cassius Epitome 62.28 Old Translation of passage at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/62*.html
  12. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXXIX.30
  13. ^ Dio Cassius Epitome 80.5, 80.14, 80.15, 80.16; Herodian Roman History 5.6.1–5.6.2 Old Translation of passage at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/80*.html http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/herodian_05_book5.htm
  14. ^ Wrestling With God And Men: Homosexuality In The Jewish Tradition – Steven Greenberg – Google Boeken. Google Books. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  15. ^ Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western ... – John Boswell – Google Boeken. Google Books. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  16. ^ Carlos Callón. "Callón gaña o Vicente Risco de Ciencias Sociais cun ensaio sobre a homosexualidade na Idade Media" (in Galician). Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  17. ^ Dumairy, A. (2005). Siwa Past and Present. Alexandria. 
  18. ^ Steindorff, George (1904). Durch die Libysche Wuste Zur Amonoase. Leipsig: Velohgen and Klasing. p. 111. 
  19. ^ a b Denniston, Lyle (4 July 2012). "Gay marriage and Baker v. Nelson". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  20. ^ "MGA HTML Statutes". Mlis.state.md.us. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  21. ^ Eli Sanders (20 October 2005). "Marriage Denied". The Stranger. 
  22. ^ "Clela Rorex: Gay marriage pioneer". 24 June 2011. 
  23. ^ "Boulder civil union event adds layer of living history, with former clerk Rorex to attend". 19 April 2013. 
  24. ^ "Clela Rorex: 1975 Same-Sex Marriage license". 9 July 2013. 
  25. ^ a b "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands" (PDF). Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  26. ^ "Governments that have recognized same-sex relationships". Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 9 September 2009. 
  27. ^ Sarcevic, Petar; Volken, Paul. "Yearbook of Private International Law". Google Books. Retrieved 9 September 2009. 
  28. ^ Yuval Merin, Equality for same-sex couples. Published in 2002.
  29. ^ "Iceland : Recognized partnership law, 1996". France.qrd.org. 1 July 1996. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  30. ^ Jensen, Steffen (June 1996). "Partnership law in Iceland". ILGA Euroletter. Retrieved 9 September 2009. 
  31. ^ MetroWeekly: Chris Geidner, "Becoming Law," September 29, 2011, accessed 3 March 2012
  32. ^ "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands" (PDF). Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  33. ^ Clarkson, Kevin, Coolidge, David, & Duncan, William (1999). "The Alaska Marriage Amendment: The People's Choice On The Last Frontier". Alaska Law Review (Duke University School of Law) 16 (2): 213–268. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  34. ^ a b "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in Belgium" (PDF). Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  35. ^ AB 26. Legislative Counsel of California. 1999–2000 Session.
  36. ^ Goldberg, Carey (21 December 1999). "Vermont High Court Backs Rights of Same-Sex Couples". New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  37. ^ "House Committee activity". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  38. ^ "Same-Sex Dutch Couples Gain Marriage and Adoption Rights". Nytimes.com. 20 December 2000. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  39. ^ "Dutch Legislators Approve Full Marriage Rights for Gays". Nytimes.com. 13 September 2000. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  40. ^ "Record of Marriage" (GIF). 14 January 2001.  signed by Rev. Brent Hawkes
  41. ^ "The first legal gay marriage is now certified".  Certificate of marriage, issued 11 June 2003.
  42. ^ "Parliament narrowly passes law allowing same-sex registration". Helsingin Sanomat. 28 September 2001. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  43. ^ "Ontario men wed following court ruling". CBC News. 13 June 2003. 
  44. ^ "Relationships Act 2003". Thelaw.tas.gov.au. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  45. ^ "Tasmania: Births, Deaths, Marriage: Relationships". Justice.tas.gov.au. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  46. ^ Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 22, sec. 2710
  47. ^ "La loi relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats adoptée par la Chambre des députés". Gouvernement.lu. 13 May 2004. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  48. ^ "The Partenariat (PACS) in Luxembourg". Luxembourg.angloinfo.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  49. ^ (Catalan) Llei 4/2005, del 21 de febrer, qualificada de les unions estables de parella
  50. ^ "Fight goes on for gay couples". Swissinfo.ch. 10 June 2004. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  51. ^ "Slovenia passes same-sex marriage law". B92.net. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  52. ^ "Czech MPs approve gay rights law". BBC News. 15 March 2006. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  53. ^ "Nearly weds". The Prague Post. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  54. ^ Mixed decision for gay couples in New Jersey, San Francisco Chronicle
  55. ^ Same-sex marriages now legal in SA, iol.co.za, 30 November 2006.
  56. ^ "New Jersey Public Law 2006, c.103" (PDF). New Jersey Legislature. 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2007. 
  57. ^ "Governor Gregoire Signs Legislation Giving Legal Rights to Domestic Partners". Office of the Governor. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  58. ^ "First Iowa gay marriage shows 'love and justice'". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. , Rick Pearson, Chicago Tribune, 31 August 2007
  59. ^ Writer, Staff. (28 December 2007) Uruguay's President grants legal rights for gay couples. Pinknews.co.uk. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  60. ^ Uruguay approves gay civil unions. BBC News (19 December 2007). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  61. ^ Uruguay approves gay civil unions. Larry50.wordpress.com (4 January 2008). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  62. ^ "Victorian Relationship Register Opens Today". Samesame.com.au. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  63. ^ "Watered down same-sex laws pass in ACT". Sydney Morning Herald. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  64. ^ From the Associated Press 17 June 2008, 10:39 am (17 June 2008). "Norway passes law approving gay marriage". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  65. ^ "Ecuador Approves New Constitution Including Same-Sex Civil Unions". Towleroad.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  66. ^ Ecuador's poor bank on referendum. Bbc.co.uk (27 September 2008). Retrieved on 8 February 2012.
  67. ^ "Uniones gays ya son legales". Vistazo.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  68. ^ Michael Levenson and Andrew Ryan (10 October 2008). "Connecticut Supreme Court legalizes same-sex marriage". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  69. ^ "Statement of Vote: 2008 General Election" (PDF). California Secretary of State. 13 December 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2010. 
  70. ^ Partners Task Force for Gay & Lesbian Couples (29 January 2009). "Common Law Marriage: The Colombian Approach". Retrieved 11 January 2010. 
  71. ^ "Sweden allows same-sex marriage". BBC News. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  72. ^ "Iowa Supreme Court strikes down gay marriage ban". 365gay.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  73. ^ Gram, Dave (7 April 2009). "Vermont Legalizes Gay Marriage, Overrides Governor's Veto". Huffington Post. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  74. ^ Hungary introduces registered partnership for same-sex partners
  75. ^ "Governor Signs LD 1020, An Act to End Discrimination in Civil Marriage and Affirm Religious Freedom". Maine.gov. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  76. ^ "Gov. Gregoire signs legislation to expand rights to domestic partners". Governor.wa.gov. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  77. ^ "SB 5688 – 2009–10". Apps.leg.wa.gov. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  78. ^ Senate overrides governor's veto of domestic partners bill
  79. ^ a b House overrides governor's veto of domestic partners bill
  80. ^ "New Hampshire legalizes gay marriage". Reuters. 3 June 2009. 
  81. ^ a b State Assembly Votes to Approve Domestic Partnerships!, Fair Wisconsin
  82. ^ "Ritter signs bill that will help gay couples – The Denver Post". Denver Post. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009. 
  83. ^ "Maine rejects same-sex marriage law". CNN. 5 November 2009. 
  84. ^ "Referendum Measure No. 74 Concerns marriage for same-sex couples". Vote.wa.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  85. ^ The Christian Press (21 December 2009). "D.C. Mayor Signs Gay Marriage Bill". Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  86. ^ The Washington Post (16 December 2009). "D.C. Council approves same-sex marriage bill". Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  87. ^ Gresko, Jessica (3 March 2010). "Same-sex marriage becomes legal in DC". Google News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. 
  88. ^ (German) "Bundesrat beschließt Homo-Ehe". GGG.at. 18 December 2009. 
  89. ^ "Austrian parliament OKs gay civil unions". 365Gay. Associated Press. 10 December 2009. 
  90. ^ "Argentine judge allows gay wedding in legal first". Reuters. 13 November 2009. 
  91. ^ "Gay marriage in Argentina is 1st in Latin America". Associated Press. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2009. [dead link]
  92. ^ Tracy Wilkinson (29 December 2009). "Gay marriage closer to reality in Mexico". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  93. ^ Elisabeth Malkin (6 February 2010). "Gay Marriage Puts Mexico City at Center of Debate". New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2010. 
  94. ^ "Mexico City 1st in region to approve gay marriage". Associated Press. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
  95. ^ Portugal's President to Sign Same-Sex Marriage into Law towleroad.com Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  96. ^ a (25 January 2011). "Gay marriage approved by the Portuguese Parliament". M24digital.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  97. ^ "Lei n.º 9/2010 de 31 de Maio" (PDF). Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  98. ^ "Relationships Register Bill 2010". Parliament.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  99. ^ "NSW couples can register from today". Samesame.com.au. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  100. ^ "New gay marriage law in Iceland comes into force". Icenews.is. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  101. ^ Icelandic leader in milestone gay marriage[dead link]
  102. ^ 08/07/2010 – 18:55:14. "Civil Partnership Bill passes all stages". Breakingnews.ie. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  103. ^ "Partnership laws come into force". The Irish Times. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  104. ^ "Law legalizing same-sex marriage in Argentina takes effect as president signs bill at ceremony". Fox News. 21 July 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  105. ^ "Argentine Senate backs bill legalising gay marriage". BBC. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  106. ^ Shayla Hoegerl (14 October 2010). "Lower House approves gay marriage". Momento24.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  107. ^ "Argentine gay couple tie knot under new marriage law". BBC. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  108. ^ Judge strikes down Prop. 8, allows gay marriage in California LA Times Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  109. ^ "Mexico court upholds gay marriage law". Reuters. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
  110. ^ "Mexican Supreme Court: Gay Marriage Be Recognized in all 31 States". zimbio.com. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  111. ^ Mexican high court upholds adoptions by same-sex couples CNN.com Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  112. ^ Costa Rica Court Rejects Vote on Same-Sex Civil Unions Voice of America News. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  113. ^ The Canadian Press (10 January 2011). "Sask. gay marriage refusal law ruled unconstitutional". Toronto Star. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  114. ^ Illinois Governor Signs Historic Law, Extends a Measure of Fairness to All Couples[dead link]
  115. ^ Sabella, Jen (1 December 2010). "Illinois Civil Unions Bill Passes Senate, Gov. Quinn Will Sign Into Law". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  116. ^ Sabella, Jen (30 November 2010). "Illinois Civil Unions Bill PASSES State House". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  117. ^ Jones, Lawrence (1 June 2011). "Illinois Gay Civil Unions Law Takes Effect; Mass Ceremonies Planned". Christian Post. Retrieved 24 February 2012. 
  118. ^ Hawaii's governor signs civil unions into law[dead link]
  119. ^ Johnson, Chris (16 February 2011). "Hawaii civil unions bill advances to governor". Washingtonblade.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  120. ^ "Hawaii House passes bill recognizing same-sex civil unions". Jurist.org. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  121. ^ a b "Two more states allow same-sex civil unions - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. 2 January 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  122. ^ Corker, Sarah. (15 March 2011) Isle of Man gay couples get right to civil partnership. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 8 February 2012.
  123. ^ Isle of Man gay couples have right to civil partnership. Bbc.co.uk (6 April 2011). Retrieved on 8 February 2012.
  124. ^ (German) Landtag einhellig für Partnerschaftsgesetz
  125. ^ a b c "68,8 % Ja-Stimmen für Partnerschaftsgesetz". Liechtensteiner Volksblatt (in German). 19 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  126. ^ Sibaja, Marco (5 May 2011). "Brazil’s top court approves same-sex civil unions, setting precedent for gay rights". The Washington Post. 
  127. ^ Débora Santos Do G1, em Brasília. "G1 – Supremo reconhece união estável de homossexuais – notícias em Brasil". G1.globo.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  128. ^ One-Time Gifts. "Delaware Governor Signs Civil-Union Bill Into Law". Hrc.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  129. ^ Chase, Randall (15 April 2011). "Delaware Same-Sex Civil Unions Law Heads To Governor For Signature". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  130. ^ Bolcer, Julie. "Delaware Senate Passes Civil Unions Bill". Advocate.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  131. ^ Goldberg, Adam (15 June 2011). "New York Gay Marriage: State Assembly Approves Same-Sex Marriage Bill". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  132. ^ Wedding Bells Will Ring on July 24 in New York City talkingpointsmemo.com Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  133. ^ Howard, Zach (2 July 2011). "Rhode Island governor signs gay civil union law despite doubts". Reuters. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  134. ^ Goodnough, Abby (30 June 2011). "Rhode Island Lawmakers Approve Civil Unions". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  135. ^ "Rhode Island House approves civil union bill". Jurist.org. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  136. ^ "Jersey States approves civil partnerships". BBC. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  137. ^ "Jersey's civil partnership law comes into force". BBC. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  138. ^ DECISION C-577/11 The homosexuals have the right to form a family
  139. ^ "Colombian court says Congress must decide on gay marriage". CNN. 27 July 2011. 
  140. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage Becomes Legal in Washington (at Least One Part)". Alex R. Orue. 6 August 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  141. ^ "Brazil appellate court says gay marriage is legal". Chicago Sun-Times. 
  142. ^ "Dos matrimonios homosexuales se casaron en un municipio conservador". CNN. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  143. ^ "Same sex civil unions passed in Queensland". Heraldsun.com.au. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  144. ^ Gay couples seal the civil union deal ABC News. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  145. ^ "Alagoas regulamenta o casamento civil entre gays em todos os cartórios do estado – Brasil em Política no A Capa". UOL (in Portuguese). Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  146. ^ "PROVIMENTO Nº 40, DE 06 DE DEZEMBRO DE 2011". JusBrazil (in Portuguese). 7 December 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 
  147. ^ Garber, Andrew (8 February 2012). "Gay-marriage bill passes House, awaits Gregoire's signature". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  148. ^ Yardley, William (1 February 2012). "Washington State Senate Passes Gay Marriage Bill". The New York Times. 
  149. ^ "Maryland governor to sign same-sex marriage bill". CNN. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  150. ^ Same-sex marriage bill approved by Maryland Senate The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  151. ^ Breaking: MD House Passes Marriage The Washington Blade. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  152. ^ Niedowski, Erika (14 May 2012). "Lincoln Chafee, Rhode Island Governor, Declares State Will Recognize Out-Of-State Gay Marriages". The Huffington Post. huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  153. ^ a b Denmark approves same-sex marriage and church weddings. BBC News Europe. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  154. ^ Gray, Stephen. "Danish parliament approves equal marriage laws". PinkNews.co.uk. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  155. ^ Sheila Rule: Rights for Gay Couples in DenmarkNew York Times. Published: 2 October 1989. Accessed: 7 June 2012
  156. ^ See
  157. ^ "Jueza afirmó que la ley ya habilita el matrimonio homosexual". Elobservador.com.uy. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  158. ^ "Marriage open to gay couples in Sergipe" (in Portuguese). 5 July 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
  159. ^ "Espirito Santo's legalization of gay marriage" (in Portuguese). 15 August 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
  160. ^ a b "Provimento Conjunto trata de união homoafetiva". Tribunal de Justiça do Estado da Bahia (official web site of the state supreme court). 
  161. ^ a b "Bahia já pode oficializar casamento homoafetivo". Bahia24/7 (in Portuguese). 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  162. ^ (Dutch) "Burgerlijk wetboek BES, boek 1". overheid.nl. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  163. ^ "Popularity of tiny Dutch Caribbean island soars following gay marriage," washingtonpost.com, 14 December 2012, accessed 15 December 2012.
  164. ^ (Spanish) Gallardón: “No modificaré la ley y la dejaré exactamente como está”
  165. ^ Press, Associated. "Maine, Maryland Vote to Legalize Gay Marriage | TIME.com". Swampland.time.com. Retrieved 7 November 2012. [dead link]
  166. ^ Ho, Vanessa (7 November 2012). "Dec. 6: Gay marriage's history-making day". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 
  167. ^ "Minnesota voters reject marriage amendment". Duluth News Tribune. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  168. ^ Gay marriage law goes into effect in Maine
  169. ^ Maryland Rings in New Year With Marriage Equality
  170. ^ Soraya Sobreira (1 December 2012). "Para a lei, já não há mais diferença [English: For the law, there is no difference anymore]". Journal de Brasilia (in Portuguese). Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  171. ^ Brydum, Sunnivie. "Mexico Supreme Court Strikes Down Marriage Ban". Advocate.com. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  172. ^ "Corregedoria do TJ regulamenta casamento gay no Piauí". Diario de Teresina (in Portuguese). 15 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  173. ^ "provimento N° 24/2012 – CGJ/PI". Piauí, Diário da Justiça (in Portuguese). 17 December 2012. p. 2. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  174. ^ (Portuguese) Casamento gay em São Paulo/Same-sex marriage in São Paulo state
  175. ^ Norma facilita que casais gays oficializem casamento civil em SP
  176. ^ (Portuguese) Casamento gay em CE/Same-sex marriage in CE
  177. ^ POKAGON BAND OF POTAWATOMI INDIANS MARRIAGE CODE. 2013-03-03. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  178. ^ "Odawa tribe becomes third in nation to allow gay marriage; marries first couple". petoskeynews.com. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  179. ^ "Odawa tribal chair will sign statute recognizing gay marriage". petoskeynews.com. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  180. ^ Reuters. Colorado governor signs law to allow same-sex civil unions. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  181. ^ Colorado House passes civil unions, but fans note marriage is equality. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  182. ^ Bartels, Lynn. Civil-unions bill passes Colorado Senate 21-14. The Denver Post. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  183. ^ "Bundesrat stimmt für Ehe-Öffnung". Queer.de. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  184. ^ Paraná regulates same-sex marriage throughout its territory
  185. ^ Court allows gay marriage in Mato Grosso do Sul
  186. ^ (Spanish) La Cámara de Diputados aprobó ley de matrimonio gay por 71 votos en 92
  187. ^ (Spanish) Senado aprobó ley de matrimonio igualitario: 23 a favor, 8 en contra
  188. ^ (Spanish) Desde el 1° de agosto se podrán celebrar matrimonios gay. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  189. ^ Same-sex marriage bill comes into force in Uruguay
  190. ^ Constitutional convention backs extension of marriage rights to same-sex couples
  191. ^ Tajitsu, Naomi. Cheers, applause as New Zealand legalizes same-sex marriage. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  192. ^ Davison, Isaac. Same-sex marriage law passed. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  193. ^ Marriage legislation becomes law
  194. ^ "Rio de Janeiro state legalizes gay marriage". 17 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  195. ^ "Rio de Janeiro facilita casamento gay em todo estado; uniões ainda passam por aval de juiz". Acapa. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013. "O pedido então será encaminhado ao juiz da comarca responsável, que decidirá sobre cada caso" 
  196. ^ "Casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo é autorizado em Rondônia" (in Portuguese). 26 April 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  197. ^ "CGJ autoriza casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo em SC" (in Portuguese). 29 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  198. ^ "Paraíba passa a ser o 13º Estado brasileiro a consentir o casamento homoafetivo" (in Portuguese). 29 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  199. ^ "Paraíba autoriza casamento gay". Mix Brasil (in Portuguese). 39 April 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  200. ^ Edgar, Randal (2 May 2013). "Rhode Island House passes bill legalizing same-sex marriage, 56 to 15". The Providence Journal. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  201. ^ "Same-sex marriage bill passes RI Senate". news.providencejournal.com. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  202. ^ Denison, Doug (7 May 2013). "Delaware to become 11th state with gay marriage". USA Today. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  203. ^ Dawson, James (23 April 2013). "Same-sex marriage bill clears state House". WDDE. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  204. ^ Brazil clears way for gay marriage
  205. ^ "CNJ obriga cartórios a celebrar casamento entre homossexuais" (in Portuguese). estado.com.br. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  206. ^ (Portuguese) DIÁRIO DA JUSTIÇA CONSELHO NACIONAL DE JUSTIÇA Edição nº 89/2013
  207. ^ (Portuguese) Regra que obriga cartórios a fazer casamento gay vale a partir do dia 16
  208. ^ a b "Minnesota Gov. Dayton signs gay marriage bill". news.yahoo.com. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  209. ^ a b c France gay marriage: Hollande signs bill into law. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  210. ^ France's National Assembly passes gay marriage bill http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2013/02/12/france-gay-marriage-adoption.html
  211. ^ French senate votes to legalise gay marriage http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-22126437
  212. ^ (French) Le Monde. Le mariage pour tous adopté définitivement à l'Assemblée. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  213. ^ "French council rules gay marriage law is constitutional, 1st marriages expected by May's end". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013. [dead link]
  214. ^ (Spanish) [1]
  215. ^ (Spanish) Choque de trenes entre Fiscal y Procurador por bodas gay
  216. ^ "California Native American Tribe Announces Support of Same Sex Marriage: Santa Ysabel Tribe First in California to Make Proclamation". Rock Hill Herald Online. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  217. ^ Levine, Dan. Gay marriages resume in California after five-year hiatus. Reuters. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  218. ^ US Supreme Court overturns gay marriage provision. BBC. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  219. ^ "UK House of Lords backs gay marriage in third reading". LGBTQ Nation. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  220. ^ Same-sex marriage set to enter law later this week. BBC. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  221. ^ (Spanish) Se casó primera pareja homosexual en Colombia. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  222. ^ "Mexican state of Colima allows same-sex civil unions". BBC News. 30 July 2013. 
  223. ^ "County Takes Big Step Forward On Gay Marriage". Huffington Post. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  224. ^ Pearce, Matt (23 August 2013). "Second New Mexico county now issuing same-sex marriage licenses". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  225. ^ "2nd N.M. county issuing same-sex marriage licenses". USA Today. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  226. ^ "ACLU ‘stunned’ as N.M. judge rules gay marriage legal, despite law". Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  227. ^ "Grant County will be 7th N.M. county to issue marriage licenses to gay couples – LGBTQ Nation". Lgbtqnation.com. 9 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  228. ^ "N.M. district judge upholds Los Alamos County gay marriage ruling – LGBTQ Nation". Lgbtqnation.com. 9 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  229. ^ "As midnight strikes, same-sex couples wed across New Jersey". NJ. 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
  230. ^ "Abercrombie signs same-sex marriage bill into law". StarAdvertiser. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  231. ^ [://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-illinois-gay-marriage-bill-signing-20131120,0,4464600.story "Quinn to sign Illinois gay marriage bill this afternoon"]. Chicago Tribune. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  232. ^ Long, Ray; Guerrero, Rafael. "Illinois Senate approves gay marriage – chicagotribune.com". Chicago Tribune. 
  233. ^ Garcia, Monique; Long, Ray (5 November 2013). "Lawmakers approve gay marriage in Illinois". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  234. ^ a b "MSPs approve same-sex marriage bill". The Scotsman. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  235. ^ "Same-sex marriage step closer as Holyrood committee backs bill | Scotland | News | STV". News. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  236. ^ Katz, Andrew (1 December 2013). "Croatians Vote In Favor of Banning Same-Sex Marriage". Time. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  237. ^ THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA v THE AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY. HIGH COURT OF AUSTRALIA. 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  238. ^ Ian Warden (22 January 2013). "Joy as ACT passes same sex marriage laws". Canberratimes.com.au. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  239. ^ "Australia's top court overrules gay marriage in capital". London: Telegraph. 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  240. ^ New Mexico Court ruling freedomtomarry.com. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  241. ^ November 2013 "Same-sex marriage: MSPs pass equal marriage bill". The Scotsman. 4 February 2014. 
  242. ^ "Judge Declares Va. Same-Sex Marriage Ban Unconstitutional". NPR. February 13, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2014. 
  243. ^ "Updated: Same-sex marriages OK'd in Champaign County". News-Gazette.com. 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  244. ^ a b http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/06/01/gay-marriage-illinois-licenses/9834781/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  245. ^ "Federal judge voids Texas’ gay marriage ban, though he delays order from taking effect immediately". Trailblazersblog.dallasnews.com. 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  246. ^ "Congratulations! England and Wales begin to recognise overseas same-sex marriages". Pink News. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  247. ^ "Civil Partnerships Bill Passed in Parliament". GBC News. 21 March 2014. 
  248. ^ "Federal Judge Strikes Down Michigan's Gay Marriage Ban". Fox News. March 21, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2014. 
  249. ^ (Italian) "Grosseto, il tribunale al Comune: "Riconoscete quel matrimonio gay"". www.repubblica.it. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  250. ^ "Same sex unions approved – Celebrations in Valletta – Opposition abstains because of adoptions". Times of Malta. 14 April 2014. 
  251. ^ [2]
  252. ^ "Gay marriage on hold in Arkansas following new ruling". Time. May 16, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  253. ^ http://www.lgbtqnation.com/2014/05/federal-court-strikes-down-idaho-ban-on-same-sex-marriage/
  254. ^ http://www.idahostatesman.com/2014/05/16/3188027/hoped-for-celebration-turns-into.html?sp=/99/1687/&ihp=1/
  255. ^ Gander, Kashmira (June 18, 2014). "Luxembourg passes same-sex marriage and adoption bill in landslide vote". The Independent. Retrieved June 18, 2014. 
  256. ^ (French) Séances publique et plénière du 24 juin 2014
  257. ^ Muskal, Michael (20 December 2013). "Federal Judge Backs Same-Sex Marriages in Utah; State to Appeal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  258. ^ "Federal appeals court confirms Oklahoma ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional". The Oklahoman. July 18, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2014. 
  259. ^ Geidner, Chris (January 14, 2014). "Oklahoma Ban On Same-Sex Marriages Is Unconstitutional, Federal Judge Rules". Buzz Feed. Retrieved April 9, 2014. 
  260. ^ "Miami-Dade judge: Florida’s gay-marriage ban unconstitutional; couples can wed, but not until case is appealed". The Miami Herald. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  261. ^ "Keys judge overturns same-sex marriage ban; attorney general to appeal". The Miami Herald. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.