Timeline of the 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season

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Track map of all the tropical depressions monitored by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and the Naval Western Oceanography Center during the season

The 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season; only two tropical cyclones occurred within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E.[A 1] The season officially ran from November 1, 1990, to April 30, 1991, but the first disturbance of the season formed on November 23 and the last dissipated on May 19.[A 2] This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.[1] During the season, no one was killed from tropical disturbances within the South Pacific. However, six people were killed by Cyclone Joy when it made landfall on Australia. The only tropical cyclone to cause any damage while within this basin was Sina, which caused at least $18.5 million (1991 USD) worth of damage to Fiji and Tonga.[2] As a result of the impacts of both Joy and Sina, the names were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.[1]

Within the South Pacific, tropical cyclones were monitored by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) at the Fiji Meteorological Service in Nadi and by the Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited in Wellington. Tropical cyclones that moved to the west of 160°E were monitored as a part of the Australian region by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Both the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the Naval Western Oceanography Center (NWOC) issued unofficial warnings within the southern Pacific. The JTWC issued warnings between 160°E and the International Date Line, while the NWOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between the International Date Line and the coasts of the Americas. Both the JTWC and the NWOC-designated tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix with numbers assigned in numerical order to tropical cyclones developing within the whole of the Southern Hemisphere. TCWC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure windspeeds over ten minutes, while the JTWC and the NWOC measured sustained winds over one minute and use the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

This timeline includes information from post-storm reviews by TCWC Nadi, TCWC Wellington, the JTWC, and the NWOC. It documents tropical cyclone formations, strengthenings, weakenings, landfalls, extratropical transitions, and dissipations during the season. Reports among warning centers often differ; therefore, information from all three agencies has been included.

Timeline of storms[edit]

November[edit]

November 1
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – The 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season officially begins.[1][A 3][A 4][A 5]
November 20
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST, November 21) – TCWC Nadi reports that a tropical disturbance has developed to the west of Wallis Island.[3]
November 23
  • 0600 UTC, (1800 FST) – The JTWC designates the tropical disturbance to the west of Wallis Island as Tropical Depression 03P.[4]
November 24
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST, November 25) – TCWC Nadi reports that Tropical Disturbance 03P has intensified into a tropical depression.[5]
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST, November 25) – TCWC Nadi reports that Tropical Depression 03P has intensified into a category 1 tropical cyclone and names it Sina.[5]
November 25
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Depression Sina (03P) has intensified into a tropical storm.[4]
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST, November 26) – TCWC Nadi reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has intensified into a category 2 tropical cyclone.[5]
November 26
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – TCWC Nadi reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has intensified into a category 3 severe tropical cyclone.[5]
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Storm Sina (03P) has intensified into a category 1 tropical cyclone.[4]
  • 0600 UTC, (1800 FST) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has intensified into a category 2 tropical cyclone.[4]
Sina formed in the upper center of the map and generally moved to the south. The storm then curved to the east and became extratropical.
Track map of Severe Tropical Cyclone Sina
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST, November 27) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has intensified into a category 3 tropical cyclone.[4]
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST, November 27) – TCWC Nadi reports that Severe Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has reached its peak 10-minute peak intensity of 140 km/h (85 mph).[5]
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST, November 27) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has strengthened into a category 4 tropical cyclone.[4]
November 27
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has reached its one-minute peak intensity of 230 km/h (145 mph).[4]
November 28
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has weakened into a category 3 tropical cyclone.[4]
  • 0600 UTC, (1800 FST) – The JTWC passes warning responsibility for Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) to the NWOC as it moves to the east of 180.[4]
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST, November 29) – The NWOC reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has weakened into a category 2 tropical cyclone.[4]
November 29
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – TCWC Nadi reports that Severe Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has weakened into a category 2 tropical cyclone.[5]
  • 0600 UTC, (1800 FST) – The NWOC reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has weakened into a category 1 tropical cyclone.[4]
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST, November 30) – The NWOC reports that Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) has become extratropical.[4]

December[edit]

Joy formed in the upper left of the map and headed generally to the west. The storm then curved to the southwest and then to the southeast before curving southwest again and dissipating.
Track map of Severe Tropical Cyclone Joy (06P)
December 4
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST December 5) – TCWC Wellington issues the final advisory on Extratropical Cyclone Sina as it is absorbed by a trough.[2][5]
December 15
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST December 16) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Depression 06P has formed 535 km (330 mi) southeast of Honiara in the Solomon Islands.[6]
December 17
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – TCWC Nadi designates Tropical Depression 06P as a tropical depression.[5]
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST December 18) –TCWC Nadi and the JTWC report that Tropical Depression 06P has moved into the Australian region, where it is later named as Joy.[5][6]

January and February[edit]

  • There were no tropical disturbances reported within the South Pacific ocean during January and February 1991.

March[edit]

March 15
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST March 16) – Tropical Depression 16P moves into the South Pacific from the Australian region.[7]
March 21
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Depression 16P has dissipated.[7]

April[edit]

April 30
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST, May 1) – The 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season officially ends.[1]

May[edit]

Lisa formed in the upper center of the map and headed generally to the southeast before dissipating.
Track map of Tropical Cyclone Lisa (21P)
May 11
  • 0600 UTC, (1800 FST) – TCWC Nadi reports that Tropical Cyclone Lisa (21P) has moved into the South Pacific from the Australian region, as a category 2 tropical cyclone at its peak 10-minute sustained wind speeds of 110 km/h (70 mph).[5]
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST, May 12) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Cyclone Lisa (21P) has moved into the South Pacific from the Australian region, as a Tropical Storm.[8]
May 12
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – TCWC Nadi reports that Tropical Cyclone Lisa (21P) has weakened into a depression.[2][5]
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST, May 13) – The JTWC reports that Tropical Storm Lisa (21P) has weakened into a tropical depression.[8]
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST, May 13) – Depression Lisa (21P) passes over Anatom Island, Vanuatu.[2]
  • 1800 UTC, (0600 FST, May 13) – TCWC Nadi reports that Depression Lisa (21P) has weakened into an extratropical cyclone.[2]
May 13
  • 1200 UTC, (0000 FST, May 14) – TCWC Nadi passes the primary warning responsibility for extratropical Lisa (21P) to TCWC Wellington as it moves south of 25°S.[2][5]
May 19
  • 0000 UTC, (1200 FST) – TCWC Wellington issues the final warning on Tropical Cyclone Lisa (21P) as the system dissipates.[2][5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ An average season has nine tropical cyclones, about half of which become severe tropical cyclones.
  2. ^ TCWC Nadi warned on systems in the South Pacific, which is located from the equator to 25°S and from 160°E to 120°W. TCWC Wellington warns on systems from 25°S to 40°S and from 160°E to 120°W
  3. ^ UTC stands for Coordinated Universal Time.
  4. ^ FST stands for Fiji Standard Time, which is equivalent to UTC+12.
  5. ^ The figures for maximum sustained winds and position estimates are rounded to the nearest 5 units (knots, miles, or kilometers), following the convention used in the Fiji Meteorological Service's operational products for each storm. All other units are rounded to the nearest digit.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South Pacific and South-East Indian Ocean (2008 Edition)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2010-06-16. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g A. Bannister, K. Smith (1993). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1990–1991" (PDF). Australian Meteorological Magazine (Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)) 40: 111–121. Retrieved 2010-06-16. 
  3. ^ Graham F.A. Ward (1995-03-01). "Prediction of tropical cyclone formation in terms of sea-surface temperatures vorticity and vertical windshear" (PDF). Australian meteorological magazine (Bureau of Meteorology (Australia), Fiji Meteorological Service) 44. Retrieved 2013-10-07. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Tropical Cyclone Sina (03P) Best Track Analysis". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 1992. Retrieved 2010-06-16. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre, TCWC Brisbane, TCWC Wellington (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". Fiji Meteorological Service, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, Australian Bureau of Meteorology. United States: International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 
  6. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Joy (06P) Best Track Analysis". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 1992. Retrieved 2010-06-16. 
  7. ^ a b Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Tropical Cyclone 16P Best Track Analysis". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Retrieved 2010-06-16. 
  8. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Lisa (21P) Best Track Analysis". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 1992. Retrieved 2010-06-16. 

External links[edit]