Timeline of the Iranian Revolution

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This article is a timeline of events relevant to the Islamic Revolution in Iran. For earlier events refer to Pahlavi dynasty and for later ones refer to History of the Islamic Republic of Iran. This article doesn't include the reasons of the events and further information is available in Islamic revolution of Iran.

1941[edit]

1953[edit]

  • August: Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, who had resisted for months despite British and American calls for him to dismiss Prime Minister Mohammed Mossaddegh, gets nervous about the popular nationalist prime minister's designs when Mossadegh dissolved the parliament and began rule by decree. As a result, the Shah dismisses Mossadegh as prime minister. But Mossadegh refused to step down and instead arrested the royal messenger delivering the dismissal order. In a panic, the Shah flees to Italy. CIA and British intelligence initiate and execute "Operation Ajax" with conservative Iranians to overthrow Mossadegh. Shah returns to Iran.[2]

1961[edit]

  • March 31: Husain Borujerdi, the prominent Marja of all Shi'a, dies. Khomeini emerges as one of the probable successors to Boroujerdi's position of leadership. This emergence was signaled by the publication of some of his writings on fiqh, most importantly the basic handbook of religious practice entitled, like others of its genre, Tozih al-Masael. He was soon accepted as Marja-e Taqlid (source of imitation) by a large number of Iranian Shi'is.[3] In this year his students, who were the teachers of seminary, established Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom, which played key role during establishment of new government after victory of revolution.[citation needed]

1962[edit]

  • October–November: Khomeini organizes opposition to the Shah's Local council election bill. The Bill introduced by Shah's government allows women to vote for the first time and non-Muslims to run for councils. Religious pressure forces government to back down completely and abandon the bill. Khomeini emerges from fight as "the regime's principal political foe" and "undisputed spiritual leader of ... bazaari activists."[4]

1963[edit]

  • January: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi proposes "White Revolution". The government introduces a six-point reform bill to be put to a nation-wide referendum vote. Six points also included Women's suffrage, as well as other reforms.[citation needed] Khomeini summoned a meeting of his colleagues in Qom to press upon them the necessity of opposing the Shah's plans.
  • January 22: Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Two days later Shah took armored column to Qom, and he delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama. Khomeini continues his denunciation of the Shah's programs, issuing a manifesto that also bore the signatures of eight other senior scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah had violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of comprehensive submission to America and Israel. He also decrees that the Norouz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 be canceled as a sign of protest against government policies. Escalating antipathy between Shah and Ayatollah climaxes in June with drawing parallels between the Umayyad Caliph Yazid I and the Shah and warns the Shah that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country.[3]
  • Shah orders to arrest Khomeini two days later, and major protest riots in cities over Iran the day after that which is called Movement of 15 Khordad. Martial law is declared and hundreds are killed.[5] After nineteen days in the Qasr prison, Ayatollah Khomeini was moved first to the 'Eshratabad' military base and then to a house in the 'Davoudiyeh' section of Tehran where he is kept under surveillance.[3]

1964[edit]

  • April 7: Khomeini is released from custody and returns to Qom.[3] In autumn he denounces "capitulations" (the government's underhanded extending of diplomatic immunity to American military personnel), and calls the agreement as surrender of Iranian independence and sovereignty, made in exchange for a $200 million loan that would be of benefit only to the Shah and his associates, and describes all those in the Majlis who voted in favor of it as traitors, concluding that the government is illegitimate. He is arrested immediately and taken to Mehrabad Airport in Tehran. He's exiled in November, and does not return to Iran for 14 years.[3][6]

1965[edit]

1970[edit]

  • January 21-February 8: Khomeini gives a series of nineteen lectures to a group of his Talaba (students) on Islamic Government while he was in exile in Iraq in the holy city of Najaf. Notes of the lectures were soon made into a book that appeared under three different titles: The Islamic Government, Authority of the Jurist, and A Letter from Imam Musavi Kashef al-Qita[7] (to deceive Iranian censors). The small book (fewer than 150 pages) was smuggled into Iran and "widely distributed" to Khomeini supporters before the revolution.[8]

1975[edit]

  • March 2: Rastakhiz (Resurrection) party as an Iranian monarchist party is founded by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
  • June 1975: Anniversary of the uprising of 15 Khordad. Students at the Feyziyeh madreseh hold a demonstration within the confines of the building, and a sympathetic crowd assembles outside. Both gatherings continues for three days until they are attacked by military forces, resulting in some casualties. Khomeini reacts with a message in which he declares the events in Qom and similar disturbances elsewhere to be a sign of hope that "freedom and liberation from the bonds of imperialism" is at hand.[3]

1978[edit]

  • January 7 (17th of Dey): An article in the Ettela'at newspaper by the Information Minister Daryoush Homayoun, titled "Black and Red Imperialism" accuses Khomeini of homosexuality and other "misdeeds".[3][9][10][11] Later in his book, Hun claimed that he and this was done by Shah's order.[12]
  • January 9 (19th of Dey): Demonstration of 4,000 students and religious leaders in the city of Qom against the article. The armed police was provoked by the angry demonstrators which resulted in death of between 10 to 72 demonstrators.[citation needed] Protests credited with breaking the "barrier of fear" of security forces "at the popular level". [13]
  • February 18 (29th of Bahman): Arbayeen (i.e. 40th day observance) of Qom's fallen protesters.[citation needed] Groups in a number of cities marched to honour the fallen and protest against the rule of the Shah. This time, violence erupted in Tabriz. According to some reports approximately 100 demonstrators are killed.[14]
  • March 29 (8th of Farvardin): Arbayeen of Tabriz's fallen protesters by demonstrations in various cities. Demonstrators are killed by police in Yazd.[15]
  • May 10 (20th of Ordibehesht): Arbayeen of Yazd's fallen protesters.[citation needed] Demonstrations in various cities.[citation needed] In Qom, commandos "burst into" the home of Ayatollah Kazem Shariatmadari, a leading cleric and quietist, and shoot dead one of his followers right in front of him. Shariatmadari then joins opposition to the Shah.[16]
  • June 6 (16th of Khordad): Head of SAVAK, Nematollah Nassiri, dismissed and Nasser Moghadam is appointed instead. "First significant concession to the unrest."[17]
  • June 20 (30th of Khordad): 40th day cycle of marking demonstration deaths passes with little violence, thanks to calls by Shariatmadari's for observance in mosques not on the streets. Inflation subsiding. Regime's "carrot and stick" and anti-inflation measures seem to be working.[18]
  • August 6 (15th of Mordad): Shah pledges free elections by June 1979 in broadcast to the nation.[17]
  • August 12 (21st of Mordad): Killing of demonstrators in Isfahan.[citation needed]
  • August 16 (25th of Mordad): Jamshid Amouzegar declares martial law in response to vast demonstrations.[citation needed]
  • August 19 (28th of Mordad): 477 die in arson fire at Cinema Rex in Abadan. Regime and opposition blame each other.[19]
  • August 27 (5th of Shahrivar): Jamshid Amouzegar is replaced by Jafar Sharif-Emami as the prime minister. Sharif Emami "reverses" some of the Shah's policies.[citation needed] Closes casinos (owned by Pahlavi Foundation), abolishes the imperial calendar and declares all the political parties have the right to be active.[20]
  • September 4 (13th of Shahrivar): Mass march at Eid al-Fitr of hundreds of thousands in Tehran by Khomeini supporters.[citation needed]
  • September 8 (17th of Shahrivar): dubbed "Black Friday" Shah declares martial law in response to protests against Pahlavi dynasty. The military of Iran use force including tanks and helicopters to break up the largely peaceful demonstrators. About 88 demonstrators (including three women) are killed. Opposition leaders falsely spread the death count figures as high as "tens of thousands".[21]
  • September 24 (2nd of Mehr): Iraqi government embargoes the house of Khomeini in Najaf and bans his political activities.[3]
  • September 25 (3rd of Mehr): Rastakhiz party is disbanded.[citation needed]
  • October 3 (10th of Mehr): Khomeini leaves Iraq for Kuwait after being pressured by Iran's neighbor Iraq to "tone down his anti-compromise rhetoric".[22] He is refused entry at the Kuwait border.[3]
  • October 6 (13th of Mehr): Khomeini embarks for Paris.[3]
  • October 10 (17th of Mehr): Khomeini takes up residence in the suburb of Neauphle-le-Château in a house that had been rented for him by Iranian exiles in France. He enjoys media attention from journalists across the world who come to France to interview him. His image and words became a daily feature in the world's media.[3]
  • October 11 (19th of Mehr): Strike of Newspapers[citation needed]
  • October 16 (24th of Mehr): Arbayeen of protesters killed on "Black Friday".[citation needed] Some people were killed in the main mosque of Kerman.[citation needed] "A rapid succession of strikes cripple almost all the bazaars, universities, high schools, oil installations, banks, government ministries, post offices, railways, newspapers, customs and post facilities," etc. and "seal the Shah's fate."[23]
  • October 21 (29th of Mehr): Iran Oil industry workers go on strike.[citation needed]
  • November 4 (13th of Aban): Destructive riots frustrated by Shah's unsuccessful attempts at conciliation with his opponents, military hardliners decide to order troops "to stand aside and allow mobs to burn and destroy to their hearts' content." Thousands of shops, banks, restaurants and other public buildings damaged. Conciliatory Prime Minister Sharif-Emami resigns.[24] Army raid in Tehran University, students participating in demonstrations are killed.
  • November 5 (14th of Aban): Mohammad Reza Shah broadcast on television a promise not to repeat past mistakes and to make amends saying, "I heard the voice of your revolution... As Shah of Iran as well as an Iranian citizen, I cannot but approve your revolution."[25][26]
  • November 6 (15th of Aban): General Gholam Reza Azhari appointed as the prime minister. Enforces martial law.[citation needed]
  • November 8 (15th of Aban): Mohammad Reza Shah arrests thirteen prominent members of his own regime.[citation needed]
  • November 27(6th Azar): Millions throughout the country celebrate "weeping" and "jumping" after seeing Khomeini's face in the moon, after rumour sweeps the land that the Imam's face will so appear on this night. Even the Tudeh Party embraces the story.[27]
  • December 10 and 11 (19th and 20th of Azar): Tasu'a and Ashura. As many as 17 million people "up and down the country march peacefully demanding the removal of the Shah and return of Khomeini."[28] 17-point resolution is presented during the demonstration "declaring the Ayatollah to be the leader of the Iranian people," and calling on Iranians to struggle until the Shah is overthrown.[29]
  • December 29 (9th of Dey): Long-time opposition politician Shapour Bakhtiar was chosen as the prime minister by Shah as the Shah prepares to leave the country. Last prime minister of the Pahlavi dynasty.

1979[edit]

  • January 3 (15th of Dey): Shapour Bakhtiar of the National Front (Jabhe-yi Melli) was appointed prime minister to replace General Azhari.[3]
  • January 4 (16th of Dey): Shapour Bakhtiar approved as the Prime Minister by Parliament.
  • January 12 (22nd of Dey): Revolutionary Council formed by Khomeini to manage revolution. The names of its members are not disclosed.[30]
  • January 16 (26th of Dey): Mohammad Reza Shah and his family leave Iran for good. Official reports claim that he has left for vacation and medical treatment but in fact he was asked to leave by Shapour Bakhtiar.[31]
  • January 23 (3rd of Bahman): The Royal Council dismissed.[citation needed]
  • February 1 (12th of Bahman): Khomeini returns to Iran from exile. According to BBC up to five million people line the streets of the Iran's capital, Tehran to witness the homecoming of Khomeini.[32]
  • February 4 (15th of Bahman): Khomeini appoints Mehdi Bazargan as prime minister of The Interim Government of Iran.[33]
  • February 9 (20th of Bahman): Fighting breaks out between pro-Khomeini technicians (Homafaran) of Iran Air Force and Iranian Imperial Guard.[citation needed]
  • February 10 (21st of Bahman): Bakhtiar announces curfew, martial law. Khomeini orders followers to ignore it, and proclaims jihad against army units that do not surrender to revolutionaries.[34] Leftist guerrillas and revolutionaries join rebel troops looting arms from police stations and other government facilities. Army finally declares neutrality to avoid disintegration.
  • February 11 (22nd of Bahman): Regime collapses. Revolution victorious. Pahlavi dynasty ends. Royal prime minister, Bakhtiar, goes into hiding, eventually finding exile in Paris.[35]
  • February 12 (23rd of Bahman): The committees of Islamic revolution were charged.
  • February 18 (29th of Bahman): Foundation of Islamic Republican party by revolutionary clerics comprising Beheshti, Bahonar, Khamenei, Hashemi and Abdolkarim Musavi.[36]
  • March 17 (27th of Esfand): Revolt in Sanandaj.[37]
  • March 26 (6th of Farvardin): Revolt in Gonbad-e Qabus. Valyollah Qarani, the first chief of Army after revolution, dismissed by the Interim Government of Iran under pressure of leftist. Naser Farbod is appointed as his replacement.[38]
  • March 30 and 31 (10 and 11th of Farvardin): national referendum held on whether Iran should become an "Islamic Republic".[3]
  • April 1 (12th of Farvardin): 98.2% of votes tallied are in favor of an Islamic republic. Islamic republic established.
  • April 17 (31st of Farvardin): Revolt in Naqadeh.[39]
  • April 20 (3rd of Ordibehesht): Valyollah Qarani assassinated by the Forqan group.
  • May 1 (12th of Ordibehesht): Morteza Motahhari, one of the most notable ideologists of Islamic revolution, assassinated by the Forqan group.
  • May 5 (16th of Ordibehesht): Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps established by a decree issued by Ayatollah Khomeini.
  • June 5: Early indication of split between Khomeini and non-theocratic intellectuals. In a speech, Khomeini asked: "Who are they that wish to divert our Islamic movement from Islam? ... Intellectuals, do not be Western-style intellectuals, imported intellectuals."[40]
  • June 14: Official preliminary draft of the constitution published.[41] Draft constitution contains Council of Guardians to veto un-Islamic legislation, but no Velayat-e faqih (Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists). Khomeini declares it `correct.`[42]
  • June 15: Khomeini attacks liberal and leftwing groups as `counter-revolutionaries` against Islam. Groups had advocated the election of a Constituent Assembly to write the new constitution. "No `Westernized jurists` are needed to write the constitution, only `noble members of the clergy.`"[43] "Campaign launched to popularised the idea of the velayat-e faqih," hitherto virtually unknown to most Iranians.[44]
  • June 17: "Construction Jihad" was established by the order of the Ayatollah Khomeini.[45]
  • August 7: Ayandegan, "the daily newspaper with the widest circulation" in Iran, but "which had agitated against Velayat-e faqih" is banned under new press law for "counter-revolutionary policies and acts."[46]
  • August 10: Khomeini denounces opponents of the Assembly of Experts and defenders of Ayandegan newspaper calling them "wild animals" and saying, "We will not tolerate them any more ... After each revolution several thousand of these corrupt elements are executed in public and burnt ... We will close all parties except the one, or a few which act in a proper manner ..."[47]
  • August 12 (?th of Mordad): More demonstrations. National Democratic Front schedules a mass demonstration to protest the closure of newspapers like Ayandegan. Demonstration is "viciously attacked by Hezbollah thugs." Shortly thereafter a warrant is issued for the arrest of Hedayat Matin Daftari, one of the National Democratic Front's leaders.[48] Hundreds are injured by rocks, clubs, chains and iron bars. The next day Khomeini supporters attack and loot offices of leftist groups in retaliation for demonstrations.[49]
  • August 15 (?th of Mordad): Revolt in Paveh.
  • August 18 (?th of Mordad): Assembly of Experts for Constitution which were elected by people, gather to write a new constitution.
  • September 9: Mahmoud Taleghani, the high rank revolutionary cleric and member of revolutionary council, dies. A friend of the left, Taleghani is considered the second most popular ayatollah after Khomeini.
  • October 14: Assembly of Experts approves draft of new constitution. In it, Khomeini holds the position of vali-ye faqih, which includes "command of the armed forces" [50]
  • October 22: Cancer-ridden ex-Shah allowed to enter United States for medical treatment. Khomeini speaks out angrily at this "evidence of American plotting." Revolutionary denunciation of the Great Satan (America) intensifies.[51]
  • November 1: Prime Minister Bazargan photoed shaking hands with U.S. official Zbigniew Brzezinski at a meeting in Algeria. Radical leftist and theocratic media in Iran alerts the "nation of the return of American influence."[52]
  • November 4 (13th of Aban): Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line occupied the U.S. embassy in Tehran which resulted in Iran hostage crisis.
  • November 6 (13th of Aban): Mehdi Bazargan, prime minister of The Interim Government of Iran, resigns, "unable to muster" support for "eviction of the students."[52] Khomeini immediately accepts his resignation along with all the other members of his cabinet.
  • December 18 (27th of Azar): Mohammad Mofatteh assassinated by Forqan group.
  • December 2 and 3(11th and 12th of Azar): New Constitution of Iran was approved by referendum by over 98 percent of the vote,[citation needed] but much lower turnout because of boycott. Khomeini becomes vali-ye faqih.[53]

1980[edit]

  • January 25 (5th of Bahman): The first presidential election of the Islamic Republic. Abolhassan Banisadr elected as President of Islamic republic.[54] His term in office is beset by struggles between him and officials of the Islamic Republic Party.[55]
  • March 15 (24th of Esfand): First round of elections of first Islamic parliament. Islamic Republican Party mobilises its network among clergy, komitehs and the revolutionary guard. Hezbollah attacks rallies and offices of opposition parties, primarily the Mojahedin-e Khalq, as most other parties have been effectively repressed.[56]
  • March 21: Cultural revolution begins. In New Year's speech, Khomeini inveighs against "imperialist universities" where those "cloaked with the West" teach and study. Declares the universities must "become Islamic." [57]
  • April 7 (18th of Farvardin): The United States breaks diplomatic relations with Iran.
  • April 25 (5th of Ordibehesht): Operation Eagle Claw;Tehran hostage rescue mission fails with the death of eight U.S. soldiers because of sand storm.[58] Khomeini credits divine intervention on behalf of Islam. His prestige is greatly enhanced. Bani-Sadr's is further reduced.[59]
  • June 12 (23rd of Khordad): Formation of the university jihad by decree of Ayatollah Khomeini.[60] and The Cultural Revolution to islamization of universities.
  • July: Islamization of state bureaucracy begins. Approximately 20,000 teachers and nearly 8000 military officers are discharged.[61]
  • July 11 (21st of Tir): Nojeh Coup attempt by a portion of the air force personnels is unsuccessful.[62] They are accused of being loyal to Shah and 121 of them are executed[63]
  • July 27 (5th of Mordad): Mohammad Reza Shah dies of cancer in Egypt.[54]
  • August: Bani Sadr forced to accept Ali Raja'i as prime minister. Bani Sadr considers Raja'i to be "incompetent", but Raja'i has the support of the Islamic Revolution Party.[64]
  • September 22 (31st of Shahrivar): Iran–Iraq War starts. Massive invasion of Iran by Iraq following border skirmishes and a dispute over the Arvand Rūd (Persian: اروندرود, literally Arvand River) or as it is known in Iraq the Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, literally Coast/Beach of the Arabs) waterway. Marks beginning of a war that will last eight years.[54]
  • October 26 (4th of Aban): Khorramshahr occupied by Iraqis during war.

1981[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mackey Iranians (1996), p.185
  2. ^ Mackey Iranians (1996), p.206
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Ayatollah Khomeini
  4. ^ Moin Khomeini (2010), p.81
  5. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000), p.102-112
  6. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000), p.119-127
  7. ^ Dabashi, Theology of Discontent, (1993), p.437
  8. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.157
  9. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000), p.186-7
  10. ^ Abrahamian Iran (1983), p.505
  11. ^ Keddie Modern Iran (2003) p.225
  12. ^ داریوش همایون، گذار از تاریخ، ص30
  13. ^ Graham, Iran (1980) p.228
  14. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), p.228-229
  15. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.187
  16. ^ Mackey Iranians, (1996), p.279
  17. ^ a b Harney, Priest and the King, p.14
  18. ^ Abrahamian, Iran, (1982), p.510
  19. ^ Moin Khomeini 2000, (p.187)
  20. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000), p.187
  21. ^ A Question of Numbers
  22. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.189
  23. ^ Abrahamian, Iran between two revolutions, (1982), p.518; Moin Khomeini (2000), p.189
  24. ^ Taheri, Spirit of Islam (1983), p.234
  25. ^ Taheri Spirit of Allah (1985), p.235
  26. ^ AYATOLLAH TAHERI OFFERED CARROT OR STICK BY AYATOLLAH KHAMENEH’I
  27. ^ Taheri, Spirit of Islam (1983), p.238
  28. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000), p.196
  29. ^ Graham, Iran (1980), p.238
  30. ^ Arjomand Turban for the Crown (1988) p.134
  31. ^ 1979: Shah of Iran flees into exile, BBC.
  32. ^ 1979: Exiled Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran
  33. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 204.
  34. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000), p.205-6
  35. ^ 1979: Victory for Khomeini as army steps aside
  36. ^ پیدایش نظام جدید، جلد اول بحران های داخلی و تولد نیروهای مسلح انقلاب، روزشمار جنگ ایران و عراق- زمینه سازی ، مرکز مطالعات و تحقیقات جنگ، تهران:1375ص148 و 900
  37. ^ پیدایش نظام جدید، جلد اول بحران های داخلی و تولد نیروهای مسلح انقلاب، روزشمار جنگ ایران و عراق- زمینه سازی ، مرکز مطالعات و تحقیقات جنگ، تهران:1375ص369 و 934
  38. ^ پیدایش نظام جدید، جلد اول بحران های داخلی و تولد نیروهای مسلح انقلاب، روزشمار جنگ ایران و عراق- زمینه سازی ، مرکز مطالعات و تحقیقات جنگ، تهران:1375ص466 و945 و 946
  39. ^ پیدایش نظام جدید، جلد اول بحران های داخلی و تولد نیروهای مسلح انقلاب، روزشمار جنگ ایران و عراق- زمینه سازی ، مرکز مطالعات و تحقیقات جنگ، تهران:1375ص722 و 981
  40. ^ Arjomand, Turban for the Crown (1988), p.137
  41. ^ Schirazi Constitution of Iran, (1997) p.24
  42. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000) p.217
  43. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000) p.217
  44. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000) p.218
  45. ^ Foundation order of Jihad construction by Imam khomeini
  46. ^ Kayhan, 20.8.78-21.8.78,` quoted in Schirazi The Constitution of Iran, (1988), p.51) (New York Times)
    • August 8: demonstrators gather in Tehran to protest closing of Ayandegan. In the next three days 41 newspapers and periodicals are banned under the press law. (Kayhan 20.8.78-21.8.78, quoted in Schirazi The Constitution of Iran, (1988), p.51
  47. ^ From a speech before the delegates of the Assembly of Experts, quoted in Moin Khomeini (2000), p.219
  48. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000) p.219-20
  49. ^ New York Times August 13, 1979
  50. ^ Mackey, Iranians (1996), p.293
  51. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000) p.220
  52. ^ a b Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.221
  53. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.232
  54. ^ a b c Timeline: Iran
  55. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.233-4
  56. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.234
  57. ^ Benard/Khalilzad, The Government of God (1984), p.116
  58. ^ 1980: Tehran hostage rescue mission fails
  59. ^ Mackey Iranians (1996) p.298
  60. ^ FORMATION OF THE UNIVERSITY JIHAD
  61. ^ Arjomand Turban for the Crown (1988)p.144
  62. ^ July 11, 1980 (Tir 21, 1359)
  63. ^ List of Nojeh's fallen soldiers, Sarbazan.com. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  64. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000) p.234-5
  65. ^ a b islamic revolution

Further reading[edit]

  • Arjomand, Said Amir, The Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran, Oxford University Press, c1988
  • Harney, Desmond, The Priest and the King : An Eyewitness Account of the Iranian Revolution, Tauris Publishers, 1998
  • Mackey, Sandra. The Iranians : Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation, 1996
  • Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran, Tauris, 1997
  • Taheri, Amir, The Spirit of Allah : Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution, Adler and Adler, c1985