Timeline of the New Zealand environment

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This is a timeline of environmental history of New Zealand. These events relate to the more notable events affecting the natural environment of New Zealand as a result of human activity.

Pre 1800s[edit]

14th century- — Arrival of Māori who brought with them the kiore rat.

16th century — Final extinction of all eleven species of Moa.

1642Tasman is first European to reach New Zealand.

1769 — New Zealand mapped by James Cook, and the Norway rat believed to have arrived in New Zealand aboard his ship, the Endeavour.[1] Wild boar are believed to have arrived with Cook, possibly on his second voyage for trade with the Maori - called 'Captain Cookers' in NZ

1790s — Sealers and whalers arrive.

1800s[edit]

1830s[edit]

1837 Australian brush-tailed possum introduced.

1840s[edit]

1840 Treaty of Waitangi

1860s[edit]

  • Ship rat spreads throughout North Island.

1860

1861

  • The Protection of Certain Animals Act passed - legislated that: "No Deer of any kind, Hare, Swan, Partridge, English Plover, Rook, Starling, Thrush or Blackbird" could be shot for the rest of the decade.[3]

1864

  • Wild Birds Protection Act - legislated that: "No Wild Duck, Paradise Duck, or Pigeon indigenous in the colony shall be hunted, taken, or killed except during the months of April, May, June, and July in any year".[3]

1867

  • Trout and Salmon Protection Act passed - made provision for "the preservation and propagation of Salmon and Trout in this Colony".[3]

1870s[edit]

1870

1875

  • Seal hunting restricted to a short annual season.[3]

1876

  • Rabbit Nuisance Act passed.[3]

1879

  • Ferrets introduced to control rabbits even after warnings were made of their effects on bird life.

1880s[edit]

1882

  • Small Birds Nuisance Act passed.[3]

1885

  • Stoats and weasels are liberated as a misguided attempt to control rabbits.

1887

1890s[edit]

1890

  • An area of land, that will become the Trounson Kauri Park, is set aside by the Government. [16]

1893

  • Rainbow trout successfully introduced by the Auckland Acclimatisation Society.

1894

1897

1900s[edit]

1900

1901

  • Noxious Weeds Act passed

1903

  • Scenery Preservation Act passed.

1904

  • Scenery Preservation Commission appointed.

1907

1907

  • Population reached one million.[4]

1920s[edit]

1921

  • Herbert Guthrie-Smiths Tutira: The Story of a New Zealand Sheep Station is published.
  • Animals Protection and Game Act 1921-22

1923

1929

1930s[edit]

1936

1940s[edit]

1941

  • Soil and Rivers Control Act was enforced. This was the first piece of coordinated environmental legislation in New Zealand.

1942

1946

1948

1949

  • Forest Act 1949 is passed.

1950s[edit]

1952

1953

1954

1960s[edit]

1964

1965

  • Hydro dam proposed at Tuapeka River mouth is opposed by local residents.

1967

  • Rudd is illegally introduced into New Zealand.[6]

1967

  • Water and Soil Conservation Act was enforced.

1970s[edit]

1970

1971

1972

1973

  • Government decides to put South Island beech forests up for tender for chipping.
  • Population reaches three million.[4]

1974

1975

  • 4 July - The Maruia Declaration, calling for protection of native forests, is signed. It attracted 341,160 signatures by the time it was presented to Parliament in 1977.

1976

1977

  • The "Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act" is passed.[10]
  • Queen Elizabeth II National Trust Act set up to encourage the protection of private land from development.
  • 20 July - The Maruia Declaration with a 341,159 signature petition is presented to Government.
  • 23 December — The Reserves Act is passed (includes provision for Wilderness Areas) [11]
  • 23 December — Wild Animal Control Act passed [12]]

1978

  • Tree top protest in Pureora Forest to halt the logging of native forest.
  • 1 April — Reserves Act comes into force

1979

  • Five black robins left but saved from extinction by Don Merton and team.
  • 1 January — Marine Mammals Protection Act came into force.

1980s[edit]

1980

1982

  • The approval of the water rights necessary for the high Clyde Dam is overturned on appeal in Gilmore v. National Water and Soil Conservation Authority (1982)[14]
  • The National Government enacts the Clutha Development (Clyde Dam Empowering) Act 1982 to overturn the High Court case refusing water rights.[14]

1983

  • 1 October — Fisheries Act comes into force (establishes a fishing quota system).

1984

1985

1986

1987

  • Paparoa National Park established.
  • 1 January — Environment Act comes into force [11]
  • 1 April — Conservation Act comes into force (establishes DoC, Fish and Game)

1989

  • The Tasman Accord is signed between Tasman Forestry Ltd environmental groups and the Government.
  • 1 June — Trade in Endangered Species Act comes into force (CITES)

1990s[edit]

1990

1991

1993

1994

1996

  • Environment Court, formerly called the Planning Tribunal, is constituted by the RM Amendment Act 1996 with upgraded powers [20]
  • Kahurangi National Park gazetted.
  • Fisheries Act 1996 is passed (though parts of it come into force only spasmodically over the next few years).
  • Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 is passed.
  • Ozone Protection Layer Act 1996 is passed.

1997

1998

1999

2000s[edit]

2000

  • A gondola is proposed from Lake Wakatipu area to the Milford Sound road.
  • Varroa bee mite discovered in New Zealand.[25]
  • West Coast loop road through conservation land is promoted by group of South Island mayors.
  • 15 June Biotech lobby group Life Sciences Network web site goes live. [17]

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

  • Non-toxic shot only is to be used for waterfowl hunting from the 2005 season onwards.[40]
  • 14 March — Application lodged for mining black sands off the west coast of the North Island.[41][42][43]
  • 1 April - The Income Tax Act 2004, which makes it easier to claim environmental expenditure, comes into force.[44][45][46]
  • 22 April — Landsborough Station purchased.[47]
  • 1 MayPesticides blamed for killing native frogs.
  • 26 May — Environment Court rules in favour of Solid Energy for the Cypress mine.[48][49][50]
  • 1 JulyMolesworth Station transferred from LINZ to DoC.[51]
  • 28 July — First criminal conviction for killing a fur seal is handed down.
  • September - Rock snot found in the Buller River.[52]
  • November - Last remaining use of reusable glass milk bottles will end.
  • 18 November - Cavers protest about potential damage to Te Tahi Cave when used for adventure racing.
  • 20 December - A tunnel is proposed to link Queenstown and the Milford Sound road.[53]

2006

2007

  • January - DoC considers that almost half of the native plants and animals are threatened.[56]
  • 20 February - Wa$ted!, a programme investigating household sustainability, begins a two season run on New Zealand television.
  • 23 March - Prime Minister Helen Clark puts forward aspirations for New Zealand to be the first sustainable country.[57]
  • 4 April - the OECD releases a report on the performance of the New Zealand Government.[58]
  • 4 April - Bottom trawling is prohibited in selected areas.[59]
  • 30 May - Government gives $9.88 million to clean up the Tui mine tailings site.[60]
  • 30 November - the orange roughy fishery is closed to allow stocks of the fish to recover.[61]
  • 13 December - a proposed tunnel linking Queenstown and Milford Sound is blocked by the New Zealand Conservation Authority.

2008

2009

2010s[edit]

2010
2011
2012

2013

  • Department of Conservation publishes findings raising concerns about the impact of introduced trout on native fish.[66]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Introduced Animals, Christchurch Library.
  2. ^ Rabbits Christchurch Library.
  3. ^ a b c d e f MfE State of Environment Report, 1997
  4. ^ a b c d Pink, Brian (16 April 2003). "New Zealand Population To Reach 4 Million (April 2003)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  5. ^ Te-Urewera-National-Park-Management-Plan
  6. ^ Rudd facts DOC website, retrieved 16 September 2007.
  7. ^ History of EDS EDS web site.
  8. ^ a b About ECO ECO website.
  9. ^ Greenpeace NZ website FAQ
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ a b NZ Govt. Legislation
  12. ^ NZ Govt. Legislation
  13. ^ Native Forest Restoration Trust
  14. ^ a b Wheen, N. (2002) A history of New Zealand environmental law. pp 261-274, In Environmental histories of New Zealand, edited by Pawson, E. and Brooking,T. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, page 268.
  15. ^ NZ Govt. Legislation
  16. ^ a b c UNESCO
  17. ^ Greens history
  18. ^ Green Ribbon Award
  19. ^ The Press - 24 August 2004
  20. ^ NZ Justice Department
  21. ^ Native Forest Action
  22. ^ Wild Greens
  23. ^ Zerowaste
  24. ^ Karst-Management-Guidelines
  25. ^ Varroa FAQ at Biosecurity New Zealand
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ Waste Strategy
  28. ^ Ecological footprint
  29. ^ Campbell Island
  30. ^ Clean Streams Accord
  31. ^ Rotorua Lakes
  32. ^ Businessman jailed for clearing native bush
  33. ^ Didymo
  34. ^ Nitrates, Press Release, Environment Canterbury
  35. ^ Nitrates, Press Release, Environment Canterbury
  36. ^ Nitrates, Press Release, Environment Canterbury
  37. ^ "Million dollar conservation project restores Raoul". New Zealand Government. 2004-09-24. 
  38. ^ Mining road application turned down
  39. ^ Project Aqua
  40. ^ [3]
  41. ^ [4]
  42. ^ [5]
  43. ^ O'Sullivan, Fran (14 March 2005). "Chinese explorer eyes NZ gas fields". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  44. ^ [6]
  45. ^ [7]
  46. ^ [8]
  47. ^ [9]
  48. ^ [10]
  49. ^ [11]
  50. ^ [12]
  51. ^ [13]
  52. ^ [14]
  53. ^ [15]
  54. ^ Environmental Performance Index: Redirect
  55. ^ "Pipe bomb explodes outside conservationist's home". The New Zealand Herald. 10 April 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  56. ^ New threatened species list: Media release
  57. ^ Beehive - Address to New Zealand Ambassador's Reception
  58. ^ http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/OECD_releases_report_on_New_Zealand%27s_environmental_performance
  59. ^ Beehive - Groundbreaking initiative to protect underwater habitats
  60. ^ Beehive - Abandoned Tui mine to be cleaned up
  61. ^ Beehive - NZ and Australia close orange roughy fishery
  62. ^ Beehive - Research on New Zealanders' environmental actions
  63. ^ "Table 2: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Regulatory framework" (PDF). World Economic Forum. 2008. 
  64. ^ New Zealand’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2006: An Overview. Ministry for the Environment (New Zealand). April 2008. ISBN 978-0-478-30222-6. 
  65. ^ "Rena grounding NZ's worst maritime disaster". Radio New Zealand. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  66. ^ http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and-technical/sfc320entire.pdf

Further reading[edit]

  • King, Carolyn; (1984) Immigrant Killers. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558121-0
  • Young, David; (2004) Our Islands, Our Selves. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. ISBN 1-877276-94-4
  • Bührs, T. and Bartlett, R.V.; (1993) Environmental policy in New Zealand: The politics of clean & green?. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558284-5
  • Cant, Garth and Kirkpatrick, Russell (eds.); (2001) Rural Canterbury: Celebrating its History. Wellington: Daphne Brasell Associates Ltd. ISBN 0-909049-34-3
  • Pawson, Eric and Booking, Tom (eds.); (2002) Environmental Histories of New Zealand. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558421-X