Timeline of the Ottoman Empire

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This article provides a timeline of the Ottoman Empire

See also Timeline of the Republic of Turkey, a chronology of the successor state to the Ottoman Empire.

This timeline is incomplete; some important events may be missing. Please help add to it.

Rise (1299–1452)[edit]

Year Date Event
1299 July 27 The reign of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, begins.
1389 June 15 Battle of Kosovo. Most of Serbia is conquered.
1396 September 25 Battle of Nicopolis. Bulgaria is conquered.

Growth (1453–1683)[edit]

Year Date Event
1453 May 29 Mehmed II (the Conqueror) captures Constantinople, The Byzantine emperor Constantine XI dies in the fighting, and the Byzantine Empire of the Romans yields once and for all to the Ottoman Empire.
1460 Mehmed II conquers Morea.
1461 Mehmed II conquers Trabzon thus ends Empire of Trebizond.
1462 Mehmed II begins to build his palace, Topkapi Palace (Topkapı Sarayi).
1463 Bosnia is conquered.
1473 Battle of Otlukbeli; Mehmed II defeats Uzun Hasan of Akkoyunlu Turkmens.
1475 Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Caffa. Crimea becomes vassal of the Ottoman Empire.
1478 Albania is conquered.
1480 Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Otranto, the southeast corner of Italy as a base for further attacks on Italy (only to evacuate after the death of Mehmet II).
1481 May 3 Mehmed II dies. Bayezid II ascended to the throne.
1482 Herzegovina is conquered.
1498 Montenegro is conquered.

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1514 Battle of Chaldiran; Selim I defeats Ismail I of Safavid Persia; East Anatolia under Turkish control.
1516 Battle of Marj Dabiq; Selim I defeats Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Syria and Palestine under Ottoman rule.
1517 Battle of Ridaniya; Selim I defeats Tuman bay II of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Egypt under Ottoman rule; Selim I takes the title caliph.
1519 Algeria is conquered.
1520 The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) begins.
1521 Suleiman I captures Belgrade.
1522 Suleiman I captures Rhodes.
1526 Battle of Mohács. Suleiman I defeats Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
1529 Siege of Vienna.
1533 Iraq under Turkish rule.
1538 Sea Batte of Preveza. Turkish navy controls most of Mediterranean Sea.
1550 -c.1650s) Sultanate of Women
1551 Libya is taken over.
1541 Suleiman I captures Budapest (known as Buda), which eventually leads to conquest of most of Hungary.
1547 Most of Hungary under Turkish control. Hungary is divided, by agreement[citation needed] between the Ottoman sultan Suleiman I and Ferdinand I of Austria.
1566 The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) ends.
1569 The great fire of Istanbul broke out.
1570 Conquest of Cyprus by Piyale Pasha
1574 Tunisia is conquered.
1571 The Spanish and the Venetians defeat the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto.
1578 Tblisi and most of Georgia conquered.
1590 Treaty of İstanbul between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia; Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as west Iran under Ottoman rule.

Stagnation (1683–1827)[edit]

Year Date Event
1610 Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppresses Jelali revolts. Turkmens suffer heavily.
1612 Treaty of Nasuh Pasha between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. Ottoman Empire gives up some gains of Treaty of Istanbul of 1590.
1615 Treaty of Serav ratifies Treaty of Nasuh Pasha
1683 September 11 Battle of Vienna. Ottoman defeat.
1686 Hungary evacuated.
1687 Mehmed IV dies.
1699 Ottomans cede Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz.

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1718 Treaty of Passarowitz signed.
1718 Beginning of Tulip era (up to 1730)
1729 First printing press in Turkish by Ibrahim Muteferrika
1730 Revolt of Patrona Halil. End of Tulip era. Ahmet III is dethroned.
1739 Treaty of Belgrade signed.
1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed.

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1807 May Kabakçı Mustafa rebellion: Reformist sultan Selim III dethroned.
1808 July 21 Alemdar Mustafa Pasha suppresses the rebellion. But Selim III is dead and Mahmut II becomes the new sultan.
1813 April 23 Second Serbian Uprising: The Serbs revolt.
1821 Greek War of Independence: The Greek War of Independence begins.

Decline (1828–1908)[edit]

Year Date Event
1830 Algeria is conquered by the French.
1832 July 21 Greek War of Independence: Greek sovereignty is formalized.
1831–1833 Egyptian–Ottoman War.
1853 October 4 Crimean War: The Crimean War with Russia began which, though won with British, French and Sardinian aid, would further demonstrate how backward the Ottoman military had become.
1860 October 21 First newspaper in Turkish published by Agah Efendi.(Tercümen'ı Ahval).
1862 February 5 A united Romanian autonomous state is established.
1876 December 23 Opened the 1876–1877 Constantinople Conference.
1877 April 24 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): Another war with Russia, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, begins.
1878 March 3 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stefano recognizes Romanian and Serbian independence, as well as the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian principality under nominal Ottoman protection. Austria-Hungary occupies Bosnia by default.
June 4 Cyprus is occupied by Britain.
1881 Tunisia becomes a French colony.
1882 Egypt goes under British protection.
1885 September 6 The province of Eastern Rumelia is transferred to Bulgarian jurisdiction.

Dissolution (1908–1923)[edit]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1908 July 3 Second Constitutional Era (Young Turk revolution)
October 5 Bulgaria obtains full independence.
October 7 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia by mere declaration.
1912 The Ottomans are easily defeated by Italy in a short war, with the Italians gaining Libya and ending the 340-year Ottoman presence in North Africa.
November 28 First Balkan War: Albania declares independence
1913 May 17 First Balkan War: The Ottoman Empire is nearly wiped out from Europe, save for Istanbul and just enough land around to defend it.
1914 August 2 The Empire enters into World War I on the side of the Central Powers. Cyprus is annexed outright by Britain.
1915 April 24 The Ottoman Empire initiates forced deportation of Armenians.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]