timeline of human prehistory comprises the time from the first appearance of Homo sapiens in Africa 200,000 years ago to the invention of writing and the beginning of history approximately 5,500 years ago. It covers the time from the Middle Paleolithic ( Old Stone Age) to the very beginnings of the Bronze Age. The divisions used are those delineating the European Stone Age; however, many regions around the world underwent various stages of Stone Age development at different times. All dates are approximate and based on research in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, genetics, geology, and linguistics. They are all subject to revision based on new discoveries or analyses.
Middle Paleolithic [ edit ]
150,000-300,000 years ago: appearance of
in Homo sapiens Africa 150,000-300,000 years ago: time of
mitochondrial Eve and probably Y-chromosomal Adam 125,000 years ago: peak of the
Eemian Stage interglacial 120,000 - 90,000 years ago:
Abbassia Pluvial in north Africa. The Sahara desert region is wet and fertile. c. 75,000 years ago:
Toba Volcano supereruption. [1 ] 60,000 years ago:
Haplogroup C (mtDNA) and Haplogroup A (mtDNA) 50,000 - 30,000 years ago:
Mousterian Pluvial in north Africa. The Sahara desert region is wet and fertile. 50,000 years ago: Age of
Haplogroup B (mtDNA) In the next millennia, these human groups' descendants move on to southern [2 ] India, the Malay islands, Australia, Japan, China, Siberia, Alaska, and the northwestern coast of North America. [2 ] Later Stone Age begins in Africa. 45,000 years ago: approximate age of
Haplogroup U (mtDNA) 42,000 years ago:
Paleolithic flutes in Europe [3 ] 41,000 years ago:
Denisova hominin lives in the Altai Mountains
Upper Paleolithic [ edit ]
200,000 - 500,000 years ago: paintings of
Bhimbetka rock shelters in India. Some evidence points to artwork belonging to homo erectus. Probable time of migration out of Africa. [4 ] 40,000 years ago: oldest known
cave paintings. Red dots, hand stencils and animal figures in Altamira Cave, El Castillo Spain. [5 ] [6 ] 40,000 years ago:
Cro-Magnon colonization of Europe. 35,000 years ago: the oldest known
tally stick (the Lebombo Bone) 35,000 years ago: oldest known
figurative art ( Venus of Hohle Fels), age of the Aurignacian culture c. 32,000 years ago:
Aurignacian culture begins in Europe. 30,000 years ago: approximate age of
Haplogroup X (mtDNA) and Haplogroup I (mtDNA). First domestic dogs, A herd of reindeer is slaughtered and butchered by humans in the Vezere Valley in what is today France. [7 ] 29,000 years ago: extinction of
. Homo neanderthalensis c. 28,500 years ago: New Guinea is populated by colonists from
Asia or Australia. [8 ] c. 28,000 to 20,000 years ago:
Gravettian period in Europe. Harpoons, needles, and saws invented. c. 26,000 years ago: People around the world use fibers to make baby carriers, clothes, bags, baskets, and nets.
26,000 to 20,000 years ago:
Last Glacial Maximum; approximate age of Haplogroup H (mtDNA) 25,000 years ago: first
colonization of North America 25,000 years ago: a hamlet consisting of huts built of rocks and of
mammoth bones is founded in what is now Dolni Vestonice in Moravia in the Czech Republic. This is the oldest human permanent settlement that has yet been found by archaeologists. [9 ] 24,000 years ago: y-dna haplogroup R(XR1xR2) and mtdna haplogroup U* found in Ma'lta near lake Baikal in Siberia
Mesolithic [ edit ]
c. 20,000 years ago:
Chatelperronian culture in France. [10 ] Kebaran culture in the Levant. c. 16,000 years ago:
Wisent sculpted in clay deep inside the cave now known as Le Tuc d'Audoubert in the French Pyrenees near what is now the border of Spain.; approximate age of [11 ] Haplogroup V (mtDNA) 15,000 years ago (
13,000-12,700 BC): The woolly rhinoceros goes extinct; approximate age of Haplogroup T (mtDNA). 15,000 - 14,700 years ago (
13,000 BC): Earliest supposed date for the domestication of the pig. c. 14,800 years ago: The Humid Period begins in North Africa. The region that would later become the
Sahara is wet and fertile, and the Aquifers are full. [12 ] 13,000 to 10,000 years ago:
Late Glacial Maximum, end of the Last glacial period, climate warms, glaciers recede; approximate age of Haplogroup K (mtDNA). 13,000 years ago (
11,000 BC): A major outbreak occurs on Lake Agassiz, which at the time could have been the size of the current Black Sea and the largest lake on Earth. Much of the lake is drained in the Arctic Ocean through the Mackenzie river. 13,000 to 11,000 years ago (
11,000 BC): Earliest dates suggested for the domestication of the sheep. 12,000 years ago (
10,000 BC): Earliest dates suggested for the domestication of the goat. 12,000 years ago (
10,000 BC): Land ice leaves Denmark and southern Sweden; start of the current Holocene epoch. 11,000 years ago (
9,000 BC): Emergence of Jericho, which is now one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Giant short-faced bears and giant ground sloths go extinct. Equidae goes extinct in North America. 10,500 years ago (
8,500 BC): Earliest supposed date for the domestication of cattle. 10,000 years ago (
8,000 BC): The Quaternary extinction event, which has been ongoing since the mid-Pleistocene, concludes. Many of the ice age megafauna go extinct, including the megatherium, woolly rhinoceros, Irish elk, cave bear, cave lion, and the last of the sabre-toothed cats. The mammoth goes extinct in Eurasia and North America, but is preserved in small island populations until ~1650 BC.
Neolithic [ edit ]
10,000 to 9000 years ago (
8000 BC to 7000 BC): In northern Mesopotamia, now northern Iraq, cultivation of barley and wheat begins. At first they are used for beer, gruel, and soup, eventually for bread. In early agriculture at this time, the [13 ] planting stick is used, but it is replaced by a primitive plow in subsequent centuries. Around this time, a round stone tower, now preserved to about 8.5 meters high and 8.5 meters in diameter is built in [14 ] Jericho. [15 ] 9,500 - 5,900 years ago:
Neolithic Subpluvial in North Africa. The Sahara desert region supports a savanna-like environment. Lake Chad is larger than the current Caspian Sea. An African culture develops across the current Sahel region. 9,500 years ago (7500 BC):
Çatal Höyük urban settlement founded in Anatolia. Earliest supposed date for the domestication of the cat. 9,000 years ago (
7000 BC): Jiahu culture began in China 9,000-3,500 years ago
7000-2500 BC: Mehrgarh Neolithic in Pakistan. [16 ] 8,200 - 8,000 years ago:
8.2 kiloyear event: a sudden decrease of global temperatures, likely caused by the final collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet which leads to drier conditions in East Africa and Mesopotamia. 7,500 years ago (
5500 BC): Copper smelting in evidence in Pločnik and other locations. 7,200-6,000 years ago:
5200-4000 BC: Ghar Dalam phase on Malta. First farming settlements on the island. [17 ] [18 ] 7,000 years ago (
5000 BC): late Neolithic civilizations, invention of the wheel and spread of proto-writing. The oldest golden treasure found in Varna Necropolis. 6,100-5,800 years ago:
4100-3800 BC: Żebbuġ phase. Malta. 6,000 years ago (
4000 BC): Civilizations develop in the Mesopotamia/ Fertile crescent region (around the location of modern day Iraq). The american mastodon goes extinct. Earliest supposed dates for the domestication of the horse and for the domestication of the chicken. 5,900 years ago:
5.9 kiloyear event: a rapid and intense aridification event which likely started the current Sahara Desert dry phase and a population increase in the Nile Valley due to migrations from nearby regions. It is also believed this event contributed to the end of the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia. 5,800 years ago: (
3840 to 3800 BC): The Post Track and Sweet Track causeways are constructed in the Somerset Levels. 5,800-5,600 years ago: (3800-3600 BC):
Mġarr phase A short transitional period in Malta's prehistory. It is characterized by pottery consisting of mainly curved lines. 5,700 years ago (
3800 to 3600 BC): mass graves at Tell Brak in Syria. 5,700 years ago: (
3700 to 3600 BC): Minoan culture begins on Crete 5,600-5,200 years ago (
3600-3200 BC): Ġgantija phase on Malta. Characterized by a change in the way the prehistoric inhabitants of Malta lived. 5,500 years ago: (
3600 to 3500 BC): Uruk period in Sumer. First evidence of mummification in Egypt. 5,500 years ago: (
3500 to 3400 BC): Writing is invented in Sumer, triggering the beginning of history.
References [ edit ]
^ "Mount Toba Eruption - Ancient Humans Unscathed, Study Claims" . Retrieved 2008-04-20.
^ a b This is indicated by the M130 marker in the Y chromosome. "Traces of a Distant Past," by Gary Stix, Scientific American, July 2008, pages 56-63.
^ Earliest music instruments found, BBC, 25 May 2012
^ Amos, Jonathan. "Red dot becomes 'oldest cave art'". BBC News. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
^ Gene S. Stuart, "Ice Age Hunters: Artists in Hidden Cages." In Mysteries of the Ancient World, a publication of the National Geographic Society, 1979. Pages 11-18.
^ James Trager, The People's Chronology, 1994, ISBN 0-8050-3134-0
^ Stuart, Gene S. (1979). "Ice Age Hunters: Artists in Hidden Cages". Mysteries of the Ancient World. National Geographic Society. p. 19.
^ Encyclopedia Americana, 2003 edition, volume 6, page 334.
^ Stuart, Gene S. (1979). "Ice Age Hunters: Artists in Hidden Cages". Mysteries of the Ancient World. National Geographic Society. pp. 8–10.
^ "Shift from Savannah to Sahara was Gradual," by Kenneth Chang, , May 9, 2008. New York Times
^ Kiple, Kenneth F. and Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè, eds., The Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 83
^ "No-Till: The Quiet Revolution," by David Huggins and John Reganold, Scientific American, July 2008, pp. 70-77.
^ Fagan, Brian M, ed. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1996 ISBN 978-0-521-40216-3 p 363
^ Hirst, K. Kris. 2005. "Mehrgarh". Guide to Archaeology