Timeline of the Texas Revolution
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Texas|
This is a timeline of the Texas Revolution, spanning the time from the earliest independence movements of the area of Texas, over the declaration of independence from Spain, up to the secession of the Republic of Texas from Mexico.
The first shot of the Texas Revolution was fired at the Battle of Gonzales on October 2, 1835. Over the next three months, the Texan colonists drove all Mexican army troops out of the province. In January 1836, Mexican president and general Antonio López de Santa Anna led Mexican troops into Texas to put down the rebellion. General Jose Urrea marched half of the troops up the Texas coast in the Goliad campaign, while Santa Anna led the rest of the troops to San Antonio de Bexar. After a thirteen-day siege, Santa Anna's army defeated the small group of Texans at the Battle of the Alamo and continued east. Many Texans, including the government, fled their homes in the Runaway Scrape. Santa Anna and his troops searched for the Texan government and the Texan army led by Sam Houston. On April 21, 1836, the Texans defeated Santa Anna's army at the Battle of San Jacinto; Santa Anna was captured the following day. The Mexican army retreated back to Mexico City, ending the Texas Revolution.
Prelude to war: 1823–1834
|Year||Political Events||Military Events|
|Month||Political Events||Military Events|
1828 ' Mier Y Teran Reports On Texas . April 6 , 1830 , Law Of April 6th Was Written . 1832 , Turtle Bayon Resoultion Writtin . 1835 , Battle Of Gonzals ' Come & Get Take It . March 2 , 1836 , Texas Decaration Of Indepentdent . February 23 -March 6 1836 ' Fall Of Tha Aloma . March 6 , 1836 , Fall Of The Alamo . March , 27 , 1836 , Golid Massure . April , 21 , 1836 , Battle Of son Jacinto Declartive Of Independent . Important People ' George Childress Lorenze De Zavala James Fannin Sam Houston Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna Juan Seguin William B . Travis . |- !Date ; 12'5'13 !Political Event : Revoultion And Republic Reseraches . !Military Event : Leading To The Texas Revoultion .©™ |- | January 8 , ¿↔ | | James Grant and Frank Johnson are ordered by the Texas General Council to attack Matamoros. They strip the Alamo fort of most of its remaining men and supplies. The few left to support the Alamo fort select James C. Neill as their commander. |- | January 6 | | Santa Anna arrives at Saltillo. |- |January 7 | |James Walker Fannin is ordered by the Texas General Council to attack Matamoros. |- | January 11 | | James Bowie and William Blount arrive at Goliad to support a Matamoros expedition. |- | January 14 | |
- Sam Houston arrives at Goliad to seize control of the Matamoros expedition.
- J.C. Neill, commander at the Alamo, pleads for supplies.
- Philip Dimmitt, commandant at Presidio La Bahia, resigns his post and heads for Gonzales, after James Grant strips Goliad of its supplies. Peyton S. Wyatt assumes command.
- Sam Houston arrives at Refugio to control the Matamoros expedition.
|- | February 1 | Elections are held in settlements across Texas for an independence convention. | |- | February 2 | | James Bowie pleads to Smith for supplies. Fannin arrives with troops at Copano, Texas to aid the Matamoros Expedition. |- | February 3 | | William Travis arrives at the Alamo. |- | February 4 | | Fannin and troops march to Refugio to link up with Grant and Johnson. |- | February 7 | | Fannin at Refugio and is elected colonel of the volunteer troops who will gather around Goliad. Fannin receives information of a Mexican advance upon Texas and an awaiting ambush at Matamoros. He abandons a Matamoros expedition. |- | February 8 | | David Crockett arrives near the Alamo. |- | February 9 | | James Grant and Frank Johnson continue on their Matamoros Expedition, gathering horses around San Patricio and South Texas. |- | February 11 | | Alamo commander J.C. Neill leaves the Alamo command due to a family illness. He appoints Travis commander. |- | February 12 | | James Fannin leaves Refugio with his troops and assumes command at Presidio La Bahia in Goliad. |- | February 13 | |
- Santa Anna and his army reach the city of Guerrero.
- Urrea reinforces Matamoros and marches toward San Patricio and South Texas.
|- | February 14 | |
- Travis and Bowie agree upon joint command of the Alamo's forces.
|- | February 16 | | Santa Anna crosses the Rio Grande. |- | February 17 | | Travis sends out letters pleading for men and supplies. General José de Urrea crosses the Rio Grande. |- | February 21 | | Santa Anna arrives at the Medina River. |- |February 22 | | Heavy rains swell the Medina and spoil a surprise attack by Sesma's cavalry. |- | February 23 | |
- Santa Anna enters San Antonio with generals Sesma, Amador and Castrillón and the Vanguard Brigade.
- The Alamo fort comes under artillery fire from Mexican troops.
- The siege of the Alamo begins.
|- | February 24 | |
- Travis writes his famous "To the People of Texas & all Americans in the world" letter.
- Bowie becomes ill.
|- | February 25 | | Fannin, commander of troops at Goliad, receives Travis' plea for aid. Fannin orders Chenoweth to abandon Copano and sends his company to hold the Cibolo in anticipation of Fannin's relief march to aid the Alamo defenders. |- | February 26 | | James Fannin attempts his relief march to the Alamo compound but turns back. R.M Williamson arrives in Gonzales to help organize the Alamo relief forces gathering there . |- | February 27 | | Mexican General José de Urrea attacks and defeats Frank Johnson and a small band of Texans at the Battle of San Patricio. |- | February 28 | | Juan Seguin and his relief forces waiting on the Cibolo Creek encounter the Goliad advance led by Francis L. DeSauque and John Chenoweth while near the Cibolo. They inform Seguin that Fannin was in route to relieve the Alamo defenders and should only be about two days away. |- | February 29 | Houston arrives at Washington on the Brazos. | The Gonzales relief forces arrive on the Cibolo below Bexar. |- | March 1 |
- Thirty-two to sixty men from Gonzales of the "Gonzales Company of Mounted Volunteers" enter the Alamo at 1:00 A.M.
|- | March 2 |
- Texas Declaration of Independence is signed and the Republic of Texas is declared.
- David G. Burnet is elected interim president by the delegates.
- Texans with James Grant are defeated at the Battle of Agua Dulce.
- Cos arrives at the Alamo, just ahead of the First Brigade.
|- | March 3 | |
- James B. Bonham arrives back at the Alamo telling Travis that Fannin was not coming.
- Mexican Aldama, Toluca and Zapadores battalions arrive in San Antonio.
|- | March 4 |
- Sam Houston is appointed commander of all Texas forces.
- Santa Anna holds a council of war with generals Joaquín Ramírez y Sesma, Martín Perfecto de Cos, Manuel F. Castrillón and Colonels Juan Almonte, Agustín Amat, Francisco Duque and Manuel Romero to plan the final assault.
|- | March 5 | |
- Mexican artillery stops shelling the Alamo.
- General Juan Valentín Amador formulates the plan to assault the Alamo.
- Neill at Gonzales in command of 375 troops gathering there.
|- | March 6 | | Battle of the Alamo: the Alamo falls. Approximately 180-250 Texans, Tejanos, and Anglos die. The thirteen-day siege resulted in the deaths of all of its defenders, including William B. Travis, David Crockett, and Jim Bowie.Several civilians survived. |- | March 8 |
- Travis's March 3 plea reaches Washington on the Brazos. Houston and his staff head for Gonzales.
- Fannin receives the news of the Texas Declaration of Independence.
- Mexican Generals Antonio Gaona, Adrián Woll, Vicente Filisola, and Juan Arago arrive with artillery and the remainder of the First Brigade at the Alamo.
- Houston orders Fannin with his command at Goliad and Neill with his command at Gonzales to go aid the Alamo defenders.
|- | March 10 | |
- Mexican General Andrade arrives at the Alamo in San Antonio.
- Edward Burleson at Gonzales is elected as an infantry colonel.
|- | March 11 | |
- Houston arrives, takes command and begins his retreat from Gonzales precipitating the Runaway Scrape.
- Houston orders Fannin to fall back from Goliad and to relocate at Victoria.
- General Sesma departs for Gonzales.
|- | March 12 | | Battle of Refugio begins: Amon King and his men are attacked by General Urrea, and Texan troops commanded by Lt. Col. William Ward are dispatched for relief. |- | March 13 | | Ward's troops arrive and the Mexicans are repelled, fighting continues. |- | March 14 | | After several hours of fighting, Amon King, William Ward and the Texans attempt to fall back to Victoria. |- | March 15 | | King's troops are captured by the Mexicans. |- | March 16 | |
- Amon King and 14 men are executed.
- General Eugenio Tolosa and the 2nd Brigade arrive near the Alamo in San Antonio.
|- | March 17 | | Albert C. Horton's scouts locate Col. Juan Morales nearing Goliad with the Jiménez and San Luis battalions. |- | March 18 | |Albert C. Horton's cavalry and Urrea's advance forces skirmish near Fort Defiance. |- | March 19 | |
- Fannin's command departs for Victoria.
- Urrea learns of Fannin's departure and pursues.
- Battle of Coleto: General Urrea halts Colonel James Fannin near Goliad.
|- | March 20 | | Urrea receives reinforcements. Mexican troops now total near 1000. Fannin surrenders. |- | March 21 | | Battle of Copano: General Urrea captures the port of Copano. The Mexicans held on to the port until the end of the war, using it to obtain reinforcements and send the injured and prisoners to Mexico. |- | March 23 | | William Ward surrenders. |- | March 24 | |General Antonio Gaona departs Bexar on an eastward path towards Nacogdoches. |- | March 27 | |
- Goliad Massacre: James Fannin and nearly 400 Texans are executed by order of Santa Anna.
- Houston and his army camp near San Felipe de Austin.
- Santa Anna finally departs San Antonio de Bexar.
- General Andrade is left in command with 1000 troops at Bexar.
|- | April 5 | |General Antonio Gaona, upon new orders from Santa Anna and after an eight-day delay, abandons his occupation of Mina to proceed to San Felipe de Austin. |- | April 7 | | Santa Anna's army reaches San Felipe and is pinned down by Baker's men. |- | April 8 | | Santa Anna joins Ramirez y Sesma at Beason's Crossing. |- | April 12 |
- David G. Burnet and his cabinet barely escape the arriving Mexican army. Colonel Almonte decides not to shoot the fleeing party.
- Santa Anna crosses Fort Bend on the Brazos River.
- Houston uses the boat Yellow Stone to cross the Brazos River.
- Texan and Mexican patrols clash at New Washington.
- Houston moves his army to Buffalo Bayou
- J.C. Neill is wounded and replaced by G.W. Hockley.
- A cavalry attack led by Sidney Sherman engages the Mexican army.
|- | April 21 | |
- Martín Perfecto de Cos arrives with 500 reinforcements to aid Santa Anna.
- Battle of San Jacinto: Texan army under Sam Houston overwhelmingly defeats Mexican force under Santa Anna, securing Texas independence.
|- | April 22 | | Santa Anna captured. |- | April 23 | | News of Santa Anna's defeat and capture reaches Santa Anna's second-in-command, General Vicente Filisola. |- | April 25 | | All Mexican troops in Texas (2,573 men) assemble at Elizabeth Powell's Tavern near Old Fort, including General José de Urrea's troops, where in a council of war headed by Filisola, they agree to withdraw south of the Colorado River. |- | April 28 | | Retreating Mexican army crosses the Colorado River at the Atascosito Crossing near present-date Columbus, Texas. Because of heavy rains and dwindling food and supplies, the Mexicans continue to withdraw south. |- | May 10 | | Mexican army reaches the Atascosita Road at Victoria. |- | May 14 | | Treaties of Velasco signed by Republic of Texas officials and General Santa Anna. |- | May 17 | | Mexican army arrives in Goliad. |- | May 28 | | Lead elements of Mexican army arrive in San Patrico. |- | May 31 | | Mexican army arrives on the west bank of the Nueces River. |- | June 4 | | Mexican army at the Alamo fort formally surrenders to Juan Seguin, military chief of San Antonio. |- | June 5 – June 12 | | Mexican army camps at Rancho Chiltipiquin. Extreme heat from the summer season forces the army to further move on. |- | June 15 | | Filisola, leading the defeated and demoralized Mexican army, crosses the Rio Grande back into Mexico and arrives at Matamoros, Tamaulipas. |}
- de la Teja (1991), p. 77.
- Lindley (2003), p. 133.
- Hill, Jim Dan. The Texas Navy: In Forgotten Battles And Shirtsleeve Diplomacy, P 29.