Timeline of the Turkic peoples (500–1300)

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History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Avar Khaganate 564–804
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Old Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Volga Bulgaria
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek Khanate
743–1035
Kipchak Khanates
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Shatuo dynasties 923–979
  Later Tang dynasty
  Later Jin dynasty
  Later Han dynasty (Northern Han)
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Seljuq Sultanate of Rum 1092–1307
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khilji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Cairo Sultanate 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty

Below is the timeline of the History of the Turkic peoples between 6th and 14th centuries. Although the chronology of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm is covered in this timeline, for a more detailed timeline for the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm see Timeline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm. For a timeline of the modern Turkish state and its legal predecessor see Timeline of the Ottoman Empire and Timeline of Turkish history. Beyond what is described in this timeline, Turkic peoples have lived outside of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, such as in Azerbaijan and the Central Asian republics of former USSR as well as Russia, China, and Iran.

6th century[edit]

Year Event
545 A Western Wei envoy to the Altai mountains. First mention of Bumin, as the leader of the Ashina clan (the aristocrats of Turks).
551 Bumin declares independence of the Turks around Altai mountains, conquers Ötüken in Mongolian Plateau and takes the title khagan (qaghan). His empire is known as Göktürk (Celestial Turk).
552 Shortly after sending his brother Istemi to the Western Regions as his yabgu (vassal), Bumin Qaghan dies.
554 Muqan Qaghan becomes the qaghan. After a series of successful campaigns the Göktürks begin to control the silk road.
558 In alliance with Sassanid Persia, Istemi defeats the Hephthalites and conquers Transoxania.
568 An alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Justin II is formed after a delegation of the Turks led by Sogdian Maniah arrive in Constantinople to trade silk with the Byzantines.
576 The alliance with the Byzantines ceases after the Byzantines (contrary to their agreement) accept a treaty with Avars, enemies of the Göktürks. The Göktürks seize a Byzantine stronghold in the Crimea.
580 Agathias identifies Burgunds (Βουρουγουνδοι) and Ultizurs as Bulgaric people of Hunnic circle tribes, near relatives of Turkic Cotrigurs and Utigurs.[1][2]
581 Tardush, the second yabgu in the west lay siege to Tauric Chersonesus in Crimea.
581 Two rival states in China begin to pay annual tribute to the Turkic Khaganate.
584 Taspar Qaghan dies, civil war breaks out. (Ishbara Qaghan vs. Apa Qaghan) Tardush interferes.
587 Tardush de facto ruler of the west. Period of dual khaganates. From now on the west khaganate is also called Onok.
588 First Perso-Turkic War. An attempt of the Turkic Khaganatte to invade Afghanistan. But Bahram Chobin of Persia defeats the Turkic Khaganate.
593 End of Turkic interregnum.

7th century[edit]

Year Event
609 Shibi Khan becomes the khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
615 Shibi Qaghan's army surrounds Emperor Yang at Yanmen (Dai, Xinzhou, Shanxi).
618 Tong Yabghu Qaghan becomes the khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate. He is also known as Ziebel the founder of Khazar state (or Khazaria) in Caucasus as a part of Onok.
619 Second Perso-Turkic War. Tong Yabghu Qaghan raids as far as to Isfahan; but is repelled.
626 Illig Qaghan takes advantage of the Incident at Xuanwu Gate and charges to Wei River.
625 Alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius when the emperor requests military aid from the Turks under Tong Yabghu.
627 Third Perso-Turkic War. Böri Shad conquers Derbend in Caucasus and raids Azerbaijan.
628 Xueyantuo (under the command of Yi'nan) and Toquz Oghuz defeats Yukuk Shad (shad of northern side) and Ashina She'er (shad of western side) of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
630 Tang China supports a revolt of vassals of eastern khaganate. Tang army under the command of Li Jing defeats the Eastern Turkic Khaganate at Battle of Yinshan. Emperor Taizong said It's enough for me to compensate my dishonor at Wei River (626).[3] East khaganate becomes vassal of China.
638 Ili river treaty between the two wings of the Western Turkic Kaganate. (Nushibi) vs (Tulo) Ili river becomes the boundary.
639 Ashina Jiesheshuai's unsuccessful raid against Jiucheng Palace. (In popular Turkish culture, Ashina Jiesheshuai is identified as Kürşat )
640 Yukuk Shad tries to unite the Onok tribes, but soon escapes to Kunduz in Afghanistan.
642 Western Turkic soldiers retreat from Gaochang and the kingdom is captured by Tang Dynasty forces. Military conflicts against the Tang Dynasty continue for the next few decades.
644 Western Turks defeated in a battle against the Tang Dynasty in Karasahr.
648 Western Turks lose a battle against the Tang Dynasty in Kucha.
650 Khazars defeat Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah of Rashidun Arabs in Caucasus.
657 China dispatches a military campaign that defeats the western khaganate. Western khaganate becomes vassal of China. During power vacuum, Turgesh tribe emerges as the leading power of Onok.
664 Peace treaty between Caucasian Albania King Javanshir (636-669) and Caucasian Huns Elteber Alp Ilitver with conditions of dynastic marriage union, Huns' takeover of all Albanian fortresses, annual tribute to the Huns, and Huns obligation to defend Albania from Arab aggression.[4]
679 Ashide Wenfu and Ashide Fengzhi who were Turkic liders of Danyu Da Douhufu made Ashina Nishu Beg a Turkic qaghan and revolts against Tang dynasty.[5]
680 Pei Xingjian defeated Ashina Nishu Beg and his army. Ashina Nishu Beg was killed by his men.[5]
680 Ashide Wenfu made Ashina Funian a qaghan and revolted against Tang dynasty.[5]
681 Treaty of 681 was concluded between Bulgar Khan Asparukh and Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus. The peace treaty recognized Asparukh's control over captured Byzantine territories
681 Ashide Wenfu and Ashina Funian surrendered to Pei Xingjian. 54 Turks (including Ashide Wenfu, Ashina Funian) were publicly executed in the Eastern Market of Chang'an.[5]
681 Ashina Kutlug revolts with the remnants of Ashina Funian's men.
682 Ashina Kutlug becomes Ilterish Qaghan and establishes the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
685 Ilterish Qaghan defeats the Chinese in Hin Chu.[citation needed]
694 Death of Ilterish Qaghan. Qapaghan Qaghan becomes the second khagan.
698 Qapagan annexes Turkestan[citation needed] (On Oq territory) after battle of Bolchu[6] against Turgesh.

8th century[edit]

Year Event
704 Umayyad governor Qutaibah bin Muslim invades Transoxiana.
713 Turco-Arab wars in Transoxina. Arab victory leads to shift of power in Turkestan from Turkic Khaganate to their Turgesh vassals again.
716 First treaty wth known terms between Byzantine Emperor Theodosios III and Danube Bulgaria Khan Tervel delineating borders, fixing the size of Byzantine annual tribute to the Khan at 30 lb. of gold, exchange of prisoners, return of refugees, and unimpeded trade between the two countries[7]
716 Qapaghan Qaghan was killed in his campaign against Toquz Oghuz and his head was sent to Changan.[8] Kul Tigin and Tonyukuk carried out a coup d'état. They killed Qapaghan's son and brothers and made Bilge Qaghan a qaghan.[8]
716 (?) The first written records in Old Turkic language. Bain Tsokto inscriptions of Tonyukuk. (These monuments have been erected by himself, a few years before his death.)
717 Suluk becomes Turgesh qaghan.
718 A short period of stability in Turkic Empire. Bilge and his triumvirate suppress all revolts.
723 Governor Al-Kharashi of Umayyad Arabs massacres Turks and Sogdian refugees for the second time in Khujand
724 Turgesh Qaghan Suluk defeats superior Umayyad Arab armies by his hit and run tactics so called "The Day of Thirst" (Yawm al-'Atash)[9]
728 Turgesh Qaghan Suluk defeats Umayyad Arab armies for the second time.
730 Khazars defeat Umayyad Arab armies in southern Caucasus. But victorious general Barjik dies in the battle.
734 Death of Bilge Khagan.
735 Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments of Bilge Khagan and his brother Kül Tigin. (Bilge has already erected Kül Tigin's monument and Bilge's son erects Bilge's monument.) Together with Bain Tsokto monument of Tonyukuk, these monuments are called Orkhon monuments. (In 2004 the monuments are included in List of World Heritage Sites in Asia and Australasia)
737 Umayyad Arabs defeat Khazars and capture Khazar capital Balanjar. Khazars soon after drive Arabs back. But the capital is shifted to Atil.
738 Suluk is assassinated.
740 Khazar khan Bulan embraces Judaism. But the subjects are free to choose their religion.
744 Turkic subjects like Basmyl, Uyghur and Karluk who are not the members of Ashina clan stage a coup. End of Ashina clan. (except in Khazaria)
745 First Uyghur khan Kutluk Bilge. Uygurs replace Turkic Khaganate in the east and their vassal Karluks begin to conquer the former On Oq territory in the west.
747 Second Uyghur khan Bayanchur Khan who begins the construction of a big capital city Ordu Baliq
750 In Arab Empire Umayyad dynasty ends. Abbasid policy more tolerant to Turks.
751 Arabs defeat Chinese in the Battle of Talas during which 20,000 Karluk mercenaries switch to the Arab side in the middle of the battle.
753 Tariat inscriptions of Bayanchor Khan of Uyghurs. (probable date)
755 After the battle of Talas civil war in China. Bayanchor supports Chinese empreror against rebellious general An Lushan.
756 Peace treaty between Byzantine Emperor Constantine V and Danube Bulgaria Khan Kormisosh ending long period of military conflict[10]
765 Third Uyghur khan Bogu embraces Manicheism.
766 Karluks defeat Turgesh. Most of Turkestan (former Onak territory) under Karluk rule. But in the west of Lake Aral a loose confederation named Oghuz Yabgu State emerges.
789 Ediz house replaces Yaglakar house in Uigur Kaganate.

9th century[edit]

Year Event
815 Thirty Years’ Peace Treaty of 815 was signed in Constantinople between the Bulgarian Khan Omurtag and the Byzantine Emperor Leo V the Armenian about 30-years peace
821 Uyghurs repulse Tibetians
836 The capital of the Caliphate (Arabic Empire) is moved from Baghdad to the new city of Samarra by Caliph Al-Mu'tasim because of unrest caused by Turkic slave soldiers (named Mameluk). (Mameluk practice has begun shortly after battle of Talas .)
840 Kyrgyz in Yenisey region (north) defeat Uyghurs. End of the main khaganate. But Uyghurs flee to south west.
848 Some Uyghur refuges establish a small state in Gansu, north China.
850 Supported by Uyghur refuges Karluks establish the state of Karakhanids in Transoxiana.
856 A third group of Uyghur refuges establish another state in Turpan, present day Xinjiang, west China.
868 Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Turkic mameluk general in Arab army founds Tulunid dynasty in Egypt.
881 Three Khazar tribes collectively named Kabar diverge from the main body and move westwards together with the seven tribes of Magyars.
892 Khazars force Pechenegs to west who in turn force Magyars to Hungary.
898 Treaty of 898 between the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon and the Byzantine Emperor Leo Choerosphactus after a devastating unprovoked war on Bulgaria from two sides and final Bulgarian victory resumes Byzantine payment of annual tribute to Danube Bulgaria[11][12]

10th century[edit]

Year Event
914 Treaty of 914 was a peace treaty concluded between Pechenegs and a prince of Rus principality Igor
924 Mongols of Khitan drive Kyrgyz out of Mongolia. Some Kyrgyz return to Yenisei region and some flee to present day Kyrgyzstan.
924 Saltuk Bugra Khan of Karakhanids embrace Islam. The first Turkic monarch to do so.
940 Byzantine-Russian alliance against Khazars. Khazar Khannate loses Crimea.
941 Gansu state (Sari Uyghurs) becomes vassal of China.
960 Khazar Correspondence between Hasdai ibn Shaprut (of Córdoba) and Khagan Joseph of Khazars.
963 Alp Tigin a Turkic general establishes Ghaznavids as a vassal state of Samanids
969 Russians capture Khazar capital Atil.
977 Under Sebük Tekin Ghaznavids become a Muslim sultanate (empire).
985 A big Turkic tribe (Kinik) under the leadership of Selçuk migrates from Khazar (Oguz ?) territory to suburbs of the city Jend (which is now in South Kazakhstan).
999 Dissolution of Oguz confederation by Kipchaks.

11th century[edit]

Year Event
1016 Khazar Kaganate dissolves under pressure from Russians and Kipchaks.
1037 Russians defeat Pechenegs.
1038 Seljuk's grandsons Tugrul and Chaghri conquer the historical city of Merv in present day Turkmenistan and declare independence. Beginning of the Great Seljuk Empire.
1040 Tugrul and Chagri of Seljuk Turks defeat a Ghaznavid army at the battle of Dandanaqan and begin to settle in eastern Persia.
1042 Civil war in Karakhanid teriitory. East and west Karakhanids.
1048 Ibrahim Yinal (Tugrul's uterine brother) of Seljuk Turks defeat a Byzantine-Georgian army at Battle of Pasinler (also called battle of Kapetrou). Turks in East Anatolia.
1050 Pechenegs raid Byzantine territories.
1055 After a series of victories Tughrul is declared sultan (of Great Seljuk Sultanate) by the caliph.
1071 Alp Arslan of Seljuk Turks defeat Romanos Diogenes of Byzantine in the battle of Manzikert.
1072 Death of Alp Arslan. Malik Shah becomes the sultan.
1072 Danishmend Gazi who is the hero of epic tales Danishmendname founds a principality around Sivas, central Anatolia (i.e., Asatic side of present Turkey).
1072 Divan'ı Lügat'ı Türk. A book written by Kaşgarlı Mahmut of Karakhanids to be presented to Caliph, about Turks.
1077 Süleyman I (a cousin of Melik Shah) founds a state in what is now west Turkey. Although a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire it soon becomes totally independent. (Seljuks of Rum, Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, Sultanate of Rum, Seljuks of Turkey, Seljuks of Anatolia, Sultanate of Iconium are among the many names used for this state)
1077 Emergence of Khwarezm dynasty as a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire.
1081 Tzachas of Smyrna founds a beylik (principality) in İzmir, Western Anatolia and emerges as the first sea power in Turkish history.
1085 Tutush I, Malik Shah's brother founds a short lived principality in Syria.
1089 Hungarians defeat the Kipchaks.
1091 Kipchacks defeat the Pechenegs.
1093 Kipchacks defeat Sviatopolk II of Kievian Russians in the Battle of the Stugna River,
1096 Kılıç Arslan I of Seljuks defeats People's Crusade.
1097 During First Crusade Crusades defeat Seljuks at the Battle of Dorylaeum. Capital İznik captured by Crusades (New capıital Konya)

12th century[edit]

Year Event
1101 Kılıç Arslan I of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, of the second wave of First Crusades.
1104 Tuğtekin, atabeg of Damascus founds a short lived principality in Syria. First example of a series of Seljukid atabeg dynasties.
1121 A Seljuq army led by the Artuqid Ilghazi of Mardin is defeated by the Georgians near Tiflis.
1128 Zangi, atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo founds Zengid dynasty.
1141 Mongols of Khitan defeat Great Seljuk Sultan Sanjar in the Battle of Qatwan.
1146 Ildeniz, atabeg of Azerbaijan founds a dynasty, being the first independent Turkic dynasty of Azerbaijan.
1147 During Second Crusade, Mesud I of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III in the second battle of Dorylaeum and French king Louis VII at battle of Laodicea.
1153 Great Seljuk sultan Sanjar is defeated by his Oguz vassals.
1154 Oghuz Turks destroy Library of Nishapur[13]
1176 Kılıç Arslan II of Seljuks defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon.
1178 End of Danishmends. Their territory is annexed by Kılıç Arslan II.
1190 German Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and a contingent of the Third Crusade defeat the Turks at the Battle of Konya (Iconium) in Southern Anatolia. He subsequently drowns whilst crossing the Göksu River, near Silifke.

13th century[edit]

Year Event
1202 Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeat Saltukid principality and annex north eastern Anatolia.
1205 After the disintegration of Great Seljuk Sultanate, Kharzem shahs declare independence and conquer most of former Seljuk territory.
1206 Slave dynasty of Delhi established by Qutb-ud-din Aybak in India.
1209 Turpan Uyghurs become vassals of the Mongols.
1209 Birth of Nasrudin a satirical Sufi figure in Akşehir, Western Anatolia. His anectodes and jokes, especially those involving Mongol overlords after 1243, are always very popular in all Turkish speaking countries.
1211 Mongolic Khitans end East Karakhanids.
1212 Khwarezm shahs end West Karakhanids.
1220 Alaaddin Keykubat I becomes the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm.
1220 Mongols end Khwarezm Shāh.
1230 Alaaddin Keykubat I of Seljuks defeats Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu in the battle of Yassıçemen
1236 Razia Sultana of Delhi sultanate, the first female ruler in Islamic countries.
1239 Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Khwarzem refuges who have recently arrived in Anatolia. (The revolt is bloodily suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.)
1241 Mongols defeat Kipchacks.
1243 Ilkhanids defeat the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in the battle of Kösedağ
1250 Aybek, a member of a cast of Kıpchack soldiers establishes Mameluk dynasty in Egypt
1260 Mameluk general (later sultan) Baybars defeats Ilkhanate leader Hulagu in Battle of Ayn Jalut.
1277 Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey a semi independent bey (prince) in Anatolia (also a short term vizier of Seljuks) declares Turkish as the official language in his reign.
1293 Codex Cumanicus A Kipchack dictionary written for Latins.
1299 Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Agathias, Histiriae, V,11,3-4
  2. ^ Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, p.7, & notes
  3. ^ New Book of Tang, Vol. 93
  4. ^ Gmyrya L. Hun Country At The Caspian Gate, Dagestan, Makhachkala 1995, pp. 29, 199, ISВN 5-297-01099-3 (Strana Gunnov u Kaspiyskix vorot, Dagestan, Makhachkala, 1995)
  5. ^ a b c d Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 202
  6. ^ S.G. Klyashtorny-T.İ.Sultanov: Türkün Üçbin Yılı (trans:D.Ahsen batur), Selenge yayınları, İstanbul, 2003, ISBN 975-8839-03-9, p.108
  7. ^ Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, pp. 32-33
  8. ^ a b Book of Tang, Vol. 194-I
  9. ^ Al-Tabarī, Tārīkh al-rusul wa-al-mulūk, The History of al-Tabari, Vol. XXVI: The waning of the Umayyad caliphate, SUNY Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0-88706-810-2, p. 27.
  10. ^ Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, pp. 37, 289
  11. ^ Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, p. 149
  12. ^ Treadgold, Warren A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997, p. 464, ISBN 0-8047-2630-2
  13. ^ The Tomb of Omar Khayyâm, George Sarton, Isis, Vol. 29, No. 1 (July , 1938):16.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Expo 70 ed., vol 13, pp 328–330; vol 20, pp 192–196; vol 22, pp 400–401
  • Jean Paul Roux: Historie des Turcs. (Translated by Prof Dr. Aykut Kazancıgil and Lale Arslan Özcan) Kabalcı Yayınevi, İstanbul, 2007
  • Arthur Koestler: The Thirteenth Tribe (Translated by Belkis Çorakçı) Say Kitap Pazarlama,İstanbul, 1976
  • Melek Tekin: Türk Tarih Ansiklopedisi, Milliyet yayınları, İstanbul, 1991

External links[edit]