Timeline of the development of tectonophysics (before 1954)

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"Timeline of the development of tectonophysics" redirects here. For remaining timeline, see Timeline of the development of tectonophysics (after 1952).

The evolution of tectonophysics is closely linked to the history of the continental drift and plate tectonics hypotheses. The continental drift/ Airy-Heiskanen isostasy hypothesis had many flaws and scarce data. The fixist/ Pratt-Hayford isostasy, the contracting Earth and the expanding Earth concepts had many flaws as well.

The idea of continents with a permanent location, the geosyncline theory, the Pratt-Hayford isostasy, the extrapolation of the age of the Earth by Lord Kelvin as a black body cooling down, the contracting Earth, the Earth as a solid and crystalline body, is one school of thought. A lithosphere creeping over the asthenosphere is a logical consequence of an Earth with internal heat by radioactivity decay, the Airy-Heiskanen isostasy, thrust faults and Niskanen's mantle viscosity determinations.


In 1858, Snider-Pellegrini made these two maps. They depict his interpretation of how the American and African continents may once have fit together before subsequently becoming separated.
Airy model of isostasy: 1. thickness of the crust under mountains, 2. lower mountains, 3. thickness of normal continental crust, 4. thickness of oceanic crust, 5. sealevel, 6. pieces of the Earth's crust, 7. asthenosphere.

First there was the Creationism (Martin Luther), and the age of the Earth was 6000 years. There were stacks of calcareous rocks of maritime origin above sea level, and up and down motions were allowed (geosyncline hypothesis, James Hall and James D. Dana). Later on, the thrust fault concept appeared, and a contracting Earth (Eduard Suess, James D. Dana, Albert Heim) was its driving force. In 1862, the physicist William Thomson (who later became Lord Kelvin) calculated the age of Earth (as a cooling black body) at between 20 million and 400 million years. In 1895, John Perry produced an age of Earth estimate of 2 to 3 billion years old using a model of a convective mantle and thin crust.[1] Finally, A. Holmes published The Age of the Earth, an Introduction to Geological Ideas in 1927, in which he presented a range of 1.6 to 3.0 billion years.

Wegener had data for assuming that the relative positions of the continents change over time. It was a mistake to state the continents "plowed" through the sea, although it isn't sure that this fixist quote is true in the original in German. He was an outsider with a doctorate in astronomy attacking an established theory between 'geophysicists'. The geophysicists were right to state that the Earth is solid, and the mantle is elastic (for seismic waves) and inhomogeneous, and the ocean floor would not allow the movement of the continents. But excluding one alternative, substantiates the opposite alternative: passive continents and an active seafloor spreading and subduction, with accretion belts on the edges of the continents. The velocity of the sliding continents, was allowed in the uncertainty of the fixed continent model and seafloor subduction and upwelling with phase change allows for inhomogeneity.

The problem too, was the specialisation. A. Holmes and A. Rittmann saw it right (Rittmann 1939). Only an outsider can have the overview, only an outsider sees the forest, not only the trees (Hellman 1998b, p. 145). But A. Wegener did not have the specialisation to correctly weight the quality of the geophysical data and the paleontologic data, and its conclusions. Wegener's main interest was meteorology, and he wanted to join the Denmark-Greenland expedition scheduled for mid 1912. So he hurried up to present his Continental Drift hypothesis.[2]

Mainly Charles Lyell, Harold Jeffreys, James D. Dana, Charles Schuchert, Chester Longwell, and the conflict with the Axis powers slowed down the acceptance of continental drifting (Rodney 2012).


Triassic, Ladinian stage (230 Ma).
Distribution of modern day Glossopteris fossils (#1: South America, #2: Africa, #3: Madagascar, #4: Indian subcontinent, #5: Antarctica, #6: Australia).
Mineralogy igneous rocks.
A diagram of folds, indicating an anticline and a syncline.
  • 1912, Wegener presents his ideas at the German Geological Society, Frankfurt (Wegener 1912a). Karl Erich Andrée (University of Marburg) must have delivered him some references.[2] Strong points:
    • Matching of the coastlines of eastern South America and western Africa, and many similarities between the respective coastlines of North America and Europe.
    • Numerous geological similarities between Africa and South America, and others between North America and Europe.
    • Many examples of past and present-day life forms having a geographically disjunctive distribution.
    • Mountain ranges are usually located along the coastlines of the continents, and orogenic regions are long and narrow in shape.
    • The Earth's crust exhibits two basic elevations, one corresponding to the elevation of the continental tables, the other to the ocean floors.
    • The Permo-Carboniferous moraine deposits found in South Africa, Argentina, southern Brazil, India, and in western, central, and eastern Australia. (Frankel 1987, pp. 205–206)
    • Flooded land-bridges contradict isostasy.[2]
    • Note I: Wegener described in a sentence the seafloor spreading in the first publication only. But he believed it is a consequence of the continental drift (Wegener 1912a in Jacoby 1981). He abandoned this sentence probably under the advice of Emanuel Kayser, University of Marburg.[2]
    • Note II: ‘Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen’ is one of the leading geographical monthlies of international reputation. (Ruud 1930); Wladimir Köppen (father-in-law), (Köppen 1921a), (Köppen 1921b), (Köppen 1925) and Kurt Wegener (brother), (Wegener 1925), (Wegener 1941), (Wegener 1942) defended there the Continental drift hypothesis in a somewhat mirror controversy (in Demhardt 2005).
    • Note III: Although the climate distribution was not always similar to nowadays. In the Carboniferous, coal mines are remains of the Equatorial Realm, glaciation remains are near the South Pole, and between glaciation and Equatorial Realm (centered between latitude 30° and the Tropic of Cancer and the Capricorn) there are remains of deserts (evaporites, salt lakes and sand dunes) (Brusatte 2004, p. 4).[21] These are consequences of the evaporation rate and the atmospheric circulation.
  • 1912, Patrick Marshall uses the term "andesite line".[22]
  • 1914, the idea of a strong outer layer (lithosphere), overlying a weak asthenosphere is introduced (Barrel 1914).
  • H. Jeffreys and others, most important criticisms (Frankel 1987, p. 211), (Hellman 1998, p. 146):
    • Continents can not "plow" through the sea, because the seafloor is denser than the continental crust.
    • Pole-fleeing force is too weak to move continents and produce mountains.
    • If the tidal force moves continents, than the Earth's rotation would stop after only one year.
  • Daly, Reginald A. (1926). Our Mobile Earth. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 
    • Its opening sentence is Galileo's allegedly muttered rebellious phrase And yet it moves.
    • Quote: "Daly,..., seeks to substitute sliding for drifting, assuming that broad domes or bulges form at the earth's surface, and on the flanks of these domes the continental masses slide downward, moving over hot basaltic glass as over a lubricated floor". (pp. 170–291)[23]
  • By the mid-1920s, A. Holmes had rejected contractionism and he had introduced a model with convection (Frankel 1987, p. 212), (Holmes 1929a), (Holmes 1929b), (Holmes 1944).
  • The Alps were and still are the best investigated orogen worldwide. Otto Ampferer (Austrian Geological Survey) rejected contractionism 1906 and he defended convection, locally only at first. Otto Ampferer even used the word swallowed in a geological sense. The Geological Society Meeting in Innsbruck, held in 29 August 1912, changed a paradigm (T. Termier words, the acceptance of nappes and thrust faults). So that Émile Argand (1916) speculated that the Alps were caused by the North motion of the African shield, and finally accepted this reason 1922, following Wegener's Continental drift theory (Argand 1922 as Staub 1924). Otto Ampferer in the mean time, at the Geological Society Meeting in Vienna, held in 4 April 1919, defended the link between the alpine faulting and Wegener's continental drift.[2][24][25]
    • Quote, translation: "The Alpine orogeny is the effect of the migration of the North African shield. Smoothing only alpine folds and nappes on the cross section between the Black Forest and Africa once again, then from the present distance of about 1,800 km, we have an initial gap of around 3,000 to 3,500 km, ie. a pressing of the alpine region, alpine region in a broader sense, of 1,500 km. To this amount must be Africa have moved to Europe. This brings us then to a true large scale continental drift of the African shield". (Staub 1924, p. 257) cited in (Wegener 1929, p. 10)
  • W.A.J.M. van Waterschoot van der Gracht, Bailey Willis, Rollin T. Chamberlin, John Joly, G.A.F. Molengraaff, J.W. Gregory, Alfred Wegener, Charles Schuchert, Chester R. Longwell, Frank Bursley Taylor, William Bowie, David White, Joseph T. Singewald, Jr., and Edward W. Berry participated on a Symposium of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG, 1926) (van der Gracht 1926)[23] Although the chairman favored the drift hypothesis, it ceased to be an acceptable geological investigation subject in many universities under the influence of Jeffreys (1924) book (Machamer, Pera & Baltas 2000, pp. 72–75).
    • Quote, University of Chicago geologist Rollin T. Chamberlin: "If we are to believe in Wegener's hypothesis we must forget everything which has been learned in the past 70 years and start all over again." (Hellman 1998b), (Sullivan 1991, p. 15)
    • Quote, Bailey Willis: "further discussion of it merely incumbers the literature and befogs the mind of fellow students. (It is) as antiquated as pre-Curie physics". (Hellman 1998b, p. 150), (Hallam 1983, p. 136)
    • Bailey Willis and William Bowie saw the sima with great strength and rigidity through the seismological studies, and tidal forces would act more on the sima (2800 to 3300 kg/m3) as it is denser than the sial (2700 to 2800 kg/m3) (Frankel 1987, p. 211).
    • Quote, W. Van Waterschoot van der Gracht (Wilson cycle): "there may have been a pre-Carboniferous "Atlantic" that was closed up during the Caledonian orogenis" (Holmes 1929a).
  • By the late-1920s: discovery of the Wadati-Benioff zone by Kiyoo Wadati (two pairs plus one paper, 1927 to 1931) of the Japan Meteorological Agency, and Hugo Benioff of the California Institute of Technology.[26]
  • Alexander du Toit's book. (du Toit 1937)
    • In 1923, he received a grant from the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and used this to travel to eastern South America to study the geology of Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil.
  • 1931: Peacock named the calc-alkaline igneous rock series.
  • 1931, age of the Earth by the National Research Council of the US National Academy of Sciences.[27]
  • 1936, Augusto Gansser-Biaggi interpreted rocks located at the foot of Mount Kailash in the Indian part of the Himalayas as having originated in the seafloor. He brings back a sample with Ammonites of the Norian (Triassic). He later interpreted this Indus-Yarlung-Zangpo Suture Zone (ISZ) as the border between the Indian and the Eurasian Plate.[28]
  • David T. Griggs (1939). "A theory of mountain-building". American Journal of Science 237 (9): 611–650. doi:10.2475/ajs.237.9.611. 
  • January, 1939: at the annual meeting of the German Geological Society, Frankfurt, Alfred Rittmann opposed the idea that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was an orogenic uplift (Rittmann 1939).
  • Schwinner (1941) sees subduction as the cause of Wadati-Benioff zone and volcanic activity, but does not link it to continental drifting. He was in a way an anti-drifter.[2]
  • Umbgrove, JHF (1942). The Pulse of the Earth (1 ed.). The Hague, NL: Martinus Nyhoff. 
  • Mid-1940s, paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson finds flaws on the paleontology data. (Frankel 1987, p. 217)
  • Alexander du Toit, Glossopteris findings in Russia are an erroneous identification. It was used as argument by anti-drifters (Du Toit 1944).
  • 1944, cores of deep ocean sediment show rapid rate of accumulation, suggesting that old oceans are an impossibility ((Revelle 1944) cited in (Bullard 1975)).
  • 1948, Felix Andries Vening Meinesz, Dutch geophysicist who believes in convection currents as a result of his work on oceanic gravity anomalies. Highly respected by H. H. Hess, Hess even got a chance to work with him. (Frankel 1987, p. 230), (Vening Meinesz 1948), (Vening Meinesz 1952a), (Vening Meinesz 1952b), (Vening Meinesz 1955), (Vening Meinesz 1959)
  • 1949, Niskanen calculates the viscosity under the crust to be 5 1021 CGS units.
    • Niskanen, E. (1949). "Publn. Isostatic Inst." 23. Helsinki. 
  • 1950, fading of the hypothesis from view.
    • Gewers, T. W. (1950). "Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa" 52 (suppl.). p. 1. marked regression away from continental drift 
  • 1951, Alfred Rittmann shows that crystalline mantle is able to creep at its temperature and pressure and he shows subduction, volcanism and erosion in the mountainous regions. Rittmann (1951), figure 4, p. 293.
  • 1951, André Amstutz uses the word subduction.
    • Amstutz, André (1951). "Sur l'évolution des structures alpines". Archives des sciences (in French) (Géneve) (4–5): 323–329. 4) Première phase tectogène, approximativement durant le crétacé: Premières contractions tangentielles et déversements du géanticlinal briançonnais dans la dépression Mt. Rose, par subduction (ce mot n'est-il préférable à celui de sous-charriage ?) de masses Mt. Rose sous de masses St.Bernard; et peut-être simultanément déversements dans la dépression valaisanne-dauphinoise. (pp. 325-326) 
    • Amstutz, André (1955). "Structures Alpines: subductions successives dans l'Ossola". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences (Paris) 241: 967–969. 
  • 1953, Adrian E. Scheidegger, anti-drifter.[29]
    • E.g.: it had been shown that floating masses on a rotating geoid would collect at the equator, and stay there. This would explain one, but only one, mountain building episode between any pair of continents; it failed to account for earlier orogenic episodes.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]



  1. ^ England, Philip C.; Molnar, Peter; Richter, Frank M. (2007). "Kelvin, Perry and the Age of the Earth". American Scientist 95 (4): 342–349. doi:10.1511/2007.66.3755. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Flügel, Helmut W. (December 1980). "Wegener-Ampferer-Schwinner: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Geologie in Österreich" [Wegener-Ampferer-Schwinner: A Contribution to the History of the Geology in Austria]. Mitt. österr. Geol. Ges. (in German) 73. 
  3. ^ Ortelius 1596.
  4. ^ a b Romm 1994.
  5. ^ Bacon 1620.
  6. ^ Keary & Vine 1990.
  7. ^ a b Schmeling, Harro (2004). "Geodynamik" (in German). University of Frankfurt. 
  8. ^ Snider-Pellegrini 1858.
  9. ^ Brusatte 2004, p. 3.
  10. ^ Kious & Tilling 1996.
  11. ^ "The History of Continental Drift - Before Wegener". 
  12. ^ Boswell, James (1793). "On the Theory of the Earth - Letter to Abbé Jean-Louis Giraud Soulavie, 22 September 1782". The Scots magazine (Sands, Brymer, Murray and Cochran) 55: 432–433. 
  13. ^ s:en:Franklin to Abbé Jean-Louis Giraud Soulavie
  14. ^ Born, A. (1923). Isostasie und Schweremessung. Berlin. 
  15. ^ "Historical geology". Geopark Sadona. 
  16. ^ "Geo-Life: Von der Glarner Doppelfalte zur Glarner Ueberschiebung". geo-life.ch. 
  17. ^ Wegener 1929, Wegener 1929/1966
  18. ^ Coxworthy 1848/1924
  19. ^ Pickering 1907
  20. ^ "The Wrath of Science". NASA - Earth Observatory. 
  21. ^ "NYC Regional Geology: Mesozoic Basins". USGS. 
  22. ^ Benson W. N. (1951). 152–155 "Patrick Marshall". Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 79. 
  23. ^ a b Longwell, Chester R. "Some Physical Tests of the Displacement Hypothesis". We cannot disregard entirely the suggestion that continental masses have suffered some horizontal movement, because evidence for such movement is becoming ever more apparent in the structure of the Alps and of the Asiatic mountain systems. 
  24. ^ Krainer, Karl; Hauser, Christoph (2007). "Otto Ampferer (1875-1947): Pioneer in Geology, Mountain Climber, Collector and Draftsman". Geo. Alp: Sonderband 1: 91–100. 
  25. ^ Gansser, Augusto (1973). "Orogene Entwicklung in den Anden, im Himalaja und den Alpen: ein Vergleich". Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae (Lausanne) 66: 23–40. 
  26. ^ Honda, Hirochiki (1998). "Kiyoo Wadati and the path to the discovery of the intermediate-deep earthquake zone" (pdf). Episodes 24 (2): 118–123. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  27. ^ Dalrymple, G. Brent (2001). "The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved". Special Publications, Geological Society of London 190 (1): 205–221. Bibcode:2001GSLSP.190..205D. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.190.01.14. 
  28. ^ Eichenberger, Ursula (5 September 2008). "Augusto Gansser, Vermesser der Welt". Das Magazin. 
  29. ^ Scheidegger 1953.

Cited books[edit]

  • Bacon, Francis (1620). s:en:Novum Organum. England. Translated by Wood, Devey, Spedding, et al. 
  • P.M.S. Blackett, E.C. Bullard and S.K. Runcorn (ed). A Symposium on Continental Drift, held on 28 October 1965. pp. 323:
    • Bullard, E. C.; Everett, J. E.; Smith, A. G. (1965). "The fit of the continents around the Atlantic". In P.M.S. Blackett, E.C. Bullard and S.K. Runcorn. A Symposium on Continental Drift (Oct. 28, 1965). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 258 (1088). The Royal Society. pp. 41–51. 
    • Heezen, B. C.; Tharp, M. (1965). "Tectonic Fabric of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Continental Drift". In P.M.S. Blackett, E.C. Bullard and S.K. Runcorn. A Symposium on Continental Drift (Oct. 28, 1965). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 258 (1088). The Royal Society. pp. 90–106. 
    • Wilson, J. Tuzo (1965b). "Evidence from Ocean Islands Suggesting Movement in the Earth". In P.M.S. Blackett, E.C. Bullard and S.K. Runcorn. A Symposium on Continental Drift (Oct. 28, 1965). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 258 (1088). The Royal Society. pp. 145–167. JSTOR 73340. 
  • Carey, S. W. (1958). "The tectonic approach to continental drift". In Carey, S. W. Continental Drift—A symposium, held in March 1956. Hobart: Univ. of Tasmania. pp. 177–363Expanding Earth from p. 311 to p. 349. 
  • Coats, Robert R. (1962). "Magma type and crustal structure in the Aleutian arc". The Crust of the Pacific Basin. American Geophysical Union Monograph 6. pp. 92–109. 
  • Cowen, R.; Lipps, JH, eds. (1975). Controversies in the Earth sciences. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co. p. 439. ISBN 0-8299-0044-6. 
  • Dana, James Dwight (1863). Manual of Geology: Treating of the Principles of the Science with Special Reference to American Geological History. Bliss. p. 805. 
  • Flint, R. F. (1947). Glacial Geology and the Pleistocene Epoch. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 589. ISBN 1-4437-2173-5. 
  • Frankel, H. (1987). "The Continental Drift Debate". In H.T. Engelhardt Jr and A.L. Caplan. Scientific Controversies: Case Solutions in the resolution and closure of disputes in science and technology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27560-6. 
  • W.A.J.M. van Waterschoot van der Gracht, Bailey Willis, Rollin T. Chamberlin, John Joly, G.A.F. Molengraaff, J.W. Gregory, Alfred Wegener, Charles Schuchert, Chester R. Longwell, Frank Bursley Taylor, William Bowie, David White, Joseph T. Singewald, Jr., and Edward W. Berry (1928). W.A.J.M. van Waterschoot van der Gracht, ed. Theory of Continental Drift: a symposium on the origin and movement of land masses both intercontinental and intracontinental as proposed by Alfred Wegener, A Symposium of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG, 1926). Tulsa, OK. p. 240. 
  • Le Grand, H. E. (1990). "Is one picture worth a thousand experiments?". In Le Grand, H. E. Experimental Inquiries: Historical, Philosophical and Social Studies of Experimentation in Science. Dordrecht: Kluwer. pp. 241–270. 
  • Hallam, A. (1983). Great Geological Controversies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. x+182. ISBN 0-19-854430-8. 
  • Hellman, Hal (1998a). "Lord Kelvin versus Geologists and Biologists - The Age of the Earth". Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 105–120. ISBN 0-471-35066-4. 
  • Hellman, Hal (1998b). "Wegener versus Everybody - Continental Drift". Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 141–158. ISBN 0-471-35066-4. 
  • Hess, H. H. (November 1962). "History of Ocean Basins". In A. E. J. Engel, Harold L. James, and B. F. Leonard. Petrologic studies: a volume to honor of A. F. Buddington. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America. pp. 599–620. 
  • Holmes, Arthur (1944). Principles of Physical Geology (1 ed.). Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson & Sons. ISBN 0-17-448020-2. 
  • Holmes, Arthur (1929b). The Origin of Continents and Oceans. 
  • Hopkins, Evan (1844). On the connection of geology with terrestrial magnetism. R. Taylor. p. 129. 
  • Jeffreys, H. (1924). The Earth - its Origin, History and Physical Constitution (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 429. 
    • Jeffreys, H. (1952). The Earth - its Origin, History and Physical Constitution (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 574. ISBN 0-521-20648-0. 
  • Marshall Kay, ed. (1969). North Atlantic: geology and continental drift, a symposium. Tulsa, OK: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). 
  • Keary, P; Vine, F. J. (1990). Global Tectonics. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. p. 302. 
  • Kious, W. Jacquelyne; Tilling, Robert I. (February 2001) [1996]. "Historical perspective". This Dynamic Earth: the Story of Plate Tectonics (Online ed.). U.S. Geological Survey. ISBN 0-16-048220-8. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Abraham Ortelius in his work Thesaurus Geographicus... suggested that the Americas were 'torn away from Europe and Africa... by earthquakes and floods... The vestiges of the rupture reveal themselves, if someone brings forward a map of the world and considers carefully the coasts of the three [continents].' 
  • Krill, Allan (2011). Fixists vs. Mobilists: In the Geology Contest of The Century, 1844-1969. ISBN 978-82-998389-1-7. 
  • Lilienthal, T. (1756). Die Gute Sache der Göttlichen Offenbarung. Königsberg: Hartung. This is also likely owing to the fact that the coasts of certain lands, situated opposite each other though separated by sea, have a corresponding shape, so that they would be congruent with one another were they to stand side by side; for example, the southern part of America and Africa. For this reason one supposes that perhaps both of these continents were previously attached to each other, either directly, or through the sunken island of Atlantis;... 
  • Lyell, Charles (1875). Principles of Geology (12 ed.). 
  • Machamer, Peter; Pera, Marcella; Baltas, Aristides, ed. (2000). Scientific Controversies. New York etc.: Oxford University Press. p. 278. Wegener pp. 72-75. 
  • Marvin, Ursula B. (1973). Continental Drift: The Evolution of a Concept. Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-87474-129-7 (Dissertation). 
  • McPhee, John (1998). Annals of the Former World. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 0-374-10520-0. 
  • Naomi Oreskes, Homer Le Grand, ed. (December 2001). Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History of the Modern Theory of the Earth. Westview Press. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-8133-3981-8. 
  • Oreskes, Naomi (1999). The rejection of continental drift: theory and method in American earth science. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511733-6. 
  • Ortelius, Abraham (1596). Thesaurus Geographicus (3 ed.). Antwerp: Plantin. The vestiges of the rupture reveal themselves, if someone brings forward a map of the world and considers carefully the coasts of the three [continents (Europe, Africa and Americas)] 
  • Pepper, John Henry (1861). The Playbook of Metals. Routledge, Warne, and Routledge. p. 502. 
  • Phinney, R . A. (1968). The History of the Earth's Crust. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. p. 244. 
  • Revelle, R. R. (1944). Marine bottom samples collected in the Pacific Ocean by the Carnegie on its Seventh Cruise. Pub. 556, Part 1. Washington: Carnegie Inst. 
  • Runcorn, S. K., ed. (1962b). Continental Drift. New York and London: Academic Press. p. 338. 
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  • Stampfli, G.M.; Borel, G.D. (2004). "The TRANSMED Transects in Space and Time: Constraints on the Paleotectonic Evolution of the Mediterranean Domain". In Cavazza W., Roure F., Spakman W., Stampfli G.M., Ziegler P. The TRANSMED Atlas: the Mediterranean Region from Crust to Mantle. Springer Verlag. ISBN 3-540-22181-6. 
  • Suess, E. (1875). Die Entstehung der Alpen [The Origin of the Alps]. W. Braumüller. A mass movement, more or less horizontal and progressive, should be the cause underlying the formation of our mountain systems. 
  • Suess, Eduard (1885-08-19). Das Antlitz der Erde [The Face of the Earth]. Vienna: F. Tempsky. Three volumes, translator: H. B. C. Sollas. 
  • Sullivan, Walter (1991). Continents in Motion: The New Earth Debate (1 ed.). American Inst. of Physics. p. 425. ISBN 978-0-88318-703-6. 
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  • Umbgrove, J.H.F. (1947). The Pulse of the Earth (2 ed.). The Hague, NL: Martinus Nyhoff. p. 359. 
  • Vening-Meinesz, F.A. (1948). Gravity expeditions at sea 1923-1938. Vol. IV. Complete results with isostatic reduction, interpretation on the results. Delft: Nederlandse Commissie voor Geodesie 9. p. 233. ISBN 978-90-6132-015-9. 
  • Wallace, Alfred Russel (2007). Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection With Some of Its Applications. Cosimo, Inc. p. 516. ISBN 1602064539. 
  • Wegener, A. (1929). Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane (in German) (4 ed.). Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Akt. Ges. ISBN 3-443-01056-3. 
    • Wegener, A. (1929). The Origin of Continents and Oceans (1966 ed.). Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-61708-4. 
  • Windley, B.F. (1996). The Evolving Continents (3 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-91739-7. 
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Cited articles[edit]