Timeline of the far future
While predictions of the future can never be absolutely certain, present scientific understanding in various fields has allowed a projected course for the farthest future events to be sketched out, if only in the broadest strokes. These fields include astrophysics, which has revealed how planets and stars form, interact and die; particle physics, which has revealed how matter behaves at the smallest scales, and plate tectonics, which shows how continents shift over millennia.
All predictions of the future of the Earth, the Solar System and the Universe must account for the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy, or a loss of the energy available to do work, must increase over time. Stars must eventually exhaust their supply of hydrogen fuel and burn out; close encounters will gravitationally fling planets from their star systems, and star systems from galaxies. Eventually, matter itself will come under the influence of radioactive decay, as even the most stable materials break apart into subatomic particles. However, as current data suggest that the Universe is flat, and thus will not collapse in on itself after a finite time, the infinite future potentially allows for the occurrence of a number of massively improbable events, such as the formation of a Boltzmann brain.
These timelines cover events from roughly eight thousand years from now[a] to the farthest reaches of future time. A number of alternate future events are listed to account for questions still unresolved, such as whether humans survive, whether protons decay or whether the Earth will be destroyed by the Sun's expansion into a red giant.
|Event is determined via|
|Astronomy and astrophysics|
|Geology and planetary science|
|Technology and culture|
Future of the Earth, the Solar System and the Universe
|Years from now||Event|
|36,000||The small red dwarf star Ross 248 passes within 3.024 light years of Earth, becoming the closest star to the Sun.|
|42,000||Alpha Centauri becomes the nearest star system to the Sun once more as Ross 248 recedes.|
|50,000||The current interglacial period ends, according to the work of Berger and Loutre, sending the Earth back into a glacial period of the current ice age, assuming limited effects of anthropogenic global warming.|
|50,000||The length of the day used for astronomical timekeeping reaches about 86,401 SI seconds, due to lunar tides braking the Earth's rotation. Under the present-day timekeeping system, a leap second will need to be added to the clock every day.|
|100,000||The proper motion of stars across the celestial sphere, which is the result of their movement through the galaxy, renders many of the constellations unrecognisable.|
|100,000[b]||The hypergiant star VY Canis Majoris will have likely exploded in a hypernova.|
|100,000[b]||Earth will likely have undergone a supervolcanic eruption large enough to erupt 400 km3 of magma.|
|250,000||Lōʻihi, the youngest volcano in the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, rises above the surface of the ocean and becomes a new volcanic island.|
|500,000[b]||Earth will have likely been hit by a meteorite of roughly 1 km in diameter, assuming it cannot be averted.|
|1 million[b]||Earth will likely have undergone a supervolcanic eruption large enough to erupt 3,200 km3 of magma; an event comparable to the Toba supereruption 75,000 years ago.|
|1 million[b]||Highest estimated time until the red supergiant star Betelgeuse explodes in a supernova. The explosion is expected to be easily visible in daylight.|
|1.4 million||The star Gliese 710 passes as close as 1.1 light years to the Sun before moving away. This may gravitationally perturb members of the Oort cloud, a halo of icy bodies orbiting at the edge of the Solar System, thereafter increasing the likelihood of a cometary impact in the inner Solar System.|
|8 million||The moon Phobos comes within 7,000 km of Mars, the Roche limit, at which point tidal forces will disintegrate the moon and turn it into a ring of orbiting debris that will continue to spiral in toward the planet.|
|10 million||The widening East African Rift valley is flooded by the Red Sea, causing a new ocean basin to divide the continent of Africa.|
|11 million||The ring of debris around Mars hits the surface of the planet.|
|50 million||The Californian coast begins to be subducted into the Aleutian Trench due to its northward movement along the San Andreas Fault.|
|100 million[b]||Earth will have likely been hit by a meteorite comparable in size to the one that triggered the K–Pg extinction 66 million years ago.|
|230 million||Beyond this time, the orbits of the planets become impossible to predict.|
|240 million||From its present position, the Solar System completes one full orbit of the Galactic center.|
|250 million||All the continents on Earth may fuse into a supercontinent. Three potential arrangements of this configuration have been dubbed Amasia, Novopangaea, and Pangaea Ultima.|
|500–600 million[b]||Estimated time until a gamma ray burst, or massive, hyperenergetic supernova, occurs within 6,500 light-years of Earth; close enough for its rays to affect Earth's ozone layer and potentially trigger a mass extinction, assuming the hypothesis is correct that a previous such explosion triggered the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event. However, the supernova would have to be precisely oriented relative to Earth to have any negative effect.|
|600 million||Tidal acceleration moves the Moon far enough from Earth that total solar eclipses are no longer possible.|
|600 million||The Sun's increasing luminosity begins to disrupt the carbonate–silicate cycle; higher luminosity increases weathering of surface rocks, which traps carbon dioxide in the ground as carbonate. As water evaporates from the Earth's surface, rocks harden, causing plate tectonics to slow and eventually stop. Without volcanoes to recycle carbon into the Earth's atmosphere, carbon dioxide levels begin to fall. By this time, they will fall to the point at which C3 photosynthesis is no longer possible. All plants that utilize C3 photosynthesis (~99 percent of present-day species) will die.|
|800 million||Carbon dioxide levels fall to the point at which C4 photosynthesis is no longer possible. Multicellular life dies out.|
|1 billion[c]||The Sun's luminosity has increased by 10 percent, causing Earth's surface temperatures to reach an average of ~320 K (47 °C, 116 °F). The atmosphere will become a "moist greenhouse", resulting in a runaway evaporation of the oceans. Pockets of water may still be present at the poles, allowing abodes for simple life.|
|1.3 billion||Eukaryotic life dies out due to carbon dioxide starvation. Only prokaryotes remain.|
|1.5–1.6 billion||The Sun's increasing luminosity causes its circumstellar habitable zone to move outwards; as carbon dioxide increases in Mars's atmosphere, its surface temperature rises to levels akin to Earth during the ice age.|
|2.3 billion||The Earth's outer core freezes, if the inner core continues to grow at its current rate of 1 mm per year. Without its liquid outer core, the Earth's magnetic field shuts down, and charged particles emanating from the Sun strip away the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet rays.|
|2.8 billion||Earth's surface temperature, even at the poles, reaches an average of ~420 K (147 °C, 296 °F). At this point life, now reduced to unicellular colonies in isolated, scattered microenvironments such as high-altitude lakes or subsurface caves, will completely die out.[d]|
|3 billion||Median point at which the Moon's increasing distance from the Earth lessens its stabilising effect on the Earth's axial tilt. As a consequence, Earth's true polar wander becomes chaotic and extreme.|
|3.3 billion||1 percent chance that Mercury's orbit may become so elongated as to collide with Venus, sending the inner Solar System into chaos and potentially leading to a planetary collision with Earth.|
|3.5 billion||Surface conditions on Earth are comparable to those on Venus today.|
|3.6 billion||Neptune's moon Triton falls through the planet's Roche limit, potentially disintegrating into a planetary ring system similar to Saturn's.|
|4 billion||Median point by which the Andromeda Galaxy will have collided with the Milky Way, which will thereafter merge to form a galaxy dubbed "Milkomeda". The Solar System is expected to be relatively unaffected by this collision.|
|5.4 billion||With the hydrogen supply exhausted at its core, the Sun leaves the main sequence and begins to evolve into a red giant.|
|7.5 billion||Earth and Mars may become tidally locked with the expanding Sun.|
|7.9 billion||The Sun reaches the tip of the red-giant branch of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, achieving its maximum radius of 256 times the present day value. In the process, Mercury, Venus and possibly Earth are destroyed.|
|8 billion||Sun becomes a carbon-oxygen white dwarf with about 54.05 percent its present mass.[e]|
|20 billion||The end of the Universe in the Big Rip scenario, assuming a model of dark energy with w = −1.5. Observations of galaxy cluster speeds by the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggest that this will not occur.|
|50 billion||Assuming both survive the Sun's expansion, by this time the Earth and the Moon become tidelocked, with each showing only one face to the other. Thereafter, the tidal action of the Sun will extract angular momentum from the system, causing the lunar orbit to decay and the Earth's spin to accelerate.|
|100 billion||The Universe's expansion causes all galaxies beyond the Milky Way's Local Group to disappear beyond the cosmic light horizon, removing them from the observable universe.|
|150 billion||The cosmic microwave background cools from its current temperature of ~2.7 K to 0.3 K, rendering it essentially undetectable with current technology.|
|450 billion||Median point by which the ~47 galaxies of the Local Group will coalesce into a single large galaxy.|
|800 billion||Expected time when the net light emission from the combined Milkomeda galaxy begins to decline as the red dwarf stars pass through their blue dwarf stage of peak luminosity.|
|1012 (1 trillion)||Low estimate for the time until star formation ends in galaxies as galaxies are depleted of the gas clouds they need to form stars.
The universe's expansion, assuming a constant dark energy density, multiplies the wavelength of the cosmic microwave background by 1029, exceeding the scale of the cosmic light horizon and rendering its evidence of the Big Bang undetectable. However, it may still be possible to determine the expansion of the universe through the study of hypervelocity stars.
|3×1013 (30 trillion)||Estimated time for the black dwarf Sun to undergo a close encounter with another star in the local Solar neighborhood. Whenever two stars (or stellar remnants) pass close to each other, their planets' orbits can be disrupted, potentially ejecting them from the system entirely. On average, the closer a planet's orbit to its parent star, the longer it takes to be ejected in this manner, because stars rarely pass so closely.|
|1014 (100 trillion)||High estimate for the time until normal star formation ends in galaxies. This marks the transition from the Stelliferous Era to the Degenerate Era; with no free hydrogen to form new stars, all remaining stars slowly exhaust their fuel and die.|
|1.1–1.2×1014 (110–120 trillion)||Time by which all stars in the universe will have exhausted their fuel (the longest-lived stars, low-mass red dwarfs, have lifespans of roughly 10–20 trillion years). After this point, the stellar-mass objects remaining are stellar remnants (white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes). Brown dwarfs also remain.
Collisions between brown dwarfs will create new red dwarf stars on a marginal level: on average, a few dozen at most will be present in the galaxy. Collisions between stellar remnants will create occasional supernovae.
|1015 (1 quadrillion)||Estimated time until stellar close encounters detach all planets in the Solar System from their orbits.|
|1019 to 1020||Estimated time until 90% - 99% of brown dwarfs and stellar remnants are ejected from galaxies. When two objects pass close enough to each other, they exchange orbital energy, with lower-mass objects tending to gain energy. Through repeated encounters, the lower-mass objects can gain enough energy in this manner to be ejected from their galaxy. This process eventually causes the galaxy to eject the majority of its brown dwarfs and stellar remnants.|
|1020||Estimated time until the Earth collides with the Sun due to the decay of its orbit via emission of gravitational radiation, if the Earth is neither first engulfed by the red giant Sun a few billion years from now nor subsequently ejected from its orbit by a stellar encounter.|
|1030||Estimated time until those stars not ejected from galaxies (1% - 10%) fall into their galaxies' central supermassive black holes. By this point, with binary stars having fallen into each other, and planets into their stars, via emission of gravitational radiation, only solitary objects (stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, ejected planets, black holes) will remain in the universe.|
|2×1036||The estimated time for all nucleons in the observable Universe to decay, if the proton half-life takes its smallest possible value (8.2×1033 years).[f]|
|3×1043||Estimated time for all nucleons in the observable Universe to decay, if the proton half-life takes the largest possible value, 1041 years, assuming that the Big Bang was inflationary and that the same process that made baryons predominate over anti-baryons in the early Universe makes protons decay.[f] By this time, if protons do decay, the Black Hole Era, in which black holes are the only remaining celestial objects, begins.|
|1065||Assuming that protons do not decay, estimated time for rigid objects like rocks to rearrange their atoms and molecules via quantum tunneling. On this timescale all matter is liquid.|
|5.8×1068||Estimated time until a stellar mass black hole with a mass of 3 solar masses decays by the Hawking process.|
|1.9×1098||Estimated time until NGC 4889, the currently largest known supermassive black hole with a mass of 21 billion solar masses, decays by the Hawking process.|
|1.7×10106||Estimated time until a supermassive black hole with a mass of 20 trillion solar masses decays by the Hawking process. This marks the end of the Black Hole Era. Beyond this time, if protons do decay, the Universe enters the Dark Era, in which all physical objects have decayed to subatomic particles, gradually winding down to their final energy state.|
|10200||Estimated high time for all nucleons in the observable Universe to decay (if they don't via the above process), through any one of many different mechanisms allowed in modern Particle physics (higher-order baryon non-conservation processes, virtual black holes, sphalerons, etc.), on time scales of 1046 to 10200 years.|
|101500||Assuming protons do not decay, the estimated time until all baryonic matter has either fused together to form iron-56 or decayed from a higher mass element into iron-56. (see iron star)|
|[g][h]||Low estimate for the time until all matter collapses into black holes, assuming no proton decay. Subsequent Black Hole Era and transition to the Dark Era are, on this timescale, instantaneous.|
|Estimated time for a Boltzmann brain to appear in the vacuum via a spontaneous entropy decrease.|
|Estimated time for random quantum fluctuations to generate a new Big Bang, according to Carroll and Chen.|
|High estimate for the time until all matter collapses into black holes, again assuming no proton decay.|
|High estimate for the time for the Universe to reach its final energy state.|
|Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing an isolated black hole of stellar mass. This time assumes a statistical model subject to Poincaré recurrence. A much simplified way of thinking about this time is that in a model in which history repeats itself arbitrarily many times due to properties of statistical mechanics, this is the time scale when it will first be somewhat similar (for a reasonable choice of "similar") to its current state again.|
|Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the mass within the presently visible region of the Universe.|
|Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the estimated mass of the entire Universe, observable or not, assuming Linde's chaotic inflationary model with an inflaton whose mass is 10−6 Planck masses.|
This is a list of extremely rare astronomical events after the beginning of the 11th millennium AD (Year 10,001)
|Years from now||Date||Event|
||Earth's axial precession makes Deneb the North star.|
|8,649 years, 245 days||20 August, 10,663 AD||A simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Mercury.|
|8,706 years, 14 days||10,720 AD||The planets Mercury and Venus will both cross the ecliptic at the same time.|
|9,254 years, 251 days||25 August, 11,268 AD||A simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Mercury.|
|9,561 years, 72 days||28 February, 11,575 AD||A simultaneous annular solar eclipse and transit of Mercury.|
||The Gregorian calendar will be roughly 10 days out of sync with the Sun's position in the sky.|
|11,411 years, 273 days||17 September 13,425 AD||A near-simultaneous transit of Venus and Mercury.|
||The Earth's axial precession will make Vega the North Star.|
||By this point, halfway through the precessional cycle, Earth's axial tilt will be reversed, causing summer and winter to occur on opposite sides of Earth's orbit. This means that the seasons in the northern hemisphere, which experiences more pronounced seasonal variation due to a higher percentage of land, will be even more extreme, as it will be facing towards the Sun at Earth's perihelion and away from the Sun at aphelion.|
||The Earth's axial precession will make Canopus the South Star, but it will only be within 10° of the south celestial pole.|
|13,218 years, 109 days||5 April, 15,232 AD||A simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Venus.|
|13,776 years, 123 days||20 April, 15,790 AD||A simultaneous annular solar eclipse and transit of Mercury.|
|18,860 years, 14 days||20,874 AD||The lunar Islamic calendar and the solar Gregorian calendar will share the same year number. After this, the shorter Islamic calendar will slowly overtake the Gregorian.|
||The eccentricity of Earth's orbit will reach a minimum, 0.00236 (it is now 0.01671).[i]|
|36,158 years, 288 days||October, 38,172 AD||A transit of Uranus from Neptune, the rarest of all planetary transits.[j]|
|46,887 years, 73 days||1 March, 48,901 AD||The Julian calendar (365.25 days) and Gregorian calendar (365.2425 days) will be one year apart.[k]|
|65,159 years, 14 days||67,173 AD||The planets Mercury and Venus will both cross the ecliptic at the same time.|
|67,149 years, 220 days||26 July, 69,163 AD||A simultaneous transit of Venus and Mercury.|
|222,494 years, 100 days||27 and 28 March, 224,508 AD||Respectively, Venus and then Mercury will transit the Sun.|
|569,727 years, 14 days||571,741 AD||A simultaneous transit of Venus and the Earth as seen from Mars|
Spacecraft and space exploration
To date five spacecraft (Voyagers 1 and 2, Pioneers 10 and 11 and New Horizons) are on trajectories which will take them out of the Solar System and into interstellar space. Barring an unlikely collision, the craft should persist indefinitely.
|Years from now||Event|
|10,000||Pioneer 10 passes within 3.8 light years of Barnard's Star.|
|25,000||The Arecibo message, a collection of radio data transmitted on 16 November 1974, reaches its destination, the globular cluster Messier 13. This is the only interstellar radio message sent to such a distant region of the galaxy. Assuming a similar mode of communication is employed, it should take at least as long again for any reply to reach Earth.|
|40,000||Voyager 1 passes within 1.6 light years of AC+79 3888, a star in the constellation Camelopardalis.|
|50,000||The KEO space time capsule, if it is launched, will reenter Earth's atmosphere.|
|296,000||Voyager 2 passes within 4.3 light years of Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky.|
|300,000||Pioneer 10 passes within 3 light years of Ross 248.|
|2 million||Pioneer 10 passes near the bright star Aldebaran.|
|4 million||Pioneer 11 passes near one of the stars in the constellation Aquila.|
|8 million||The LAGEOS satellites' orbits will decay, and they will re-enter Earth's atmosphere, carrying with them a message to any far future descendants of humanity, and a map of the continents as they are expected to appear then.|
Technology and culture
|Years from now||Event|
|10,000||Estimated lifespan of the Long Now Foundation's several ongoing projects, including a 10,000-year clock known as the Clock of the Long Now, the Rosetta Project, and the Long Bet Project.|
|10,000||The end of humanity, according to Brandon Carter's Doomsday argument, which assumes that half of the humans who will ever have lived have already been born.|
|100,000 – 1 million||According to Michio Kaku, time by which humanity may be a Type III civilization, capable of harnessing all the energy of the galaxy.|
|50 million||Time by which the entire galaxy could be colonised, even at sublight speeds.|
|292,277,024,582||At 15:30:08 UTC on 4 December 292,277,026,596 AD, the Unix time stamp will exceed the largest value that can be held in a signed 64-bit integer.|
For graphical, logarithmic timelines of these events see:
- Graphical timeline of the universe (to 8 billion years from now)
- Graphical timeline of the Stelliferous Era (to 1020 years from now)
- Graphical timeline from Big Bang to Heat Death (to 101000 years from now)
- Detailed logarithmic timeline
- Earth's location in the universe
- Space and survival
- Terasecond and longer
- Timeline of natural history
- Timeline of the Big Bang
- Timeline of the near future
- The precise cutoff point is 0:00 on Jan 1, 10,001 AD
- This represents the time by which the event will most probably have happened. It may occur randomly at any time from the present.
- Units are short scale
- There is a roughly 1 in 100,000 chance that the Earth might be ejected into interstellar space by a stellar encounter before this point, and a 1 in 3 million chance that it will then be captured by another star. Were this to happen, life, assuming it survived the interstellar journey, could potentially continue for far longer.
- Based upon the weighted least-squares best fit on p. 16 of Kalirai et al. with the initial mass equal to a solar mass.
- Around 264 half-lives. Tyson et al. employ the computation with a different value for half-life.
- is 1 followed by 1026 (100 septillion) zeroes.
- Although listed in years for convenience, the numbers beyond this point are so vast that their digits would remain unchanged regardless of which conventional units they were listed in, be they nanoseconds or star lifespans.
- Data for 0 to +10 Myr every 1000 years since J2000 from Astronomical solutions for Earth paleoclimates by Laskar, et al.
- Calculated using Aldo Vitagliano's Solex software. 2011-09-30.
- Manually calculated from the fact that the calendars were 10 days apart in 1582 and grew further apart by 3 days every 400 years.
- Adams, Fred; Laughlin, Greg (1999). The Five Ages of the Universe. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-85422-9.
- Rescher, Nicholas (1998). Predicting the future: An introduction to the theory of forecasting. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-3553-9.
- Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (April 1997). "A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolution of astrophysical objects". Reviews of Modern Physics 69 (2): 337–372. arXiv:astro-ph/9701131. Bibcode:1997RvMP...69..337A. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.69.337.
- Komatsu, E.; Smith, K. M.; Dunkley, J. et al. (2011). "Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Interpretation". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 192 (2): 18. arXiv:1001.4731. Bibcode:2011ApJS..192...19W. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/192/2/18.
- Linde, Andrei. (2007). "Sinks in the Landscape, Boltzmann Brains and the Cosmological Constant Problem". Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (subscription required) 2007 (1): 022. arXiv:hep-th/0611043. Bibcode:2007JCAP...01..022L. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2007/01/022. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
- Matthews, R. A. J. (Spring 1994). "The Close Approach of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 35 (1): 1. Bibcode:1994QJRAS..35....1M.
- Berger, A, and Loutre, MF (2002). "Climate: an exceptionally long interglacial ahead?". Science 297 (5585): 1287–8. doi:10.1126/science.1076120. PMID 12193773.
- "Niagara Falls Geology Facts & Figures". Niagara Parks. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Finkleman, David; Allen, Steve; Seago, John; Seaman, Rob; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (June 2011). "The Future of Time: UTC and the Leap Second". ArXiv eprint 1106: 3141. arXiv:1106.3141. Bibcode:2011arXiv1106.3141F.
- Tapping, Ken (2005). "The Unfixed Stars". National Research Council Canada. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- Monnier, J. D.; Tuthill, P.; Lopez, GB et al. (1999). "The Last Gasps of VY Canis Majoris: Aperture Synthesis and Adaptive Optics Imagery". The Astrophysical Journal 512 (1): 351. arXiv:astro-ph/9810024. Bibcode:1999ApJ...512..351M. doi:10.1086/306761.
- "Super-eruptions: Global effects and future threats". The Geological Society. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Bostrom, Nick (March 2002). "Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards". Journal of Evolution and Technology 9 (1). Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Sharpest Views of Betelgeuse Reveal How Supergiant Stars Lose Mass". Press Releases. European Southern Observatory. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- Sessions, Larry (29 July 2009). "Betelgeuse will explode someday". EarthSky Communications, Inc. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- Bobylev, Vadim V. (March 2010). "Searching for Stars Closely Encountering with the Solar System". Astronomy Letters 36 (3): 220–226. arXiv:1003.2160. Bibcode:2010AstL...36..220B. doi:10.1134/S1063773710030060.
- Sharma, B. K. (2008). "Theoretical formulation of the Phobos, moon of Mars, rate of altitudinal loss". Eprint arXiv:0805.1454. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Haddok, Eitan (29 September 2008). "Birth of an Ocean: The Evolution of Ethiopia's Afar Depression". Scientific American. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
- Garrison, Tom (2009). Essentials of Oceanography (5 ed.). Brooks/Cole. p. 62.
- "Continents in Collision: Pangea Ultima". NASA. 2000. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- Nelson, Stephen A. "Meteorites, Impacts, and Mass Extinction". Tulane University. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Hayes, Wayne B. (2007). "Is the Outer Solar System Chaotic?". Nature Physics 3 (10): 689–691. arXiv:astro-ph/0702179. Bibcode:2007NatPh...3..689H. doi:10.1038/nphys728.
- Leong, Stacy (2002). "Period of the Sun's Orbit Around the Galaxy (Cosmic Year)". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2 April 2007.
- Scotese, Christopher R. "Pangea Ultima will form 250 million years in the Future". Paleomap Project. Retrieved 13 March 2006.
- Williams, Caroline; Nield, Ted (20 October 2007-10-20). "Pangaea, the comeback". New Scientist. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Minard, Anne (2009). "Gamma-Ray Burst Caused Mass Extinction?". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
- "Questions Frequently Asked by the Public About Eclipses". NASA. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- O'Malley-James, Jack T.; Greaves, Jane S.; Raven; John A.; Cockell; Charles S. (2012). Swansong Biospheres: Refuges for life and novel microbial biospheres on terrestrial planets near the end of their habitable lifetimes. arxiv.org. Retrieved 2012-11-01.
- Heath, Martin J.; Doyle, Laurance R. (2009). "Circumstellar Habitable Zones to Ecodynamic Domains: A Preliminary Review and Suggested Future Directions". arXiv:0912.2482.
- Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; Von Bloh, W. (November 2005). "Causes and timing of future biosphere extinction". Biogeosciences Discussions 2 (6): 1665–1679. Bibcode:2005BGD.....2.1665F. doi:10.5194/bgd-2-1665-2005. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Schröder, K.-P.; Connon Smith, Robert (1 May 2008). "Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 155–163. arXiv:0801.4031. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x.
- Brownlee, Donald E. (2010). "Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales". In Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L. Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-11294-9.
- Li King-Fai; Pahlevan, Kaveh; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Yung, Luk L. (2009). "Atmospheric pressure as a natural climate regulator for a terrestrial planet with a biosphere". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (24). Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9576L. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809436106. PMC 2701016. PMID 19487662.
- Kargel, Jeffrey Stuart (2004). Mars: A Warmer, Wetter Planet. Springer. p. 509. ISBN 978-1-85233-568-7. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- Waszek, Lauren; Irving, Jessica; Deuss, Arwen (20 February 2011). "Reconciling the Hemispherical Structure of Earth's Inner Core With its Super-Rotation". Nature Geoscience 4 (4): 264–267. Bibcode:2011NatGe...4..264W. doi:10.1038/ngeo1083.
- McDonough, W. F. (2004). "Compositional Model for the Earth's Core". Treatise on Geochemistry 2: 547–568. Bibcode:2003TrGeo...2..547M. doi:10.1016/B0-08-043751-6/02015-6. ISBN 978-0-08-043751-4.
- Luhmann, J. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Zhang, M. H. G. (1992). "Evolutionary impact of sputtering of the Martian atmosphere by O+ pickup ions". Geophysical Research Letters 19 (21): 2151–2154. Bibcode:1992GeoRL..19.2151L. doi:10.1029/92GL02485.
- Quirin Shlermeler (3 March 2005). "Solar wind hammers the ozone layer". nature news. doi:10.1038/news050228-12.
- Adams, Fred C. (2008). "Long-term astrophysicial processes". In Bostrom, Nick; Cirkovic, Milan M. Global Catastrophic Risks. Oxford University Press. pp. 33–47.
- Neron de Surgey, O.; Laskar, J. (1996). "On the Long Term Evolution of the Spin of the Earth". Astronomie et Systemes Dynamiques, Bureau des Longitudes 318: 975. Bibcode:1997A&A...318..975N.
- "Study: Earth May Collide With Another Planet". Fox News. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Hecht, Jeff (2 April 1994). "Science: Fiery Future for Planet Earth". New Scientist (subscription required) (1919). p. 14. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- Chyba, C. F.; Jankowski, D. G.; Nicholson, P. D. (1989). "Tidal Evolution in the Neptune-Triton System". Astronomy & Astrophysics 219: 23. Bibcode:1989A&A...219L..23C.
- Cox, J. T.; Loeb, Abraham (2007). "The Collision Between The Milky Way And Andromeda". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 461. arXiv:0705.1170. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.tmp..333C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13048.x.
- NASA (2012-05-31). "NASA's Hubble Shows Milky Way is Destined for Head-On Collision". NASA. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
- Schroder, K. P.; Connon Smith, Robert (2008). "Distant Future of the Sun and Earth Revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 155–163. arXiv:0801.4031. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x.
- Rybicki, K. R.; Denis, C. (2001). "On the Final Destiny of the Earth and the Solar System". Icarus 151 (1): 130–137. Bibcode:2001Icar..151..130R. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6591.
- Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; McKay, Christopher P. (1997). "Titan under a red giant sun: A new kind of "habitable" moon" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters 24 (22): 2905–8. Bibcode:1997GeoRL..24.2905L. doi:10.1029/97GL52843. PMID 11542268. Retrieved 21 March 2008.
- Balick, Bruce. "Planetary Nebulae and the Future of the Solar System". University of Washington. Retrieved 23 June 2006.
- Kalirai, Jasonjot S. et al. (March 2008). "The Initial-Final Mass Relation: Direct Constraints at the Low-Mass End". The Astrophysical Journal 676 (1): 594–609. arXiv:0706.3894. Bibcode:2008ApJ...676..594K. doi:10.1086/527028.
- "Universe May End in a Big Rip". CERN Courier. 1 May 2003. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Vikhlinin, A.; Kravtsov, A.V.; Burenin, R.A. et al. (2009). "Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints". The Astrophysical Journal (Astrophysical Journal) 692 (2): 1060. arXiv:0812.2720. Bibcode:2009ApJ...692.1060V. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1060.
- Murray, C.D. and Dermott, S.F. (1999). Solar System Dynamics. Cambridge University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-521-57295-8.
- Dickinson, Terence (1993). From the Big Bang to Planet X. Camden East, Ontario: Camden House. pp. 79–81. ISBN 978-0-921820-71-0.
- Canup, Robin M.; Righter, Kevin (2000). Origin of the Earth and Moon. The University of Arizona space science series 30. University of Arizona Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-0-8165-2073-2.
- Loeb, Abraham (2011). "Cosmology with Hypervelocity Stars". Harvard University. arXiv:1102.0007v2.pdf.
- Chown, Marcus (1996). Afterglow of Creation. University Science Books. p. 210.
- "The Local Group of Galaxies". University of Arizona. Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Adams, F. C.; Graves, G. J. M.; Laughlin, G. (December 2004). Red Dwarfs and the End of the Main Sequence. In García-Segura, G.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Franco, J. et al. "Gravitational Collapse: From Massive Stars to Planets. / First Astrophysics meeting of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional. / A meeting to celebrate Peter Bodenheimer for his outstanding contributions to Astrophysics". Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias) 22: 46–49. Bibcode:2004RMxAC..22...46A. See Fig. 3.
- Tayler, Roger John (1993). Galaxies, Structure and Evolution (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-521-36710-3.
- Barrow, John D.; Tipler, Frank J. (19 May 1988). The Anthropic Cosmological Principle. foreword by John A. Wheeler. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-282147-8. LC 87-28148. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- Adams, Fred; Laughlin, Greg (1999). The Five Ages of the Universe. New York: The Free Press. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-0-684-85422-9.
- Dyson, Freeman J. (1979). "Time Without End: Physics and Biology in an Open Universe". Reviews of Modern Physics (subscription required) 51 (3): 447. Bibcode:1979RvMP...51..447D. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.51.447. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- Schröder, K.-P.; Connon Smith, Robert (2008). "Distant Future of the Sun and Earth Revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 155. arXiv:0801.4031. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x.
- Sackmann, I. J.; Boothroyd, A. J.; Kraemer, K. E. (1993). "Our Sun. III. Present and Future". Astrophysical Journal 418: 457. Bibcode:1993ApJ...418..457S. doi:10.1086/173407.
- Nishino, Super-K Collaboration et al. (2009). "Search for Proton Decay via p+ → e+π0 and p+ → μ+π0 in a Large Water Cherenkov Detector". Physical Review Letters 102 (14): 141801. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102n1801N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.141801.
- Tyson, Neil de Grasse; Tsun-Chu Liu, Charles; Irion, Robert (2000). One Universe: At Home in the Cosmos. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 978-0-309-06488-0.
- Page, Don N. (1976). "Particle Emission Rates From a Black Hole: Massless Particles From an Uncharged, Nonrotating Hole". Physical Review D 13 (2): 198–206. Bibcode:1976PhRvD..13..198P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198. See in particular equation (27).
- Vaas. Rüdiger (2006). "Dark Energy and Life's Ultimate Future". In Vladimir Burdyuzha. The Future of Life and the Future of our Civilization. Springer. pp. 231–247. ISBN 978-1-4020-4967-5.
- Page, Don N. (1995). "Information Loss in Black Holes and/or Conscious Beings?". In Fulling, S.A. Heat Kernel Techniques and Quantum Gravity. Discourses in Mathematics and its Applications (4). Texas A&M University. p. 461. arXiv:hep-th/9411193. ISBN 978-0-9630728-3-2.
- "Deneb". University of Illinois. 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- Meeus, J. and Vitagliano, A. (2004). "Simultaneous Transits". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 114 (3). Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- Borkowski, K.M. (1991). "The Tropical Calendar and Solar Year". J. Royal Astronomical Soc. of Canada 85 (3): 121–130. Bibcode:1991JRASC..85..121B.
- "Why is Polaris the North Star?". NASA. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Plait, Phil (2002). Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax". John Wiley and Sons. pp. 55–56.
- Kieron Taylor (1 March 1994). "Precession". Sheffield Astronomical Society. Retrieved 2013-08-6.
- Strous, Louis (2010). "Astronomy Answers: Modern Calendars". University of Utrecht. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Laskar, J. et al. (1993). "Orbital, Precessional, and Insolation Quantities for the Earth From −20 Myr to +10 Myr". Astronomy and Astrophysics 270: 522–533. Bibcode:1993A&A...270..522L.
- Laskar et al. "Astronomical Solutions for Earth Paleoclimates". Institut de mecanique celeste et de calcul des ephemerides. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Aldo Vitagliano (2011). "The Solex page". Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Julian Date Converter". US Naval Observatory. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Hurtling Through the Void". Time Magazine. 20 June 1983. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- "Cornell News: "It's the 25th Anniversary of Earth's First (and only) Attempt to Phone E.T."". Cornell University. 12 November 1999. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
- "Voyager: The Interstellar Mission". NASA. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- "KEO FAQ". keo.org. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Pioneer 10: The First 7 Billion Miles". NASA. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- "The Pioneer Missions". NASA. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- "LAGEOS 1, 2". NASA. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- "The Long Now Foundation". The Long Now Foundation. 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Carter, Brandon; McCrea, W. H. (1983). "The anthropic principle and its implications for biological evolution". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A310 (1512): 347–363. Bibcode:1983RSPTA.310..347C. doi:10.1098/rsta.1983.0096.
- Kaku, Michio (2010). "The Physics of Interstellar Travel: To one day, reach the stars". mkaku.org. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- Crawford, I. A. (July 2000). "Where are They? Maybe we are alone in the galaxy after all". Scientific American. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Saxena, Ashutosh; Sanjay, Rawat. "IDRBT Working Paper No. 9". Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology. Retrieved 9 March 2012.