Timeline of women's rights (other than voting)

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Laura Bassi. The first female professor in Europe
Dorothea Erxleben. The first female doctor in Germany
Portrait of Elizabeth Blackwell by Joseph Stanley Kozlowski, 1905. Syracuse University Medical School collection.

The timeline signifies the major events in the development of women's rights and issues of gender inequality other than the right to vote. For those rights see Timeline of women's suffrage.

Before the 19th century[edit]

1707
  • The efforts of Dorothea von Velen—mistress of Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine—led to the abolition of couverture in the Electoral Palatinate in 1707, making it an early beacon of women's rights. The Palatinate was the first German state to abolish couverture, but it was briefly re-instated by Karl III Philipp, Johann Wilhelm's successor. Dorothea protested from exile in Amsterdam. She published her memoirs, A Life for Reform, which were highly critical of Karl III Philipp's government. To avoid a scandal, Karl III Philipp yielded to Dorothea's demands, and couverture was once again abolished.[1]
1718
  • Russia: Gender segregation is banned[2]
  • Sweden: Female taxpaying members of the cities' guilds are allowed to vote and stand for election during the age of liberty; this right is banned (for local elections) in 1758 and (general elections) in 1771[3]
  • Province of Pennsylvania (now U.S. state of Pennsylvania): Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1722
  • Russia: Ban against forced marriages [2]
1753
  • Russia: Married women granted separate economy [5]
1754
1771
  • New York: Husbands must have their wives' consent to sell their property[6]
1774
  • Maryland: Husbands must have their wives' consent to sell their property[6]
1776
1778
  • Sweden: Barnamordsplakatet; unmarried women are allowed to leave their home town to give birth anonymously and have the birth registered anonymously, to refrain from answering any questions about the birth and, if they choose to keep their child, to have their unmarried status not mentioned in official documents to avoid social embarrassment.
1779
  • Spain: The guild restrictions which prevented females from holding certain professions are abolished.[8]
1784
  • Spain: Women are by royal decree allowed to accept any profession compatible with her "sex, dignity and strength".[8]
1786
  • Russia: Primary and high schools for females [2]
1787
  • Massachusetts: The trade profession is opened to unmarried women[6]
1788
  • France: noble widows are known to have voted to the French States-General in 1788–89 in the absence of a male guardian.
  • United States of America: Female citizens may stand for election for federal offices, though they still could not vote.
1789
  • France is the first country in Europe where it is suggested that women are to be in the Assembly of the Estates, there are several demands to include women in the reforms of the right to vote.
1791
  • France: Equal inheritance rights (abolished in 1804) [9]
1792
  • France: Divorce is legalized for both sexes[9] (abolished for women in 1804)
  • France: Local women-units of the defense army are founded in several cities; although the military was never officially open to women, about eight thousand women were estimated to have served openly in the French armée in local troops (but not in the battle fields) between 1792 and 1794, but women were officially barred from the armée in 1795[10]
1793
  • France: The question of women's right to vote is discussed in the Parliament of France; women's right to vote is acknowledged as a principle, but it is still put aside with the explanation that the time is not right to make this a reality and is therefore postponed.[10]

19th century[edit]

1800–1860[edit]

1809
  • USA, Connecticut: Married women are allowed to execute wills[6]
1810
  • Sweden: The informal right of an unmarried woman to be declared of legal majority by royal dispensation are officially confirmed by parliament[11]
1811
  • Austria: Married women are granted separate economy and the right to choose profession[12]
  • Sweden: Married businesswomen are granted the right to make decisions about their own affairs without their husband's consent [13]
1821
  • USA, Maine: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1827
  • Brazil: The first elementary schools for girls and the profession of school teacher are open[14]
1829
  • India: Sati is banned.
  • Sweden: Midwives are allowed to use surgical instruments, which are unique in Europe at the time and gives them surgical status[15]
1833
1835
  • USA, Arkansas: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • USA, Massachusetts: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
  • USA, Tennessee: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
  • Iran, Urmia: First modern school for girls opened.[17]
1839
1840
  • Republic of Texas: Married women allowed to own property in their own name[19]
  • USA, Maine: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
1841
  • Bulgaria: The first secular girls school makes education and the profession of teacher available for women[20]
  • USA, Maryland: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name.[4]
1842
  • Sweden: Compulsory Elementary school for both sexes [21]
  • USA, New Hampshire: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1843
  • USA, Kentucky: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1844
  • USA, Maine: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Maine: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Massachusetts: Married Women granted separate economy [22]
1845
  • Sweden: Equal inheritance for sons and daughters (in the absence of a will)[23]
  • USA, New York: Married women granted patent rights[4]
  • USA, Florida: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
1846
  • Sweden: Trade- and crafts works professions are opened to all unmarried women[24]
  • USA, Alabama: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • USA, Kentucky: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • USA, Ohio: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • USA, Michigan: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1847
  • Belgium: Elementary school for both genders
  • Costa Rica: The first high school for girls, and the profession of teacher is open to women[25]
1848
  • USA, State of New York: Married Women's Property Act grant married women separate economy[26]
  • USA, Pennsylvania: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Rhode Island: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1849
  • USA, Alabama: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
  • USA, Connecticut: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
  • USA: Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first female medical doctor (1858 also in Great Britain).
  • USA, Missouri: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • USA, South Carolina: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
1850
  • France: Elementary education for both sexes, but girls are only allowed to be tutored by teachers from the church[12]
  • Haiti: The first permanent school for girls[27]
  • Iceland: Equal inheritance.[28]
  • USA, California: Married Women's Property Act grant married women separate economy[29]
  • USA, Wisconsin: Married Women's Property Act grant married women separate economy[29]
  • USA, Oregon: Unmarried women are allowed to own land[12]
1851
  • Guatemala: Full citizenship are granted economically independent women (rescinded in 1879)[30]
  • Canada, New Brunswick : Married women granted separate economy[31]
1852
  • USA, New Jersey: Married Women granted separate economy [22]
  • USA, Indiana: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • USA, Wisconsin: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1853
  • Colombia: Divorce is legalized (rescinded in 1856 and reintroduced in 1992) [16]
  • Sweden: The profession of teacher at public primary and elementary schools are opened to both sexes[32]
1854
  • Norway: Equal inheritance[12]
  • USA, Massachusetts: grant married women separate economy[29]
  • Chile: The first public elementary school for girls[33]
1855
  • Ottoman Empire: Factory work are open to both sexes when the first women are employed at the textile factory at Bursa, at the same time allowing them to mix unveiled with men.[34]
  • USA, Iowa: University of Iowa becomes the first coeducational public or state university in the United States[35]
  • USA, Michigan: Married women granted separate economy[20]
1856
  • USA, Connecticut: Married women granted patent rights[4]
1857
  • Denmark: Legal majority for unmarried women[12]
  • Denmark: Trades and crafts professions are opened to unmarried women[36]
  • Great Britain: Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 makes divorce possible for both sexes.
  • Netherlands: Elementary education compulsory for both girls and boys [37]
  • Spain: Elementary education compulsory for both girls and boys [38]
  • USA, Maine: Married women granted the right to control their own earnings [22]
  • USA, Oregon: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • USA, Oregon: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1858
  • Ottoman Empire: The first state school for girls is opened; several others schools for girls are opened during the following decades.[39]
  • Russia: gymnasiums for girls[2]
  • Sweden: Legal majority for unmarried women (if applied for; automatic legal majority in 1863)[23]
1859
  • Canada West: Married women granted separate economy [31]
  • Denmark: The post of teacher at public schools are opened to women[36]
  • Russia: Women allowed to audit university lectures (retracted in 1863)[2]
  • Sweden: The post of college teacher and lower official at public institutions are open to women [40]
  • USA, Kansas: Married Women's Property Act grant married women separate economy [29]

1860–1899[edit]

1860
  • USA, New York: Married women granted the right to control their own earnings[22]
  • USA, Maryland: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Maryland: Married women granted the right to control their earnings[4]
  • USA, Maryland: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • New Zealand: Married women allowed to own property (extended in 1870)[12]
  • USA, Massachusetts: Married women granted trade licenses[4]
1861
  • France: Julie-Victoire Daubié becomes the first female student.
  • Iceland: Legal majority for unmarried women[28]
  • Russia: The Scientific- and Medical Surgery Academy open laboratories for women (retracted in 1864)[2]
  • Sweden: The first public institution of higher academic learning for women, Högre lärarinneseminariet, is opened.
  • Sweden: The dentist profession is opened to women[41]
  • USA: Lucy Hobbs Taylor becomes the first female dentist.
  • USA, Illinois: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Ohio: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Illinois: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Ohio: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1863
  • Denmark: Colleges open to women[24]
  • Norway: Legal majority for unmarried women (at the same age as men in 1869)[23]
  • Sweden: The Post- and telegraph professions are opened to women[42]
1864
  • Bohemia: Taxpaying women and women in "learned profession" eligible to the legislative body[43]
  • Finland: Legal majority for unmarried women.[23]
  • Haiti: Elementary schools for girls are founded[27]
  • Sweden: Unmarried women are granted the same rights within trade and commerce as men[13]
  • Sweden: Husbands are forbidden to abuse their wives.[44]
  • Sweden: The gymnastics profession is open to women [42]
1865
  • Ireland: Married Women's Property (Ireland) Act 1865
  • Italy: Legal majority for unmarried women[45]
  • Italy: Equal inheritance[45]
  • Italy: A married woman is allowed to become the legal guardian of her children and their property if abandoned by her husband[45]
  • Romania: The educational reform grant all Romanians access to education, which, at least formally, gave also females the right to attend school from elementary education to the university.[46]
  • USA, Louisiana: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1867
  • Switzerland: Zürich University formally open to women, though they had already been allowed to attend lectures a few years prior[47]
  • USA, Alabama: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, New Hampshire: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1868
  • Croatia: The first high school open to females[48]
  • USA, North Carolina: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Arkansas: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Kansas: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Kansas: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Kansas: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, South Carolina: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • USA, Georgia: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
1869
  • Austria-Hungary: The profession of public school teacher is open to women[12]
  • Costa Rica: Elementary education compulsory for both girls and boys[25]
  • Great Britain: Girton College, Cambridge.
  • Ottoman Empire: The law formally introduce compulsory elementary education for both boys and girls.[39]
  • Russia: University Courses for women are opened, which opens the profession of teacher, law assistant and similar lower academic professions for women (in 1876, the courses are no longer allowed to give exams, and in 1883, all outside of the capital is closed).[12]
  • Sweden: Women allowed to work in the railway office [42]
  • USA: Arabella Mansfield becomes the first woman to enter the practice of law.
  • USA, Minnesota: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1870
  • Finland: Women allowed to study at the universities by dispensation (dispensation demand dropped in 1901) [49]
  • Great Britain: Married Women's Property Act 1870
  • India: Female Infanticide Prevention Act, 1870
  • Mexico: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Ottoman Empire: The Teachers College for Girls are opened in Constantinople to educate women to professional teachers for girls school; the profession of teacher becomes accessible for women and education accessible to girls.[39]
  • Sweden: Universities open to women (at the same terms as men 1873)[23] the first female student is Betty Pettersson.
  • USA, Georgia: Married women granted separate economy [51]
  • USA, South Carolina: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, South Carolina: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Tennessee: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Iowa: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1871
  • Japan: Women are allowed to study in the USA (though not yet in Japan itself)[52]
  • New Zealand: Universities open to women[53]
  • USA, Mississippi: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Mississippi: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Mississippi: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Arizona: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Arizona: Married women granted trade license[4]
1872
  • Austria-Hungary: Women allowed to work in the post- and telegraph office[12]
  • Canada: Dominion Lands Act grant mothers without husbands homestead land.
  • Japan: The geisha as well as the prostituted women are freed from guardianship and granted legal majority and the right to change profession[54]
  • Japan: Compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys [55]
  • Sweden: Women are granted the right to choose marriage partner and arranged marriages are thereby banned (the noblewomen, however, not granted the same right until 1882) [56]
  • Switzerland: The universities of Bern and Geneva open to women (Lausanne follow in 1876 and Basel in 1890)[47]
  • USA, Pennsylvania: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, California: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Montana: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, California: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, California: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Wisconsin: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1873
  • Great Britain: Custody of Infants Act 1873; Mothers granted guardianship for children at divorce.
  • USA, Arkansas: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Kentucky: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, North Carolina: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Kentucky: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Arkansas: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Delaware: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Iowa: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Nevada: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Iowa: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Nevada: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Nevada: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1874
  • Netherlands: Aletta Jacobs becomes the first woman allowed to study medicine.
  • Sweden: Married women granted control over their own income[23]
  • France: First trade union open to women.
  • Japan: The profession of public school teacher is opened to women [57]
  • USA, Massachusetts: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, New Jersey: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Rhode Island: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, New Jersey: Married women granted trade licenses[4]
  • USA, Colorado: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Illinois: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Minnesota: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Montana: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Montana: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Colorado: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Colorado: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1875
  • Denmark: Universities open to women[23]
  • USA, Delaware: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1876
  • Great Britain: Universities open to women [58]
  • Italy: Universities open to women.[59]
  • Netherlands:Universities open to women [59]
  • USA, New Hampshire: Married women granted trade licenses[4]
  • USA, Wyoming: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Wyoming: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Wyoming: Married women granted trade license[4]
1877
  • Chile: Universities open to women [60]
  • Italy: Women can serve as witnesses to legal acts[45]
  • Scotland: Married Women's Property (Scotland) Act 1877.
  • USA, Connecticut: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Connecticut: Married women granted trade licenses[4]
  • USA, Dakota: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Dakota: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Dakota: Married women granted trade license[4]
1878
  • Austria-Hungary: Women allowed to attend university lectures as guest auditors [61]
  • Bulgaria: Elementary education for both sexes[62]
  • Finland: Equal inheritance[23]
  • Great Britain: Women can secure a separation on the grounds of cruelty, claim custody of their children and demand spousal and child support. Abused wives granted separation orders[63]
  • Great Britain: Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford
  • USA, Virginia: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1879
  • Brazil: Universities open to women[14]
  • France: Colleges and secondary education open to women[12]
  • India: The first college open to women, Bethune College.
  • USA, Indiana: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Indiana: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1880
  • Australia : Universities open to women [64]
  • Belgium: The university of Brussels open to women[59]
  • Canada: Universities open to women.[citation needed]
  • Denmark: Married women granted the right to control their own income[65]
  • France: Universities open to women[12]
  • USA, Oregon: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Oregon: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1881
  • France: Women allowed to open a bank account in their own name[12]
  • Scotland: Married Women's Property (Scotland) Act 1881
  • USA, Vermont: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Vermont: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Nebraska: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Nebraska: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • USA, Nebraska: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, Florida: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1882
1883
  • Belgium: Universities open to women [59]
  • Romania: Universities open to women [68]
  • Victoria, Australia: Married women granted separate economy [64]
1884
  • Switzerland: Legal majority for unmarried women (including widows)[69]
  • Norway: Universities open to women[23]
  • Germany: Legal majority for unmarried women[12]
  • Mexico: Legal majority for unmarried women and separate economy granted for married women [70]
  • Ontario: Married women granted separate economy [71]
  • Great Britain: Married Women's Property Act 1884
1885
  • France: Divorce legalized for both women and men [12]
1886
  • Costa Rica: A public academic educational institution open to women[25]
  • France: Married allowed to open a bank account without the consent of her husband[72]
  • France: Women eligible to education boards[73]
  • Great Britain: Guardianship of Infants Act 1886
  • Great Britain: Josephine Butler puts a stop to the prostitution reglement.
  • Guatemala: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Korea: The first educational institution for women, Ewha Womans University
1887
  • Costa Rica: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Costa Rica: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Mexico: Universities open to women [74]
  • USA, Idaho: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, Idaho: Married women granted trade license[4]
1888
  • Costa Rica: Married women are allowed to be guardians and execute wills[25]
  • Denmark: Fathers are forced to pay support to illegitimate children[65]
  • Serbia: Universities open to women[49]
  • Spain: Women are allowed to private university degrees by dispensation (Universities fully open to women in 1910) [75]
  • Norway: Legal majority for married women[28]
  • Montenegro: Legal majority for unmarried women [48]
1889
  • Sweden: Women eligible to boards of public authority such as public school boards, public hospital boards, inspectors, poor care boards and similar positions[23]
  • USA, State of Washington: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, State of Washington: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, State of Washington: Married women granted trade license[4]
1890
1891
  • Germany: Women are allowed to attend university lectures, which makes it possible for individual professors to accept female students if they wish[61]
  • Portugal: The first medical university degree is granted to a woman [76]
  • Switzerland: Secondary schools open to women[47]
  • Switzerland: Trade unions open to women[37]
  • USA: Marie Owens hired as a police officer in Chicago.
1893
1894
  • Poland: Kraków University open to women [77]
  • USA, Louisiana: Married women granted trade license[4]
1895
  • South Carolina in the United States: Separate economy allowed for married women.
  • Upper Canada: Women allowed to work as barristers.[citation needed]
  • Russia: A Women's medical university are opened, which opens the profession of physician for women[12]
  • Austria-Hungary : Universities open to women[12]
  • USA, Utah: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • USA, State of Washington: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • USA, State of Washington: Married women granted trade license[4]
1896
  • USA : The profession of lawyer opened to both sexes – already in 1869, however, the first American state allowed women to practice law.
1897
  • France: Both married and unmarried women allowed to act as witness in a civil court and are thereby acknowledged as an individual in a juridical sense
1898
  • France: Women eligible to public charity boards[78]
  • Haiti: The Medical University accept female students in obstetrics[27]
1899
  • Denmark: Legal majority for married women[65]
  • Iceland: Legal majority for married women.[12]

20th century[edit]

1900–1939[edit]

1900
  • Belgium: Legal majority for unmarried women[79]
  • Egypt: A school for female teachers is founded in Cairo [80]
  • France: Women allowed to practice law[78]
  • Korea: The post office profession is open to women and thereby open the public work market for women [81]
  • Tunisia: The first public elementary school for girls[80]
  • Japan: The first Women's University [82]
  • Baden, Germany: Universities open to women[83]
  • Sweden: Maternity leave for female industrial workers[24]
1901
  • Bulgaria: Universities open to women[62]
  • Cuba: Universities open to women [74]
  • Denmark: Maternity leave for all women[65]
  • Sweden: Women are given four weeks maternity leave.[44]
1902
  • China: Foot binding is abolished.
  • El Salvador: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • El Salvador: Legal majority for married women[50]
1903
  • Bavaria, Germany: Universities open to women[83]
  • Sweden: Public medical offices open to women[84]
1904
  • Mexico: Divorce is legalized.
  • Nicaragua: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Nicaragua: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Württemberg, Germany: Universities open to women[83]
1905
  • Iceland: Educational institutions open to women[12]
  • Russia: Universities open to women[12]
1906
  • Finland (to stand for election).
  • Honduras: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Honduras: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Honduras: Divorce is legalized [16]
  • Korea: The profession of nurse is allowed for women[81]
  • Nicaragua: Divorce is legalized [16]
  • Sweden : Municipal suffrage, since 1862 granted to unmarried women, granted to married women [85]
  • Saxony, Germany: Universities open to women[83]
1907
  • France: Married women given control of their income [86]
  • France: Women allowed guardianship of children[78]
  • Great Britain: Matrimonial Causes Act 1907
  • Japan: Tohoku University, the first (private) coeducational university.
  • Norway (to stand for election).
  • Finland (first female Members of Parliament).
  • Uruguay: Divorce is legalized [87]
1908
  • Belgium: Women may act as legal witnesses in court[12]
  • Denmark: Juridical professions of lower rank open to women[36]
  • Denmark: Unmarried women are made legal guardian of their children[65]
  • Ottoman Empire: The Young Turks introduce several reform in favor of gender equality: the professions of doctor, lawyer, and civil servant as well as public places such as restaurants, theatres and lecture halls open to both genders.[39]
  • Peru: Universities open to women[88]
  • Prussia, Alsace-Lorraine and Hesse, Germany: Universities open to women[83]
1909
  • Sweden: Women granted eligibility to municipal councils [85]
  • Sweden: The phrase "Swedish man" are removed from the application forms to public offices and women are thereby approved as applicants to most public professions[84]
  • Mecklenburg, Germany: Universities open to women[83]
1910
1911
  • Portugal: Civil offices open to women[76]
  • Portugal: Legal majority for married women [76] (rescinded in 1933)[89]
  • Portugal: Divorce legalized[89]
1913
  • Japan: Public universities open to women[57]
  • Portugal: The first university law degree is granted to a woman[76]
1914
  • Russia: Married women allowed their own internal passport[2]
1917
  • Cuba: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Cuba: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Netherlands (to stand for election)
  • Mexico: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Mexico: Divorce legalized[50]
1918
  • Cuba: Divorce is legalized [16]
  • Nicaragua: The first female obtains a university degree[67]
  • Soviet Russia: The first Soviet Constitution explicitly declares the equal rights of men and women.
  • Thailand: Universities open to women [90]
1919
1920
  • China: The first female students are accepted in the Peking University, soon followed by universities all over China.[91]
  • Canada (to stand for election, with some restrictions/conditions).
  • Haiti: The apothecary profession open to women[27]
  • Korea: The profession of telephone operator, as well as several other professions, such as store clerks, are open to women[81]
  • Portugal: Secondary school open to women[76]
  • Sweden: Legal majority for married women and equal marriage rights[23]
1921
  • Belgium (to stand for election).
  • Belgium: The position of mayor, several lower public offices, such as financial adviser, open to women at local level[79]
  • Thailand: Compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys [90]
1922
  • Belgium: The profession of lawyer is open to women[12]
  • Japan: Women are allowed to be present and political meetings and form political organizations [92]
1924
  • Denmark: The first ever female minister in Western Europe is appointed, when Nina Bang is appointed Minister of Education by Thorvald Stauning.
1925
1926
  • Argentina: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Turkey: Women are granted legal majority, are admitted to the universities, and the harems and the veil are abolished.
1927
  • Mexico: Legal majority for married women [16]
1928
1929
  • Haiti: The lawyer profession open to women[27]
1930
  • Peru: Divorce is legalized [16]
1931
  • China: The new Civil Code grant equal inheritance rights, the right for women to choose marriage partner, equal right to divorce and right to control their own property after divorce[33]
  • Spain: Legal majority for married women (rescinded in 1939)[94]
  • Spain: Equal right to profession (rescinded in 1939)[94]
  • Spain: Divorce is legalized(rescinded in 1939)[94]
1932
  • Bolivia: Divorce is legalized [16]
  • Colombia: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Colombia: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Romania: Married women granted legal majority.[46]
1933
  • Colombia: Universities open to women [95]
1934
  • Haiti: The physician profession open to women[27]
  • Turkey (to stand for election)
1935
  • Iran: Women are admitted to Tehran University[96]
1936
  • Colombia: The national University open to women [97]
  • Iran: Reza Shah Pahlavi set the mandatory unveiling of women—a highly controversial policy which nonetheless was significant for the desegregation of women[96]
  • Peru: Married women granted separate economy[50]
1937
1938
1939
  • Sweden: Ban against firing a woman for marrying or having children.[44]

1940–1999[edit]

1942
  • Russia: Women formally accepted into the military[2]
  • Venezuela: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Venezuela: Married women granted separate economy[50]
1945
  • 'British Guiana'-Guyana (to stand for election)
1946
  • Burma: Myanmar (to stand for election)
  • Uruguay: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Uruguay: Married women granted separate economy[50]
1947
  • Sweden: Equal salary for both sexes.[44]
1948
  • Sweden: Maternity pay.[44]
1949
  • Ecuador: Legal majority for married women[50]
1950
  • China: Statute grants women equal right to property, to seek divorce and to inheritance.
1953
  • Mexico (to stand for election)
  • South Africa: The Matrimonial Affairs Act in 1953, restricts but did not abolish the marital power.[98]
1958
  • Sweden: Women allowed to become priests.[23]
1960
  • Canada (to stand for election, with no restrictions/conditions)
1961
  • El Salvador (to stand for election)
1962
  • Brazil: Legal majority for married women[99]
1963
  • Guatemala: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • Papua New Guinea (to stand for election)
1965
  • France: Married women obtained the right to work without their husbands' consent.[100]
1967
1968
  • Argentina: Legal majority for married women[50]
1969
  • Portugal: Legal majority for married women[89]
1970
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (to stand for election)
  • Ecuador: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • France: The paternal authority of a man over his family was ended in 1970 (before that parental responsibilities belonged solely to the father who made all legal decisions concerning the children).[101]
1971
  • Switzerland: Women allowed to elect and vote at federal level[102]
  • USA: Barring women from practicing law was prohibited in the U.S. in 1971.[103]
1972
  • Bolivia: Married women granted separate economy[50]
  • Bolivia: Legal majority for married women[50]
1973
  • Andorra, San Marino (to stand for election)
  • USA: Roe v. Wade, right to abortion secured
1975
  • Great Britain: Sex Discrimination Act 1975
  • Sweden: The right to abortion is secured[23]
  • Spain: abolition of the permiso marital (which required married women to have their husbands' consent for nearly all economic activities, including employment, ownership of property and traveling away from home)[104]
  • Austria: abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceeding[105]
1978
  • Dominican Republic: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[105]
  • 'Rhodesia'-Zimbabwe (to stand for election)
1979
  • Chile: Legal majority for married women[50]
1980
  • Sweden: Gender discrimination forbidden by law.[44]
1981
  • Spain: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[105]
1982
  • Zimbabwe: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[105]
1984
  • Peru: Legal majority for married women[50]
  • South Africa: The Matrimonial Property Act of 1984 abolished it prospectively (i.e. for marriages contracted after the act came into force) but not for marriages between black people.
  • Switzerland: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[105]
1985
  • France: A new reform in 1985 abolishes the stipulation that the father has the sole power to administer the children's property.[101]
1986
  • Djibouti (to stand for election)
1987
  • Paraguay: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[105]
1988
  • South Africa: Marital power is abolished prospectively for marriages of black people under the civil law, but not for marriages contracted under customary law.
  • Brazil: husband no longer "head of the household" (which gave him certain legal powers over his wife)[105]
  • Rwanda: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[105]
1991
1993
  • South Africa: Marital power is repealed for all civil marriages, whenever they were contracted.[98] The marital power persisted, however, in the Transkei (which was nominally independent from 1976 to 1994) but it was held to be unconstitutional for civil marriages by the High Court in 1999.[98]
1996
  • Namibia: The marital power is abolished in 1996 by the Married Persons Equality Act.
  • Angola: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[105]
1998

21st century[edit]

2002
2004
  • Botswana: the marital power is was abolished by the Abolition of Marital Power Act.
  • Mozambique: abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceeding[105]
2006
  • Lesotho: the marital power is abolished by the The Married Persons Equality Act 2006[107]
2007

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]