625: Hind al-Hunnud is among fifteen women accompanying troops in a battle near Medina, singing songs to inspire warriors. She exults over the body of the man who killed her father, chews his liver, and makes jewellery from his skin and nails.
1087: Matilda of Tuscany personally leads a military expedition to Rome in an attempt to install Pope Victor, but the strength of the imperial counterattack soon convinced the pope to retire from the city.
1130: Female Chinese general Liang Hongyu, wife of general Han Shizhong of the Song Dynasty, blocks the advance of the Jin army with her husband. Her drumming invigorated the Song army and rallied them to defeat the Jin.
1179: Elizabeth of Hungary, Duchess of Bohemia successfully defends Prague toward her brother-in-law Sobeslav II as regent during the absence of her spouse. She appeared herself on the battle field with clerical signs on her banner.
1258: Doquz Khatun accompanies her husband Hulagu on campaigns. At the Sack of Baghdad in 1258, the Mongols massacred tens of thousands of inhabitants, but by the order of Doquz, the Christians were spared.
1261–1289: Reign of Indian queen Rudrama Devi. She leads her troops in battle, and may have been killed in battle in 1289.
1335: The Scots defeat a company led by the Count of Namur. Amongst the Count's casualties was a female lancer who had killed her opponent, Richard Shaw, at the same moment that he had killed her. Her gender was only discovered when the bodies were being stripped of their armor at the end of the engagement. "The chronicler Bower seems to have been at least as impressed by the rarity of two mounted soldiers simultaneously transfixing one another with their lances as with the fact that one of them was a woman."
1389: Frisian regent Foelke Kampana leads armies to assist her spouse Ocko Kenisna tom Brok, chief of Auricherland: after finding him dead on the battlefield, she returns to Aurich, and upon finding it taken by an enemy during her absence, she retakes it by military force
1392: Maria, Queen of Sicily, conquers Sicily and defeats the rebelling barons as the leader of an army alongside her consort.
1420: Joan of France, Duchess of Brittany, launches war against the Penthievre clan in Brittany and their strongholds one by one until she conquers the last, to free her consort, the duke, who was taken prisoner by the Penthievre.
1429: Joan of Arc asserts that God has sent her to drive the English out of France, and is given a position in the French Royal army. She is supported by Yolande of Aragon, mother of Queen Marie d'Anjou (wife of King Charles VII).
1471: Queen Margaret of Anjou is defeated in Battle of Tewkesbury. She and her son escaped to Flanders. The Yorkists eventually captured her and ransomed her to Louis XI, after she had sworn an oath not to go to war anymore.
1472: Onorata Rodiana from Cremona, Italy is mortally wounded in battle. She had disguised herself as a man to become a soldier.
June 27, 1472: Jeanne Hachette rips down the flag of the invading Burgundians at Beauvais, inspiring the garrison to win the fight.
^Hayward, John (1857). The Book of Religions: Comprising the Views, Creeds, Sentiments, Or Opinions of all the Principal Sects in the World, Particularly of All Christian Denominations in Europe and America to which are added Church and Missionary Statistics together with Biographical Sketches. Boston: Sanborn, Carter, Bazin and Company. p. 428.
^Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell (1853). Woman's Record: Or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women, from "The Beginning Till A.D. 1850, Arranged in Four Eras, with Selections from Female Writers of Every Age. Harper Brothers. p. 120.
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^Regan, Geoffrey (2000). The Brassey's book of military blunders. Brassey's Inc, Dulles, Virginia. p. 68. ISBN1-57488-252-X.
^Bury,J.B. (1922). Cambridge Medieval History. Macmillan. Vol. III, p. 58; Blair, John; J. Willoughby Rosse (1856). Blair's Chronological Tables, Revised and Enlarged: Comprehending the Chronology and History of the World from the Earliest Times to the Russian Treaty of Peace, April 1856. H.G. Bohn, York Street, Convent Garden, London. p. 300.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
This paper was presented at the Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast Conference, June 16–18, 1995, at Forest Grove, Oregon, U.S.A. Research for this project was facilitated by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. (Although the link is to a forum, the paper is posted in its full length there since it is not available online as it was never published. The following links are to papers and articles where the original paper by Jennifer W. Jay was referenced in the bibliography)
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^Jinhua Dai; Jing Wang, Tani E. Barlow (2002). Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Verso. p. 147. ISBN978-1-85984-264-5.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Lloyd, Sir John E. (1935). A History of Carmarthenshire. Pub. Caerdydd. p. 140.
^Marjorie Chibnall, « Matilda (1102–1167) », Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
^Weiss, Sonia; Lorna Biddle Rinear, Contributor Adriana Leshko (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Women's History. Alpha Books. p. 87. ISBN978-0-02-864201-7.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Ramusack, Barbara N.; Sharon L. Sievers (1999). Women in Asia: Restoring Women to History. Indiana University Press. ISBN978-0-253-21267-2.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Houghton Mifflin Company; Justin Kaplan (2003). The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. p. 487. ISBN0-618-25210-X.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Low, Sidney James; Frederick Sanders Pulling (1910). The Dictionary of English History. Cassell and Company Limited, London, New York, Toronto, and Melbourne. p. 421.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Williamson, Paul (1998). Gothic Sculpture, 1140-1300. Yale University Press. p. 171. ISBN0300074522.
^Bachmann, Dieter (2003). "I.33". Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
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^The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, eleventh edition, volume XII. Cambridge, England, at the University Press, New York 35 West 32nd street. 1910. p. 793.
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