Women in mathematics
This is a timeline of women in mathematics .
1759: French mathematician Émilie du Châtelet's translation and commentary on Isaac Newton's work Principia Mathematica was published posthumously; it is still considered the standard French translation.
1827: French mathematician Sophie Germain saw her theorem, known as Germain's Theorem, published in a footnote of a book by the mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre. In this theorem Germain proved that if x, y, and z are integers and if x5 + y5 = z5 then either x, y, or z must be divisible by 5. Germain's theorem was a major step toward proving Fermat's last theorem for the case where n equals 5.
1874: Russian mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya became the first woman in modern Europe to gain a doctorate in mathematics, which she earned from the University of Göttingen in Germany. Her theorem on partial differential equations, part of her doctorate papers published that year, generalized previous results of Augustin-Louis Cauchy on the convergence of power series solution, and is known as the Cauchy–Kovalevskaya Theorem.
1913: American mathematician Mildred Sanderson published her theorem about modular invariants in her thesis. It states: “To any modular invariant i of a system of forms under any group G of linear transformations with coefficients in the GF[pn], there corresponds a formal invariant I under G such that I = i for all sets of values in the field of the coefficients of the system of forms.” She was Leonard Dickson’s first female graduate student, and he later wrote of her thesis, “This paper is a highly important contribution to this field of work; its importance lies partly in the fact that it establishes a correspondence between modular and formal invariants. Her main theorem has already been frequently quoted on account of its fundamental character. Her proof is a remarkable piece of mathematics.” E.T. Bell wrote, “Miss Sanderson’s single contribution (1913) to modular invariants has been rated by competent judges as one of the classics of the subject.” 
1918: German mathematician Emmy Noether published Noether's (first) theorem, which states that any differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law. Noether's theorem has become a fundamental tool of modern theoretical physics and the calculus of variations.
1930s: British mathematician Mary Cartwright proved her theorem, now known as Cartwright's theorem, which gives an estimate for the maximum modulus of an analytic function that takes the same value no more than p times in the unit disc. To prove the theorem she used a new approach, applying a technique introduced by Lars Ahlfors for conformal mappings.
1962: American mathematician Mina Rees became the first woman to win the Yueh-Gin Gung and Dr. Charles Y. Hu Award for Distinguished Service to Mathematics, which is the most prestigious award made by the Mathematical Association of America.
1964: Mary Cartwright became the first woman to win the Sylvester Medal of the Royal Society of London, which is given every three years since 1901 for the encouragement of mathematical research, without regard to nationality.
1966: American mathematician Mary Layne Boas published Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences, an undergraduate textbook that is still widely used in college classrooms.
1971: American mathematician Mary Ellen Rudin discovered a topological space known as a Dowker space, whose existence had remained unsettled despite 20 years of considerable efforts by general topologists. The modern and active branch of set theory and logic owes much to the discoveries of Mary Ellen Rudin.
1971: The Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) was founded. It is a professional society whose mission is to encourage women and girls to study and to have active careers in the mathematical sciences, and to promote equal opportunity for and the equal treatment of women and girls in the mathematical sciences. It is incorporated in America in the state of Massachusetts.
1971: The Joint Committee on Women in the Mathematical Sciences (JCW), was founded as a committee of the American Mathematical Society (AMS). It is now a joint committee of seven mathematical and statistical societies which works to identify mechanisms for the enhancement of opportunities for women in the mathematical and statistical sciences, recommend actions to the governing bodies of the member societies in support of these opportunities, and document its recommendations by presenting data.
1973: American mathematician Jean Taylor published her dissertation on “Regularity of the Singular Set of Two-Dimensional Area-Minimizing Flat Chains Modulo 3 in R3” which solved a long standing problem about length and smoothness of soap-film triple function curves.
1974: American mathematician Joan Birman published the book Braids, Links, and Mapping Class Groups. It has become a standard introduction, with many of today’s researchers having learned the subject through it.
1975–1977: American amateur mathematician Marjorie Rice, who had no formal training in mathematics beyond high school, discovered three new types of tessellating pentagons and more than sixty distinct tessellations by pentagons.
1979: Mary Ellen Rudin became the first woman to present the Earle Raymond Hedrick Lectures; these lectures were established by the Mathematical Association of America in 1952 to present to the Association a lecturer of known skill as an expositor of mathematics "who will present a series of at most three lectures accessible to a large fraction of those who teach college mathematics." 
1981: Canadian-American mathematician Cathleen Morawetz became the first female mathematician to give a Josiah Willard Gibbs Lecture; these lectures are of a semi-popular nature and are given by invitation, and are usually devoted to mathematics or its applications.
1996: Joan Birman became the first woman to receive the Chauvenet Prize, which is awarded annually by the Mathematical Association of America to the author of an outstanding expository article on a mathematical topic by a member of the association.
1996: Ioana Dumitriu, a New York University sophomore from Romania, became the first woman to be named a Putnam Fellow. Putnam Fellows are the top five (or six, in case of a tie) scorers on The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition.
2004: Melanie Wood became the first woman to win the Frank and Brennie Morgan Prize for Outstanding Research in Mathematics by an Undergraduate Student. It is an annual award given to an undergraduate student in the US, Canada, or Mexico who demonstrates superior mathematics research.
2006: American mathematician Stephanie Petermichl, at the University of Texas at Austin, became the first woman to win the Salem Prize, which is awarded every year to a young mathematician judged to have done outstanding work in Salem's field of interest, primarily Fourier series and related areas in analysis.
2012: Latvian mathematician Daina Taimina became the first woman to win the Euler Book Prize, which is awarded annually to an author or authors of an outstanding book about mathematics, for her book Crocheting Adventures with Hyperbolic Planes. 
2012: The Working Committee for Women in Mathematics, Chinese Mathematical Society (WCWM-CMS) was founded; it is a national non-profit academic organization in which female mathematicians who are engaged in research, teaching, and applications of mathematics can share their scientific research through academic exchanges both in China and abroad. It is one of the branches of the Chinese Mathematical Society (CMS).
2014: Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman as well as the first Iranian to be awarded the Fields Medal, which she was awarded for "her outstanding contributions to the dynamics and geometry of Riemann surfaces and their moduli spaces."   The Fields medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, and is often viewed as the greatest honor a mathematician can receive.
- Scholasticus, Socrates. Ecclesiastical History.
- According to Dirk Jan Struik, Agnesi is "the first important woman mathematician since Hypatia (fifth century A.D.)".
- "Epigenesys - Maria Gaetana Agnesi | Women in science". epigenesys.eu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Brooklyn Museum: Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Emilie du Chatelet". brooklynmuseum.org. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Sophie Germain". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Sophie Germain page". math.rochester.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (Russian mathematician) -- Encyclopedia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Winifred Edgerton Merrill : "She Opened the Door"". Ams.org. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- S. Kovalevskaya, Sur Le Probleme De La Rotation D'Un Corps Solide Autour D'Un Point Fixe, Acta Mathematica 12 (1889) 177–232.
- E. T. Whittaker, A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, Cambridge University Press (1952).
- "COOL, CREATIEF, HIP met ICT - Innovative women". chai-x.nl. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Philippa Garrett Fawcett". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "The Woman Who Bested the Men at Math | History | Smithsonian". smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Mildred Leonora Sanderson". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- Noether E (1918). "Invariante Variationsprobleme". Nachr. D. König. Gesellsch. D. Wiss. Zu Göttingen, Math-phys. Klasse 1918: 235–257.
- "Prizes, Awards, and Honors for Women Mathematicians". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Cartwright biography". -history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Euphemia Lofton Haynes, first african american woman mathematician". math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Gertrude Mary Cox". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Mina Rees". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "About AWM - AWM Association for Women in Mathematics". sites.google.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "JCW-Math | Joint Committee on Women in the Mathematical Sciences". jcwmath.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Jean Taylor". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Interview with Joan Birman". Ams.org. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- Doris Schattschneider. "Perplexing Pentagons". britton.disted.camosun.bc.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Profiles of Women in Mathematics: Julia Robinson". awm-math.org. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- Oakes, E.H. (2007). Encyclopedia of World Scientists. Facts On File, Incorporated. ISBN 9781438118826.
- "Cathleen Morawetz". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- 2005 Parson Lecturer - Dr. Doris Schattschneider, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Department of Mathematics, retrieved 2013-07-13
- Riddle, Larry (April 5, 2013), Doris Schattschneider, Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Agnes Scott College, retrieved 2013-07-13
- "Gloria Ford Gilmer". math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Leah Edelstein-Keshet". math.ubc.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- Karen W. Arenson (1997-05-01). "Q: How Many Women Have Won the Top Math Contest? - New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Duke Magazine-Where Are They Now?-January/February 2010". dukemagazine.duke.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Melanie Wood: The Making of a Mathematician - Cogito". cogito.cty.jhu.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "The New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- Bridget Booher (2009-07-13). "Duke Magazine-Where Are They Now?-January/February 2010". Dukemagazine.duke.edu. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- [dead link]
- "2003 Morgan Prize". Ams.org. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Math Forum @ Drexel: Congratulations, Alison!". mathforum.org. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Fields Institute - CRM-Fields Prize Recipients". fields.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "BBC News - Odd title prize for crochet book". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Women Mathematicians, Sponsored by Agnes Scott College". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Maryam Mirzakhani Becomes First Woman to Earn Fields Medal for Mathematics in Its 78 Year History | The Mary Sue". themarysue.com. Retrieved 2014-09-13.
- "IMU Prizes 2014 citations". International Mathematical Union. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "IMU Prizes 2014". International Mathematical Union. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "2006 Fields Medals awarded" (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical Society (American Mathematical Society) 53 (9): 1037–1044. October 2006.
- "Reclusive Russian turns down math world's highest honour". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-26.