Timok (river)

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Coordinates: 44°12′49″N 22°40′13″E / 44.21361°N 22.67028°E / 44.21361; 22.67028
Timok
(Veliki Timok)
April2003 (22) Timok.JPG
View of the Timok at Baley, Bulgaria
Countries Serbia, Bulgaria
Tributaries
 - left Crni Timok
 - right Beli Timok
City Serbia: Zaječar, Brusnik
Bulgaria: Bregovo, Baley
Source Zaječar
 - location Junction of the Beli Timok and the Crni Timok, Serbia
 - coordinates 43°55′12″N 22°17′52″E / 43.92000°N 22.29778°E / 43.92000; 22.29778
Mouth Danube
 - location near Bregovo, Serbia, Bulgaria
 - coordinates 44°12′49″N 22°40′13″E / 44.21361°N 22.67028°E / 44.21361; 22.67028
Discharge
 - average 24 m3/s (848 cu ft/s)

The Timok (Serbian and Bulgarian Cyrillic: Тимок, Romanian: Timoc) is a river in eastern Serbia and for the last 15 km of its run a border between eastern Serbia and western Bulgaria.

It derives the names in all these from the name it had in antiquity, Latin: Timacus.[1]

It is a very branchy system of many shorter rivers, a large number of them having the same name (Timok), only clarified with adjectives. From the farthest source in the system, that of the Svrljiški Timok, until its confluence into the Danube (as Veliki Timok), the Timok is 203 km long. The river flows through Serbia and for the last 15 km forms the border between Serbia and Bulgaria. The area of the river basin is 4,630 km². The Timok Valley is known for the most important Romanian-speaking population in Eastern Serbia.

Timok Cove in Rugged Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Timok River.

Drainage system[edit]

The Timok, also named Veliki Timok to distinguish it from its tributaries, is formed by the confluence of the rivers Beli Timok ("White Timok") and Crni Timok ("Black Timok") at Zaječar. The Beli Timok is formed by the confluence of the rivers Svrljiški Timok ("Svrljig Timok") and Trgoviški Timok ("Trgovište Timok") at Knjaževac.

Tributaries of the Timok are Duboki Dol, Beslarica, Golami Dol, Kijevska, Bračevicka, Studena Voda, Pivnica and Eleshchev from the right, and Lipovička River, Crna reka, Jelašnička reka, Salaška reka, Ogašu Taba, Brusnički potok, Urovički potok, Plandište and Sikolska river from the left.

Course[edit]

The Timok turns north-west after its formation at Zaječar, running next to the villages of Vražogrnac, Trnavac, Čokonjar, and Brusnik. Passing between the last two it leaves Timočka Krajina and enters Negotinska Krajina.

In the lower course the Timok has no major settlements on the Serbian side (though flowing only 7 km from Negotin). Some 15 km before it empties into the Danube as its right tributary, the Timok becomes a border river, passing next to the Bulgarian town of Bregovo and the Bulgarian village of Baley. The river's mouth represents the northernmost point of Bulgaria, and is only 28 m above sea level, which makes it the lowest point of Serbia. The average discharge is 24 m³/s, but it can grow to 40 m³/s, and the Timok is part of the Black Sea drainage basin. The main (right) tributaries in this section are Crna reka, Salaška reka, Sikolska reka and Čubarska reka (Cyrillic: Црна река, Салашка река, Сиколска река and Чубарска река).

Apart from Timočka Krajina, the Timok gave its name to a rebellion against Serbian king Milan Obrenović IV in 1883, Timočka buna ("rebellion of Timok").

Economy and ecology[edit]

At Čokonjar, the Sokolovica power plant was constructed in 1947-1951. Opportunities for higher electricity production are not used.

The river has been greatly ecologically damaged in recent years by the mining and heavy metal industry in Bor and Krivelj and is consequently polluting the Danube with lead, copper and cadmium.

The river valley is a natural route for the road and railway Niš-Prahovo.

References[edit]

  • Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition (1985); Prosveta; ISBN 86-07-00001-2
  • Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije; Svjetlost-Sarajevo; ISBN 86-01-02651-6
  1. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. 10, John Boardman, p 579, 1996, ISBN 978-0-521-85073-5

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