Tim Keller (pastor)
|Timothy J. Keller|
|Born||September 23, 1950|
|Education||B.A. Bucknell University, 1972
M.Div Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, 1975
D.Min Westminster Theological Seminary, 1981
|Church||Redeemer Presbyterian Church|
|Ordained||Presbyterian Church in America|
Timothy J. Keller (born 1950) is an American pastor, theologian and Christian apologist. He is best known as the founding pastor of Redeemer Presbyterian Church in New York City, New York, and the author of The New York Times bestselling books The Reason for God: Belief in an Age of Skepticism, The Prodigal God, and Prayer.
Keller was raised in Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania. He is a graduate of Bucknell University (BA, 1972), Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (M.Div., 1975) and Westminster Theological Seminary, where he received his D.Min in 1981, under the supervision of Harvie M. Conn. He became a Christian while at Bucknell University, due to the ministry of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, with which he later served as a staff member. He was ordained by the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) and served as a pastor in Virginia for nine years, while serving as director of church planting for the PCA. He also served on the faculty of Westminster Theological Seminary, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he and his wife Kathy were involved in urban ministry and he continues as an adjunct professor of practical theology.
Keller was recruited by his denomination to start Redeemer Presbyterian Church in Manhattan in 1989 despite his relative lack of experience and after two others had turned down the position. He started out meeting with a group of young professionals attending the DeMoss House, a ministry of Campus Crusade for Christ. The church grew out of these initial small meetings into gatherings of a few hundred people within the first year. Today the church’s attendance is over 5,000 each week.
In 2008, Keller published his first book in 20 years (since his report to his denomination on diaconal ministries titled “Ministries of Mercy” in 1989). The book, called The Reason for God, was based on common objections to the Christian faith heard during his ministry in New York City. The book reached #7 on the New York Times Nonfiction bestseller list, and Keller has since continued to write popular books based on his ministry, becoming a well-known figure only toward the end of his career as a pastor.
Keller has been described as a "C.S. Lewis for the 21st Century", although he has disavowed comparisons to his hero. He frequently draws on secular or academic sources like The New York Times, and media coverage has treated him as an anomaly: a pastor who appeals to Manhattan yuppies and intellectuals.
Redeemer Presbyterian Church
Redeemer Presbyterian Church grew from 50 people to a total attendance of over 5,000 people each Sunday as of 2008, leading some to call him "the most successful Christian Evangelist in the city." In 2004 Christianity Today praised Redeemer as "one of Manhattan's most vital congregations", and, according to a 2006 survey of 2,000 American church leaders, is the 16th most influential church in America.
The church's emphasis on young urban professionals, whom Keller believes exhibit disproportionate influence over the culture and its ideas, has given the church an unusual makeup for a US megachurch. The majority of the congregation is made up of single adults; it is also over forty percent Asian-American, and has many congregants working in the arts and financial services. In his preaching, "he hardly shrinks from difficult Christian truths, [but] he sounds different from many of the shrill evangelical voices in the public sphere." Keller often critiques both political parties and avoids taking public stances on political issues, resulting in a politically centrist church.
Redeemer Presbyterian Church has also founded Hope for New York, a non-profit organization that sends volunteers and grants to over 40 faith-based ministries serving social needs in New York City, the Center for Faith and Work to train professionals in Christian theology, andRedeemer City to City to train and fund pastors in New York and other cities.
Keller shuns the label "evangelical" because of its political and fundamentalist connotation, preferring to call himself orthodox because "he believes in the importance of personal conversion or being 'born again,' and the full authority of the Bible." He identifies with Reformed Theology, although he has been critiqued by some in that tradition for his modern interpretation of its doctrines. He has been described as a "doctrine-friendly emerging pastor" and a "neo-Calvinist."
The Gospel versus religion
The centerpiece and underpinning of Keller’s ministry has been his teaching of the doctrine of the gospel, emphasizing the doctrines of total depravity, unmerited grace and substitutionary atonement. This teaching is summarized in his oft-used explanation, “The gospel is this: We are more sinful and flawed in ourselves than we ever dared believe, yet at the very same time we are more loved and accepted in Jesus Christ than we ever dared hope.” (See http://www.timothykeller.com) This understanding of the gospel is contrasted to what Keller calls “traditional religion” (which he defines as a set of rules, rituals or actions that enable an individual to earn salvation or favor with God) as well as “irreligion” (which he defines as the belief that there is no God or no need for his favor). This has been referred to as a “gospel third way,” or “gospel-centered” approach. Typical of this teaching is his interpretation of The Parable of the Prodigal Son (see The Prodigal God), based on a teaching of one of Keller’s mentors, Edmund Clowney.
Another pervasive influence and distinctive characteristic in Keller’s preaching and writing is his apologetics, which is characterized by a respectful orientation towards an educated and skeptical audience outside the faith. His most explicit work on the subject is The Reason for God, which reached #7 on the New York Times bestseller list, and which he attributes to thousands of conversations with skeptical New Yorkers over the course of his ministry (Reason, xix). Elsewhere he has written about the loss of a Christian culture in the West, including in the academic and cultural establishments, and the need for Christians to contextualize to the current secular and anti-religious cultural climate. Keller is considered to be a leading figure of the evangelical intelligentsia movement.
On creationism, Keller states his view is not strictly literal and that evolution is "neither ruled in nor ruled out" in his church. Keller has written on the topic for the Biologos Foundation.
Keller’s major influences in apologetics include C.S. Lewis, Cornelius Van Til, John Stott, Alvin Plantinga and Miroslav Volf.
Another central theme in Keller’s teaching is idolatry, based on teachings of Martin Luther and John Calvin, and on the Ten Commandments and other parts of the Bible. Keller states that contemporary idol worship continues today in the form of an addiction or devotion to money, career, sex, power and anything people seek to give significance and satisfaction in life other than God (see his book Counterfeit Gods, NYTimes, Morning Joe).
Social justice and politics
Keller disavows the “social gospel” that has characterized Mainline Protestant churches, which advocates liberal political causes and de-emphasizes the doctrines of sin and substitutionary sacrifice. However he has argued for giving to charitable causes and caring for the needs of the poor based on biblical texts such as the Torah and the Parable of the Good Samaritan (see his books Generous Justice, Ministries of Mercy). He has also critiqued both conservative and liberal politics for having a reductionistic view of the poor, among other things.
Attributed partly to his congregation of upwardly mobile Manhattanites, Keller has been a leader in applying Christian theology to secular vocations such as business, art and entrepreneurship. The Center for Faith and Work at Redeemer has sponsored business competitions and theological education for working professionals. His views on Christianity and culture are outlined in his books Every Good Endeavor and Center Church. Keller is an avid fan of the work of C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien, both well-known Christian authors, and also supports the Harry Potter novels which have been considered pagan by certain conservative Christians.
Sex and gender
Keller holds traditional views of marriage, and believes that "Marriage provides the personal growth that comes through cross-gender relationships." He elaborates on the biblical view of sex and marriage in his book “The Meaning of Marriage.” He has said that "Homosexuality, prostitution, sex outside of marriage, and adultery all fall outside of what God says he has designed sex for." A signatory of the Manhattan Declaration, Keller is opposed to same-sex marriage and abortion, but is not opposed to contraception.
Cities and urban church planting
At Westminster Theological Seminary, Keller was mentored by Harvie Conn, an early advocate of ministry in urban centers, and was recruited to start Redeemer Presbyterian Church because of a lack of evangelical churches in center-city Manhattan.
He has since become a worldwide spokesman for the need to create new kinds of churches in urban centers to address rapid urbanization and secularization. He delivered a plenary address on the subject at the Lausanne Conference of 2010.
Through Redeemer City to City, Keller mentors and chairs a network of center-city churches that represents similar ministry values worldwide. He writes extensively on the importance of cities and gives a biblical theological framework for ministry in cities in his book on ministry, Center Church.
- Resources for Deacons: Love Expressed through Mercy Ministries (Christian Education and Publications, 1985) ISBN 0-9703541-6-9
- Ministries of Mercy: The Call of the Jericho Road (P&R Publishing, 1997) ISBN 0-87552-217-3
- Church Planter Manual (Redeemer Presbyterian Church, 2002)
- The Reason for God: Belief in an Age of Skepticism (Dutton Adult, February 2008) ISBN 0-525-95049-4
- The Prodigal God: Recovering the Heart of the Christian Faith (Dutton Adult, November 2008) ISBN 0-525-95079-6
- Counterfeit Gods: The Empty Promises of Money, Sex, and Power, and the Only Hope that Matters (Dutton Adult, October 2009) ISBN 0-525-95136-9
- Generous Justice: How God's Grace Makes Us Just (Dutton Adult, November 2010) ISBN 0-525-95190-3
- King's Cross: The Story of the World in the Life of Jesus (Dutton Adult, February 2011) ISBN 0-525-95210-1
- The Meaning of Marriage: Facing the Complexities of Commitment with the Wisdom of God (Dutton Adult, November 2011) ISBN 0-525-95247-0
- Center Church: Doing Balanced, Gospel-Centered Ministry in Your City (Zondervan, September 2012) ISBN 0-310-494184
- Every Good Endeavor: Connecting Your Work to God's Work (Dutton, November 2012) ISBN 978-0-525-95270-1
- Walking with God through Pain and Suffering (Dutton, October 2013) ISBN 978-0-525-95245-9
- "Encounters with Jesus: Unexpected Answers to Life's Biggest Questions" (Dutton, 2013) ISBN 978-0-525-95435-4
- "Prayer: Experiencing Awe and Intimacy with God." (Dutton, 2014) ISBN 978-0-525-95414-9
- Schaller, Lyle E, ed. (1993), Center City Churches: The New Urban Frontier, Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-04802-8.
- Bustard, Ned, ed. (2000), It Was Good: Making Art to the Glory of God, Square Halo Books, ISBN 978-0-9785097-1-2.
- Carson, DA, ed. (2002), Worship by the Book, Zondervan, ISBN 0-310-21625-7.
- Piper, John; Taylor, Justin, eds. (2007), The Supremacy of Christ in a Postmodern World, Crossway Books, ISBN 978-1-58134-922-1.
- Dallas Willard, ed. (2010), A Place for Truth: Leading Thinkers Explore Life's Hardest Questions, IVP Books, ISBN 0-8308-3845-7
- "Best sellers: nonfiction", The New York Times, March 23, 2008
- NYTimes Paperback Bestsellers 5/8/11, http://www.nytimes.com/best-sellers-books/2011-05-08/paperback-nonfiction/list.html
- NYTimes Bestseller list: Advice & How-To 11.23.14
- "Faculty – Part Time". Westminster Theological seminary. Archived from the original on 2007-04-01. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- Hart, D. G. (2013). "Looking for Communion in all the Wrong Places: Tim Keller and Presbyterian Ecclesiology". Engaging with Keller: Thinking Through the Theology of an Influential Evangelical. p. 217.
- "Speaker biography". Christian Life Conference. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-18. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
- Luo, Michael (February 26, 2006). "Preaching the Word and Quoting the Voice". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
- Keller, Timothy. "Post-everythings". byFaith (magazine). Westminster Theological Seminary. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
- Miller, Lisa (February 9, 2008). "The Smart Shepherd". Newsweek. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Stetzer, Ed (February 10, 2008). "More on Tim Keller and Newsweek". Christianity Today. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Hooper, Joseph (November 29, 2009). "Tim Keller Wants to Save Your Yuppie Soul". New York. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "The Influentials: Religion". New York Magazine. 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
- Carnes, Anthony ‘Tony’ (December 2004). "New York's New Hope". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
- "50 Most Influential Churches". The Church Report. July 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-07-21. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- Keller, Timothy ‘Tim’ (May 2006). "A New Kind of Urban Christian". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
- Amanpour, Christiane (April 24, 2011). "Interview With Pastor Tim Keller". ABC News. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Iain D. Campbell and William M. Schweitzer (eds.), Engaging with Keller (Evangelical Press, 2013).
- DeVine, Mark (2009), "The Emerging Church: One Movement, Two Streams", in Henard, William; Greenway, Adam, Evangelicals Engaging Emergent: A Discussion of the Emergent Church Movement, Nashville, TN: B&H, pp. 17–18.
- "In His Words: The Pastor on the Issues", New York Times, January 25, 1998.
- A Treatise on Good Works
- Institutes of the Christian Religion, Battles Edition, Book 1, Chapter XI, Section 8
- GIRIDHARADAS, Anand (December 28, 2012). "Keeping One's Work in Perspective". New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Scarborough, Joe (February 18, 2011). "Morning Joe: Religious Leaders share their spiritual messages". Morning Joe. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- See the sermon "Arguing about Politics," 7/15/01, accessed at http://www.gospelinlife.com/arguing-about-politics-5285.html, and the article "Reflections on Faith and Politics," Redeemer Report January 2005, accessed at http://download.redeemer.com/pdf/newsletter/RedeemerNewsletter-2005-01.pdf
- Michael Paulson, "Some Christians love Frodo but put a hex on Harry Potter," Boston Globe, January 2, 2002.
- Prior, Karen Swallow (November 2011), "Interview", Christianity Today (Web only ed.).
- Duncan Osborne, “Hiding In Plain Sight: A Conservative Pastor Builds a Mega-Church In Manhattan," Gay City News, Jun.22-Jul.5 2011, 22.
- Manhattan Declaration & Signers, Demossnews
- Colson, Chuck, The Roots of Social Justice, Christian Post
- Miller, Lisa (2/9/08). "The Smart Shepherd". Newsweek.