Tin(IV) fluoride

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Tin tetrafluoride)
Jump to: navigation, search
Tin(IV) fluoride
SnF4structure.jpg
Identifiers
CAS number 7783-62-2 YesY
PubChem 134654
EC number 232-016-0
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula SnF4
Molar mass 194.704 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Melting point above 700 °C (sublimes)
Structure
Crystal structure Tetragonal, tI10
Space group I4/mmm, No. 139
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Tin(IV) fluoride is a chemical compound of tin and fluorine with the chemical formula SnF4 and is a white solid with a melting point above 700 °C.[1]

SnF4 can be prepared by the reaction of tin metal with fluorine gas:[2]

Sn + 2F2 → SnF4

However, a passivating metal fluoride layer will be created and the surface will eventually become unreactive. An alternative synthesis is the reaction of SnCl4 with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride:[1]

SnCl4 + 4HF → SnF4 + 4HCl

With alkali metal fluorides (e.g. KF) hexafluorostannates are produced (e.g.K2SnF6), which contain the octahedral SnF62− anion. SnF4 behaves as a Lewis acid and adducts L2·SnF4 and L·SnF4 have been produced.[2]

Structure[edit]

Unlike the other tin tetrahalides, tin(IV) chloride, tin(IV) bromide, tin(IV) iodide which contain tetrahedrally coordinated tin, tin(IV) fluoride contains planar layers of octahedrally coordinated tin, where the octahedra share four corners and there are two terminal, unshared, fluorine atoms trans to one another.[3] The melting point of SnF4 is much higher (700 °C) than the other tin(IV) halides which are relatively low melting, (SnCl4, −33.3 °C; SnBr4, 31 °C; SnI4, 144 °C).[1] The structure can also be contrasted with the tetrafluorides of the lighter members of group 14, (CF4, SiF4 and GeF4) which in the solid state form molecular crystals.[2]

Commercial applications of the compound include using SnF4 in toothpaste to prevent dental decay.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edition ed.). Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 381. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  2. ^ a b c Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E.; Wiberg, N. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition. Academic Press. p. 908. ISBN 0-12-352651-5. 
  3. ^ Inorganic Chemistry [Paperback],2d Edition, Housecroft, Sharpe,2004, Pearson Education ISBN 0130399132, ISBN 978-0130399137
  4. ^ Alan Heaton and Rob Janes. Case study: Industrial inorganic chemistry. Elements of the P Block. (Charlie Harding, David Johnson and Rob Janes, editors), Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002. ISBN 978-0-85404-690-4; p. 289