Tindouf

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Tindouf
تندوف
Tinduf
Commune and town
Le Mouggar in 1970 (Tindouf)
Tindouf in the 1970s
Location of Tindouf commune within Tindouf Province
Location of Tindouf commune within Tindouf Province
Tindouf is located in Algeria
Tindouf
Tindouf
Location of Tindouf within Algeria
Coordinates: 27°40′31″N 8°07′43″W / 27.67528°N 8.12861°W / 27.67528; -8.12861Coordinates: 27°40′31″N 8°07′43″W / 27.67528°N 8.12861°W / 27.67528; -8.12861
Country  Algeria
Province Tindouf (seat)
District Tindouf (coextensive)
Area
 • Total 70,009 km2 (27,031 sq mi)
Elevation 400 m (1,300 ft)
Population (2008)[1]
 • Total 45,966
 • Density 0.66/km2 (1.7/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+01)
Postal code 37000

Tindouf (Berber: Tinduf, Arabic: تندوف‎) is the main town, and a commune in Tindouf Province, Algeria, close to the Mauritanian, Western Saharan and Moroccan borders. According to the 2008 census the commune has a population of 45,966,[2] up from 25,266 in 1998,[3] and an annual population growth rate of 6.3%.[2]

The region is considered of strategic significance. It houses Algerian military bases and an airport with regular flights to Algiers as well as to other domestic destinations.[4] The settlement of Garet Djebilet lies within the municipal territory of Tindouf near the border with Mauritania; the settlement has an iron mine and a defunct airport, and is approximately 70 kilometres (43 mi) northwest of Âouinet Bel Egrâ. Since 1975, it also contains several Sahrawi refugee camps operated by the Polisario Front, a national liberation movement seeking the self-determination of Western Sahara

History[edit]

The town of Tindouf was built near an isolated Saharan oasis in 1852 by members of the Tajakant tribe, but sacked and destroyed by Reguibat, a Sahrawi tribe in 1895, and the Tajakant tribe were expelled from the region. It remained deserted until French troops arrived in the area in 1934. Since Algerian independence in 1962, the town has been deliberately built up, partly because of its importance as a last outpost before the Moroccan, Sahrawi and Mauritanian borders.

In 1963, the area was the scene of fighting between Algerian and Moroccan forces laying claim to western Algeria, in the Sand War. The region has since been heavily militarized, increasing its relevance. Since the mid-70s, the Tindouf region served as base for the Polisario Front, a Sahrawi nationalist organization fighting for Western Sahara's independence. The Polisario Front is headquartered in self-administered refugee camps south of the city, which filled up as Moroccan and Mauritanian forces conquered Western Sahara in 1975. During the war years of 1975–1990, Polisario forces struck in Western Sahara, Mauritania (until 1979) and southern Morocco (including the region of Tata), using the Tindouf region as their rear base area, with Algerian protection and support. Since 1990 the area has been quiet, although the refugee community remains in Algeria, pending a UN-sponsored peace process and a referendum on independence. (See Minurso.)

Demographics[edit]

Tindouf has a population of 47,965 (2010 estimates),[5] though this figure is of questionable authenticity, given the fact that the exact number is a sensitive issue due to the Western Sahara refugees.

Year Population
1977 (Census) 6,044
1987 (Census) 13,084
1998 (Census) 32,004
2008 (Census)[1] 45966
2010 (Estimate) 47,965–59,898

Climate[edit]

Tindouf has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh), with extremely hot summers and mild winters. There is almost no rain for most of the year, although a little rain is sometimes seen associated with the West African Monsoon around September.

Climate data for Tindouf
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.8
(85.6)
35.4
(95.7)
38.3
(100.9)
40.4
(104.7)
44.0
(111.2)
46.8
(116.2)
47.8
(118)
50.5
(122.9)
49.0
(120.2)
40.1
(104.2)
37.0
(98.6)
31.0
(87.8)
50.5
(122.9)
Average high °C (°F) 20.7
(69.3)
23.6
(74.5)
27.6
(81.7)
30.2
(86.4)
33.8
(92.8)
38.7
(101.7)
43.3
(109.9)
42.4
(108.3)
37.6
(99.7)
31.8
(89.2)
25.9
(78.6)
21.4
(70.5)
31.42
(88.55)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
16.2
(61.2)
20.1
(68.2)
22.4
(72.3)
25.7
(78.3)
30.1
(86.2)
35.1
(95.2)
34.7
(94.5)
30.0
(86)
24.6
(76.3)
18.7
(65.7)
14.2
(57.6)
23.77
(74.8)
Average low °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
9.0
(48.2)
12.6
(54.7)
14.2
(57.6)
16.9
(62.4)
20.9
(69.6)
26.1
(79)
26.5
(79.7)
22.5
(72.5)
17.5
(63.5)
12.1
(53.8)
7.9
(46.2)
16.08
(60.94)
Record low °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−5.3
(22.5)
0.0
(32)
6.5
(43.7)
7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50)
11.0
(51.8)
14.6
(58.3)
14.0
(57.2)
8.0
(46.4)
2.7
(36.9)
0.0
(32)
−5.3
(22.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0.1
(0.004)
0.3
(0.012)
0.2
(0.008)
0.1
(0.004)
2.0
(0.079)
0.2
(0.008)
0.0
(0)
2.5
(0.098)
10.0
(0.394)
3.4
(0.134)
0.3
(0.012)
0.3
(0.012)
19.4
(0.765)
 % humidity 44.9 40.8 34.8 35.4 35.2 30.3 22.8 24.5 32.3 28.1 43.8 49.6 35.21
Source: climatebase.ru[6]

Education[edit]

6.1% of the population has a tertiary education, and another 18.8% has completed secondary education.[7] The overall literacy rate is 75.0%, and is 79.7% among males and 70.1% among females.[8]

Localities[edit]

The commune is composed of five localities:[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wilaya de Tindouf : répartition de la population résidente des ménages ordinaires et collectifs, selon la commune de résidence et la dispersion (2008 Census, ONS).
  2. ^ a b "Population: Béchar Wilaya" (in French). Office National des Statistiques Algérie. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  3. ^ "Algeria Communes". Statoids. Retrieved 5 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "Tindouf Airport". OurAirports. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  5. ^ Tindouf in the World Gazetteer
  6. ^ "Tindouf, Algeria". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  7. ^ "Structure relative de la population résidente des ménages ordinaires et collectifs âgée de 6 ans et plus selon le niveau d'instruction et la commune de résidence." (in French). Office National des Statistiques Algérie. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  8. ^ "Taux d'analphabétisme et taux d'alphabétisation de la population âgée de 15 ans et plus, selon le sexe et la commune de résidence ." (in French). Office National des Statistiques Algérie. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  9. ^ "Décret n° 84-365, fixant la composition, la consistance et les limites territoriale des communes. Wilaya d'El Oued" (in French). Journal officiel de la République Algérienne,. 19 December 1984. p. 1562. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013 or before. Retrieved 2 March 2013.