Tinospora cordifolia

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Tinospora cordifolia
Tinospora cordifolia.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Menispermaceae
Genus: Tinospora
Species: T. cordifolia
Binomial name
Tinospora cordifolia
(Thunb.) Miers

Tinospora cordifolia, which is known by the common names Guduchi and Giloy, is an herbaceous vine of the family Menispermaceae indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.

The plant is a glabrous climbing shrub found throughout India, typically growing in deciduous and dry forests. The leaves are heart shaped. The succulent bark is creamy white to grey in color, with deep clefts spotted with lenticels. It puts out long, slender aerial roots, and is often grown on mango or neem trees.[1] Flowers are yellow, growing in lax racemes from nodes on old wood. Fruits are drupes, turning red when ripe.[2]

Constituents[edit]

The active adaptogenic constituents are diterpene compounds, polyphenols, and polysaccharides, including arabinogalactan polysaccharide.[3][unreliable source?][4]

In herbal medicine[edit]

Giloy herbs at Talkatora Gardens, New Delhi

According to the 1918 United States Dispensatory, the plant has a long history of use in India as a medicine and in the preparation of a starch known as Giloe-ka-sat or as Palo.[5] Tinospora cordifolia and related species such as Tinospora crispa and Tinospora rumphii Boerl are used in Ayurvedic and Jamu herbal medicine.[citation needed]

In Ayurvedic use[edit]

In Ayurveda, Guduchi is considered one of the most divine herbs.[6]

Research[edit]

A standardized extract from Tinospora known as Tinofend has been studied clinically. One study in 75 patients with allergic rhinitis (hay fever) showed statistically significant reduction of symptoms compared to placebo.[7] An independent review of this study concluded that "significant intergroup differences were seen in all symptoms", although studies in larger populations may support this finding.[8] A combination of T. cordifolia extract and turmeric extract is effective in reducing the hepatotoxicity which is induced by the combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for treating tuberculosis.[9]

Common names[edit]

There are many common names for this species in different languages. Punjabi: گلو (Gllow) Telugu: తిప్ప తీగ (Tippa-teega) Tamil: சீந்தில் கொடி (Shindilakodi) Malayalam: ചിറ്റമൃത് (Amruthu, Chittamruthu) Kannada: ಅಮೃತ ಬಳ್ಳಿ (Amrutha balli),[10] Sinhala: Rasakinda, Hindi:geloy (गिलोय), guruc (गुरुच), gurcha, Gujarati: galac, garo, Sanskrit: Amritavalli (अमृतवल्ली), amrta (अमृत), cinnodbhava (छिन्नोद्भवा), Marathi: Guduchi (गुडूची), gulvel (गुळवेल) Oriya: Guluchi, Myanmar: ဆင်တုံးမနွယ်

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wagner, Hildebert (1999). Immunomodulatory agents from plants. Birkhäuser. p. 294. ISBN 978-3-7643-5848-8. 
  2. ^ Warrier, P. K.; V. P. K. Nambiar, C. Ramankutty, R. Vasudevan Nair (1996). Indian medicinal plants: a compendium of 500 species, Volume 5. Orient Blackswan. p. 283. ISBN 9788125007630. 
  3. ^ Winston, David & Maimes, Steven (2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press. 
  4. ^ S.S. Singh, S.C. Pandey, S. Srivastava, V.S. Gupta, B. Patro, A.C. Ghosh (2003). "Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia". Indian Journal of Pharmacology 35: 83–91. 
  5. ^ Tinospora. Tinospora cordifolia. | Henriette's Herbal Homepage
  6. ^ National R&D Facility for Rasayana
  7. ^ Badar, VA; Thawani, VR; Wakode, PT; Shrivastava, MP; Gharpure, KJ; Hingorani, LL; Khiyani, RM (2005). "Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96 (3): 445–9. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.034. PMID 15619563. 
  8. ^ Guo, R; Pittler, MH; Ernst, E (2007). "Herbal medicines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis: A systematic review". Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 99 (6): 483–95. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60375-4. PMID 18219828. 
  9. ^ Adhvaryu MR, Reddy MN, Vakharia BC (2008). "Prevention of hepatotoxicity due to anti tuberculosis treatment: A novel integrative approach". World Journal of Gastroenterology 14 (30): 4753–4762. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.4753. 
  10. ^ Ethnobotanical Leaflets

External links[edit]