A tippe top is a kind of top. When a tippe top is spun at a high angular velocity, its handle slowly tilts downwards more and more until it lifts the body of the top off the ground with the stem pointing downward. As the top's spinning rate slows, it loses stability and eventually topples over.
At first glance the top's inversion may mistakenly seem to be a situation where the object gains energy. This is because the inversion of the top raises the object's center of mass, which means the potential energy has increased. What causes the inversion (and the increase in potential energy) is a torque due to surface friction, which also decreases the kinetic energy of the top, so the total energy does not actually increase.
Once the top is spinning on its stem, it does not spin in the opposite direction to which its spin was initiated. For example, if the top was spun clockwise, as soon as it is on its stem, it will be still be spinning clockwise viewed from above. This constant spin direction is due to conservation of angular momentum.
- Bou-Rabee, Nawaf; Jerrold E. Marsden; and Louis A. Romero (2008). "Dissipation-Induced Heteroclinic Orbits in Tippe Tops". SIAM Review 50 (2): 325. Bibcode:2008SIAMR..50..325B. doi:10.1137/080716177.
- Glad, S. Torkel; Daniel Petersson; and Stefan Rauch-Wojciechowski (2007). "Phase Space of Rolling Solutions of the Tippe Top". Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (SIGMA) 3. arXiv:nlin/0703016. Bibcode:2007SIGMA...3..041G. doi:10.3842/SIGMA.2007.041.
- Cohen, R. J. (1977). "The tippe top revisited". American Journal of Physics 45: 12. Bibcode:1977AmJPh..45...12C. doi:10.1119/1.10926.
- Ebenfeld, S.; Scheck, F. (1995). "A New Analysis of the Tippe Top: Asymptotic States and Liapunov Stability". Annals of Physics 243 (2): 195. Bibcode:1995AnPhy.243..195E. doi:10.1006/aphy.1995.1097.
- DE 63261 "Wendekreisel" filed by Fräulein Helene Sperl on 07.10.1891, published on 12.07.1892"
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