After the regression of the Sauk Sea early in the Ordovician, the exposed craton for a time underwent vigorous erosion, due to being located in a tropical climate; indeed, at this point in the Phanerozoic the North American continent roughly straddled the equator.
The Tippecanoe transgression ended this period of erosion, beginning with the deposition of clean sandstones across the craton, followed by abundant carbonate deposition. In the east these carbonates gradually become shales, representing sediments eroded from highlands created in the Taconic orogeny.
The Tippecanoe sequence may have been the deepest of the Phanerozoic. At one point during the Silurian period, the Taconic highlands—which later became the Appalachian Mountains--were the only part of North America that was not submerged. The massive evaporite deposits of the Michigan Basin were created during this period.
The Tippecanoe sequence ended with a regression in the early Devonian, to be followed later by the Kaskaskia sequence.
- Monroe, James S., and Reed Wicander. The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution, 2nd ed. Belmont: West Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-314-09577-2 pp. 533-4
- Monroe and Wicander, pp. 534-5
- Monroe and Wicander, p. 537
- Monroe and Wicander, pp. 537-8
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