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Tipton shown within the West Midlands
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Tipton is a town in the Sandwell borough of the West Midlands, England, with a population of around 47,000. Tipton is located about halfway between Birmingham and Wolverhampton. It is a part of the West Midlands conurbation and is a part of the Black Country.
Historically within Staffordshire, Tipton was an urban district until 1938, when it became a municipal borough. The vast majority of the Borough of Tipton was transferred into West Bromwich County Borough in 1966, although the Tividale part of the town became part of Warley and a small section of the west of the town was incorporated into Dudley. Along with the rest of West Bromwich and Warley, Tipton became part of the Sandwell Metropolitan Borough in 1974 and remains within this local authority to this day.
Tipton was once one of the most heavily industrialised towns in the Black Country. But most of its factories closed during the 1980s and new housing estates have been built on the site of many former factories, the new private homes have seen an upturn in Tipton's fortunes by rising house prices.
Tividale has a relatively high percentage of ethnic minority residents, mostly Muslims of Pakistani origin, but the Princes End and Great Bridge areas are predominantly occupied by white English residents.
The town of Tipton was originally called Tibintone and recorded as such in the Domesday Book, the oldest surviving public record that provides information about the 1086 Domesday survey. The present spelling of Tipton derives from the 16th century.
From details of the 1801 census, it records 834 houses with 872 families living in Tipton. Only 46 houses are stated as being empty. An adult population of 4,280 is also recorded with males numbered at 2,218 and slightly fewer females at 2,062. Iron making and mining were the main employment for the population. Trades and manufacturing provided work for 1,740 people and other jobs totalled 2,484. It is noted that between Tipton and Dudley there were a few farms listed which gave employment to 56 people.
Until the 18th century, Tipton was a collection of small hamlets. Industrial growth started in the town when ironstone and coal were discovered in the 1770s. A number of canals were built through the town and later railways, which greatly accelerated the pace of industrialisation.
The engineer James Watt built his first steam engine  in or very near Tipton in the 1770s, which was used to pump water from the mines. In 1780, James Keir and Alexander Blair set up a chemical works there, making vast quantities of alkali and soap.
The massive expansion in iron and coal industries led to the population of Tipton expanding rapidly through the 19th century, going from 4,000 at the beginning of the century to 30,000 at the end. Tipton gained a reputation as being "the quintessence of the Black Country" because chimneys of local factories belched heavy pollution into the air, whilst houses and factories were built side by side. Most of the traditional industries which once dominated the town have since disappeared.
The Black Country Living Museum in nearby Dudley re-creates life in the early 20th century Black Country, in original buildings which have been painstakingly rebuilt and furnished. There is a residential canal basin at the museum – Tipton was once known as the Venice of the Midlands because it had so many canals, although some of the 'minor' canals in the town were filled in during the 1970s. The canals today form a vital cycling, wildlife and leisure facility.
The area has a distinctive spoken dialect, different from the Birmingham accent. The richest of Tipton speech is very similar to that which Shakespeare, or even Chaucer, would have spoken. Those who grew up there can often tell the difference between Tipton speech and the speech of people from other Black Country towns.
The town has retained a traditional horse-keeping culture; private horses are kept freely on public land and are occasionally 'trotted' on roads (pulling a rider on a lightweight racing cart). There are also "tatters" (i.e. rag-and-bone men), who also have links to the horse culture. Despite persistent council attempts to clear horses off public land, horses still appear in parks and on canal banks from time to time.
During World War I (1914–1918) on 31 January 1916, nine German Zeppelin 'L 21' airships were sent on one of there 17 reconnaissance missions to attack England. Mistaking Tipton for Liverpool, Tipton was attacked by the German Zeppelins dropping incendiary and high-explosive bombs. During the air raid, Union Street, where the Conservative Club presently stands, was attacked. Two houses within Union Street were completely demolished with others being heavily damaged along with a gas main that had set alight. In total, the bombing killed 15 'Tiptonians'.
During World War II (1939–1945), there were a number of air raids on the town. On 19 November 1940, a man was killed by a Luftwaffe bomb which was dropped in Bloomfield Road and destroyed several buildings including The Star public house; this was rebuilt after the war but demolished in 1996. On 17 May 1941, six people died in an air raid in New Road, Great Bridge, which killed six people including a local doctor. The Tipton Tavern (later rebuilt as the Hallbridge Arms) and New Road Methodist Church was destroyed and a number of nearby houses were damaged. Aside enemy action, on 21 December 1940, a tragedy struck at the Boat Inn, Tividale. A stray anti-aircraft shell fired from a gun on the Dudley-Rowley Regis border fell on the public house during the wedding reception of Sidney Jones and Florence Pottinger. Thirteen people died as a result of their injuries, including the bride and her younger brother David; eight of the victims were from Tipton. The groom lost both of his legs and many other people were injured as a result. The pub was later completely rebuilt, only to be demolished in 2004. A total of 20 people died as a result of air raids in Tipton during the war.
Until 1966, the town had its own council. The Urban District Council of Tipton was formed in 1894 but received County Borough status in 1938.
The headquarters were originally based in a 19th-century building on Owen Street, near the railway station, until 1935 when it relocated to the former Bean offices site on Sedgley Road West, straddling the border with Coseley. The council remained at that site for the next 31 years, until the dissolution of the borough council in April 1966. The building was later taken over by Dudley College, who retained it until about 1993. It has since been occupied by various businesses.
The bulk of the Tipton borough was absorbed into an expanded West Bromwich borough, although a fragment of the town near the border with Coseley (including the former council offices and the bulk of the new Foxyards housing estate) was absorbed into Dudley and most of the Tividale area became part of the new County Borough of Warley. In this reorganisation, the township of Tipton was expanded around Princes End to take over a section of the former Coseley urban district.
Since 1974, Tipton has been part of the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, which was created by a merger of the former West Bromwich and Warley boroughs.
Local industry 
Tipton was one of the key towns in the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, and even during the 18th century it had established its first key industries. This included the world's first successful steam pumping engine, which was erected at Conygre Coalworks in 1712 by industrialist Thomas Newcomen. A full-size replica of the engine now exists at the Black Country Living Museum just over Tipton's borders in Dudley.
In 1800, it was a predominantly rural area with just a few coal mines and some 4,000 residents. However, mass building of factories and digging of coal mines took place, and resulted in Tipton becoming a heavily built-up and industrialised area with more than 30,000 residents by the end of the 19th century. The town's population grew further in the 20th century as new housing developments, mostly by the local council but with a significant number in the private sector as well, took place.
However, coal mining had disappeared from Tipton by the mid-20th century, and the town lost a large percentage of its factories during the recessions of the 1970s and 1980s, which contributed to a rise in unemployment and poverty in the Tipton, although living conditions continued to improve.
Further industrial sites have been abandoned since the 1970s, paving the way for mass private house building on the land previously occupied by factories. This includes the town's naphtha gas plant, which opened in 1965 but closed just 10 years later due to the emergence of natural gas from the North Sea. Standbridge Park housing estate was built on its site during the 1990s.
Public transport 
Tipton has direct bus links with the towns of Dudley, Walsall, Stourbridge, Brierley Hill, Sedgley, Coseley, West Bromwich, Oldbury, Bilston, Wednesbury and Darlaston, though not all buses reach the town centre.
Tipton has a direct rail link with the areas of Wolverhampton, Birmingham, Coventry and from 14 December 2008 this now links to Walsall. There are two railway stations - Tipton in the town centre and Dudley Port. Both are on the electrified line from Birmingham to Wolverhampton.
Tipton station started a multi-million pound refurbishment on 14 September 2009 with an estimated completion date of May 2010. The station was reopened on 28 March 2010 and all services have been resumed.
Closed lines include that from Walsall to Stourbridge, closed to all traffic in 1993. This line had served stations at Dudley Port Lower Level and Great Bridge North, but both were closed in 1964 by the Beeching Axe. The line is set to re-open during the mid- to late- 2010s as a Midland Metro expansion on one side and a goods track on the other.
The line between Great Bridge and Swan Village in nearby West Bromwich was closed in 1968 under the Beeching Axe.
The line between Princes End and Ocker Hill closed to passenger trains in 1916 but remained open to goods traffic until 1980. The closure of the railway was followed by the construction of a pedestrian walkway on the trackbed. The final stub of the line, which linked Wednesbury with Ocker Hill Power Station, was closed in 1991.
Notable people 
Steve Bull, who was born on the town's Moat Farm Estate on 28 March 1965, was a professional footballer who scored more than 300 goals for Wolverhampton Wanderers between 1986 and 1999, also being capped for England on several occasions.
Other footballers born in Tipton included Isaac Clarke (1915–2001), Joe Mayo (born 1953) and Mick Hoban (born 1952). Former Bolton Wanderers, Blackburn Rovers and Wigan Athletic player Chris Thompson, who was born in Walsall, was living in Tipton at the time of his death in 2012.
Other sportsmen from Tipton include William Perry, a Victorian bareknuckle boxer Champion of England from 1850-57. There is a statue to Perry, known as 'the Tipton Slasher' which can be found in the Coronation Gardens (just off the B4517 formerly known as High Street which then becomes) Owen Street in the Tipton Green district of the town.
Tipton Town football club were formed in 1948 as Ocker Hill United, adopting their current name in 1967. They currently play in the non-league Midland Alliance and made history in the 2010-11 football season by reaching the FA Cup first round proper for the first time in their history, earning a trip to Carlisle United, the League One (third highest English division) club. They were the first club that Steve Bull played for; he joined them on leaving school in 1981 and remained with them until he signed for West Bromwich Albion, then a top division club, in 1985. However, it was after signing for Wolverhampton Wanderers in November 1986 that Bull achieved fame; by the time he retired in 1999, he had scored more than 300 goals for the club. He was also capped 13 times by the England national football team between May 1989 and October 1990, scoring four goals.
Secondary schools 
- RSA Academy (formerly Willingsworth High School)
- Alexandra College of Enterprise (formerly Tipton Central School, Tipton Grammar School & Alexandra High School and Sixth Form Centre )
- Orminston Sandwell Academy (originally Tividale Comprehensive School and later Tividale High School)
The town has three secondary schools, though in the Tipton Green area of the town a significant percentage of children attend High Arcal School in the borough of Dudley, which has been a popular choice with children living in the area since 1990. Ormiston Sandwell Academy, formed in September 2009 from Tividale High School, also takes in pupils from parts of Dudley and Oldbury.
Primary schools 
- Tipton Green Junior School - located in Park Lane West, Tipton Green. Started life in 1880 at a site on Sedgley Road West before relocating to Park Lane West in 1976, a new building opening that building's grounds in 2011.
- Victoria Infant School - located in Queen's Road, Tipton Green. Opened in 1995 to replace Manor Road Infant School, which was built in the 1930s. The current school exists on the site of the former Park Lane Secondary Modern School, which was later an annex for the younger pupils of Alexandra High School and Sixth Form Centre.
- Summerhill Primary School - located in Central Avenue, Tibbington, on the merger of Locarno Primary School and Prince's End Primary School.
- Tividale Primary School - located in Dudley Road West, Tividale.
- Great Bridge Primary School - located in Mount Street, Great Bridge.
- Ocker Hill Infant and Nursery School - located in Prospect Street, Ocker Hill.
- Ocker Hill Junior School - located in Gospel Oak Road, Ocker Hill.
- Glebefields Primary School - located on the Glebefields Estate, Prince's End.
- Sacred Heart RC Primary School - located in Victoria Road, Tipton Green and is Tipton's only Roman Catholic school.
- Wednesbury Oak Primary School - located off Wednesbury Oak Road.
- St Paul's Church of England Primary School - located off Robert Road.
- St Martin's Church of England Primary School - located on Upper Church Lane.
- Joseph Turner Primary School - located on Powis Avenue.
- Jubilee Park Primary School - located on Highfield Road.
- Burnt Tree Primary School - located on Hill Road.
The town has no less than 14 schools which serve the 5-11 age range, 11 of them covering the whole age range, one nursery and infant school for children aged 3–7 years, and a 7-11 junior school. In the Tipton Green area of the town, a significant number of pupils attend Foxyards Primary School just over the border in the borough of Dudley.
- Tipton Family Church was established in November 1992. It is an Evangelical Christian fellowship.
Tipton Christian Church was established around 70years ago and today is a very lively Penticostal Church situated in Waterloo Street Tipton.
Public parks 
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- Jubilee Park - situated in Powis Avenue
- Victoria Park - situated on Victoria Road in the Tipton Green area
- Tividale Park - situated in the centre of Tividale, north of New Birmingham Road
In popular culture 
The area is notable for being the location of filming for the British comedy film Anita and Me, set in the 1970s.