Tipuana

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Tipuana tipu
Tipuana tipu.jpg
Tipuana Tipu, Revivim, Israel
Tipuana tipu Flowerts 2.jpg
Flowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Dalbergieae[1][2]
Genus: Tipuana
Benth.
Species: T. tipu
Binomial name
Tipuana tipu
(Benth.) Kuntze
Synonyms
  • Machaerium tipu Benth.
  • Tipuana speciosa Benth.
  • Tipuana tipa Lillo
Tipuana tipu00.jpg

Tipuana tipu, also known as Rosewood and Pride of Bolivia, is a South American tree. It is the only member of the genus Tipuana.[3][4] It was recently assigned to the informal monophyletic Pterocarpus clade within the Dalbergieae.[1][2]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Growing up to thirty metres in height and twenty metres wide, Tipuana tipu is well known for its use as a shade tree. The leaves of the tree vary in length from 2 to 7 centimetres or more and they grow in clusters. The flowers are bright yellow in color and bloom only briefly in the late summer. The fruit is a legume (pod) with the seed at one end, resembling a samara (the fruit of the Ash genus, Fraxinus). It is a deciduous tree, shedding all of its leaves and large "helicopter" seed packets from January–May each year. It produces masses of seeds, most of which succeed in germinating, and it can withstand a very wide range of growing conditions, from –4°C to salty soils to drought.[5] Timber is whitish in colour, strong and fibrous. Cut logs ooze resin which is blood-red. (see image)

Invasiveness[edit]

Tipuana tipu is viewed as an invasive weed in some countries and is known for having a very aggressive root system.[6] The tree roots can easily lift up concrete and asphalt. Precautions should be taken when planting near buildings, homes, or pools, as they are likely to be damaged. Damage may sometimes be averted by trenching near the structure to a depth of about 1 metre and filling the trench with building rubble or lining the trench with thick plastic sheeting or corrugated roofing sheets.

Insects[edit]

The species is a food plant for spittlebugs such as Ptyelus grossus. In Southern California, an insect called Tipu Psyllid has invaded several trees.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lavin M, Pennington RT, Klitgaard BB, Sprent JI, de Lima HC, Gasson PE. (2001). "The dalbergioid legumes (Fabaceae): delimitation of a pantropical monophyletic clade". Am J Bot 88 (3): 503–33. doi:10.2307/2657116. PMID 11250829. 
  2. ^ a b Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowskie MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  3. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Tipuana". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  4. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Tipuana". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  5. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s1625878.htm
  6. ^ http://www.weeds.gov.au/publications/guidelines/alert/t-tipu.html
  7. ^ University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research.