Tirahi language

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Native to Afghanistan
Ethnicity perhaps 5,000 (no date)[1]
Native speakers
unknown (undated figure of 100)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tra
Glottolog tira1253[2]

Tirahi is a nearly extinct Dardic language of the Kohistani group spoken in Afghanistan. According to JSTOR [3] the speakers of the Tirahi language inhabited the country of Tirah, but there was a feud that broke out between the Tirahi and the Orakzais and Afridis. This feud led the current speakers of Tirahi to move out of Tirah, to Afghanistan. Now there are only about 100 speakers left of this language in Afghanistan.

General Information[edit]

According to Ethnologue, Tirahi is "nearly extinct" (status 8b).[1] It has been the subject of considerable scholarly attention. George Abraham Grierson was a British linguist who wrote On the Tirahi Language.[4] Another researcher of the Tirahi language is Sir Aurel Stein, an explorer and linguist who composed Notes on Tirahi the Speakers of tirahi,[5] in which he explains that the Tirahi language was at the time spoken in the region between India and Eastern Iran.

It is also mainly now used by the a few amount of older adults, who are likewise fluent in Southern Pashto.[6]

Further reading[edit]

If you want to know more about the Tirahi lanuage, please refer to these carefully selected resources:

Gopal, R. (1966). Linguistic Affairs of India. Vol 1, 62-65.

Hakala, W. (2011). Locating “Pashto” in Afghanistan. Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice. 79.84.

Kachura, B. B. (1969). Kashmiri and other Dardic Languages. Current Trends in Linguistics, 3, 284-293.

Leech, R. (1838). A Vocabulary of the Laghmani, Tirahi, Highlands of Deer, Moghal Aimaks Dialect. Calcutta. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Vol. 7: 780 – 787.

Maley, William. (1998). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. Web.London: Hurst & Co. 167-181. Retrieved from http://www.ag- afghanistan.de/files/glatzer/glatzer_onthebrink.pd

Paul, L. M., Simons, G. F., Fennig, C. D. (2014). Tirahi. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 17th Edition. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/tra

Schmidt, L. (1972). A Grammatical Comparison of Shina Dialects. Himalayan Languages: Past and Present. 33-36.

"Tirahi Language: Audio Bible Stories and Lessons." Global Recordings Network. Web. Retrieved from http://globalrecordings.net/en/

External links[edit]

Here is a direct YouTube sample of the speakers of the Tirahi language speaking it.


  1. ^ a b c Tirahi at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tirahi". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ On the Tirahi Language
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Notes on Tirahi
  6. ^ Ethnologue for Tirahi