Tirhuta Panchang

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Maithili calendar or Tirhuta Panchang (तिरहुता पंचांग / তিরহুতা পঞ্চাঙ্গ) is a community calendar followed by the Maithil community of India and Nepal. This calendar is one of the many Hindu calendars. It is a sidereal solar Hindu calendar in which the year begins on the first day of Baishakh month i.e. Mesh Sankranti. Every year, this day falls on 13/14 April of Georgian Calendar.

Pohela Baishakh in Poschim Banga, Rangali Bihu in Assam, Puthandu in Tamil Nadu, Vaishakhi in Punjab are also observed on the same day. These festivals also mark the beginning of new year in their respective regions.

Months[edit]

Names and approximate lengths of Maithili months :[1]

No. Name Maithili(Tirhuta) Maithili(Devanagri) Sanskrit Days (Traditional Hindu sidereal solar calendar)
1 Baishakh বৈসাখ बैसाख वैशाख 30 / 31
2 Jeth জেঠ जेठ ज्येष्ठ 31 / 32
3 Asharh আষাঢ় आषाढ़ आषाढ 31 / 32
4 Saon সাৱোন सावोन श्रावण 31 / 32
5 Bhado ভাদো भादो भाद्रपद,भाद्र,प्रोष्ठपद 31 / 32
6 Aasin আসিন आसिन आश्विन 31 / 30
7 Katik কাতিক कातिक कार्तिक 29 / 30
8 Agahan অগহন अगहन अग्रहायण,मार्गशीर्ष 29 / 30
9 Poos পূস पूस पौष 29 / 30
10 Magh মাঘ माघ माघ 29 / 30
11 Fagun ফাগুন फागुन फाल्गुन 29 / 30
12 Chait চৈতি चैति चैत्र 30 / 31

Months and their corresponding season[edit]

তিরহুতা পঞ্চাঙ্গ
तिरहुता पंचांग
Maithili Calendar
মাহ/माह
Month
ঋতু/ऋतू
Season
बैसाख/Baishakh
April–May
गरमी
Summer
जेठ/Jeth
May–June
अषाढ़/Asharh
June–July
सावोन/Saon
July–August
बरसात
Monsoon
भादो/Bhado
August–September
आसिन/Asin
September–October
शरत
Autumn
कातिक/Katik
October–November
अगहन/Agahan
November–December
ठण्डी/सीत
Winter
पूस/Pous
December–January
माघ/Magh
January–February
फागुन/Fagun
February–March
बसन्त
Spring
चैति/Chait
March–April

Baishakh-Jeth-Asarh[edit]

These three months are the summer season in Mithila, out of these 3, Jeth & Asarh are very hot. Baishakh is the month of Litchi. Jeth and Asarh are the months of Mango.[2]

Saon-Bhado[edit]

Mithila receives heavy rainfall during these two months, often resulting in flooding. Farmers wait for saon's first rain so they can sow paddy in their fields. The holy month of saon is devoted to Lord Shiva. Devotees visit Baidnath Dham in Deoghar to offer gangajal.[3]

Asin-Katik[edit]

These two months have moderate weather. Both these months are festive season for Mithila. Navaratra falls in Asin, Diwali & Chhath Falls in Katik. Moreover, Katik is the harvesting month for farmers.[4]

Agahan-Pous-Magh[edit]

Agahan, Pous and Magh are the winter seasons in Mithila. Out of these 3, Pous & Magh are the extreme winter periods, temperature sometimes falls to 5 °C. Makarsankranti falls in the month of Pous, and vasant Panchami in Magh.

Fagun-Chait[edit]

After winter, Fagun & Chait are the moderate months. Fagun & Chait again are the harvesting months. Holi falls in Fagun and Chhath falls in Chait. Chaith is the last month of Maithili Calendar.[5]

Days in Maithili calendar[edit]

Like, most of the calendars of the world, Maithili calendar also has 7 days in a week, each of 24 hour length. Ravdin or Sunday is supposed to be the first day of the week.[6]

  • Ravdin / Sunday : रविदिन / রৱিদিন
  • Somdin / Monday : सोमदिन / সোমদিন
  • Mangaldin / Tuesday : मंगलदिन / মঙ্গলদিন
  • Budhdin / Wednesday: बुधदिन / বুধদিন
  • Brihaspatidin / Thursday : बृहस्पतीदिन / বৃহস্পতীদিন
  • Shukradin / Friday: शुक्रदिन / শুক্রদিন
  • Shanidin / Saturday : शनीदिन / শনীদিন

Significance[edit]

Maithili calendar is the official calendar of Capital of Mithila (ancient) - NepalJanakpur, Mithila (Nepal) While, very similar calendar, Nepali Calendar is the official calendar of full Nepal,[7] and another similar calendar, Bangla calendar is the official calendar of Bangladesh. On other hand, this calendar is of great importance for Maithil people in India as well as in Nepal. All auspicious dates such as date for Marriage, Mundan, Upanayan sanskar etc. are decided by Maithili calendar only. Dates Maithil festivals like Diwali, chhath, Janaki Navami etc. all are decided by the Maihtili calendar only. It has deep root with Hindu religion and Mithila's culture.

Related calendars[edit]

The Maithili calendar is related to the Hindu solar calendar, which is itself based on the Surya Siddhanta. The Hindu solar calendar also starts in mid-April, and the first day of the calendar is celebrated as the traditional New Year in Assam, Paschimbanga[8] Kerala, Manipur, Nepal, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu,[9] and Tripura in addition to Indian state of West Bengal and Bangladesh. Nepal, Thailand and Sri Lanka also celebrate new year around the same time (13–15 April). This day is also known as Mesha Shankranti.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maithili Calendar, published from Darbhanga
  2. ^ Climate of North Bihar
  3. ^ Climate of North Bihar
  4. ^ Climate of North Bihar
  5. ^ Climate of North Bihar
  6. ^ Maithili Calendar published from Darbhanga
  7. ^ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepali_calendar
  8. ^ Bengali calendar
  9. ^ Puthandu
  10. ^ http://www.imsc.res.in/~rahul/articles/calendar.html

External links[edit]