Tiridates II of Armenia

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Tiridates II (Armenian: Տրդատ Բ, flourished second half of the 2nd century & first half of the 3rd century, died 252) was an Armenian Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.

Tiridates II was the son and heir of the Armenian King Khosrov I,[1] by an unnamed mother. Tiridates II was the namesake of his ancestor, Tiridates I of Armenia and his of Parthian ancestors who ruled with this name as King. As a part of the Armenian Arsacid period,[2] he was also known as Khosrov.[3]

During the last years of his father’s reign in 214-216, Tiridates II with his family where under Roman detention for unknown reasons which provoked a major uprising in Armenia against Rome.[4] In 215, the Roman emperor Caracalla with the Roman army had invaded Armenia[5] to end the uprising.

In 217 Khosrov I had died and Tiridates II succeeded his father as King of Armenia.[6] Tiridates II was granted the Armenian Crown[7] by Caracalla.[8] He was declared King of Armenia upon Caracalla’s assassination[9] which was on April 8, 217.

Tiridates II ruled as King of Armenia from 217 until his death in 252.[10] After the death of Caracalla, Macrinus became the new Roman emperor and not so long after Tiridates II received his Armenian Kingship, Macrinus agreed to release Tiridates II’s mother from Roman captivity.[11] After the Battle of Nisibis in 217 and the treaty that occurred after between Rome and Parthia, Tiridates II was officially restored to his Armenian throne[12] and his rule over Armenia was officially recognised.

At an unknown date during his reign, there’s the possibility that the Mamikonian family immigrated from Bactria to Armenia.[13] Tiridates II was first the King in Armenia to persecute Christians in the country which continued with his predecessors.[14]

Partly due to his long reign, Tiridates II became one of the most powerful and most influential monarchs from the Arsacid dynasty.[15] In 224, the Parthian Empire was destroyed; the last King who was Tiridates II’s paternal uncle, Artabanus IV of Parthia was killed by Ardashir I, the first king of the Sassanid Empire.[16]

In 226-228, Ardashir I after annexing Parthia wanted to expand his Empire which including conquering Armenia. Into two years of the conflict, the armies of the Romans, Scythians and the Kushans withdrew.[17] Tiridates II with his army was left in the end alone to continue fighting against Ardashir I.[18]

Tiridates II put up a stubborn resistance against Ardashir I[19] and was defeated after no less than ten years of fighting.[20] After twelve years of fighting with Tiridates II, Ardashir I withdrew his army and left Armenia.[21] Tiridates II’s military conflict with Ardashir I highlights the strength of Armenia in the time of Tiridates II.[22] Tiridates II died in 252 and was succeeded by his son, Khosrov II of Armenia.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  2. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  3. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  4. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  5. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  6. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  7. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  8. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  9. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  10. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  11. ^ Cassius Dio, Book LXXIX, Chapter 27
  12. ^ Erdkamp, A Companion to the Roman Army, p.p.247&251
  13. ^ V. M. Kurkjian, A History of Armenia, Armenian General Benevolent Union of America 1958: Chapter XVII The Arsacids (Arshakunis) of Armenia
  14. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.261
  15. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  16. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  17. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  18. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  19. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  20. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  21. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  22. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  23. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.74

Sources[edit]

  • V. M. Kurkjian, A History of Armenia, Armenian General Benevolent Union of America 1958: Chapter XVII The Arsacids (Arshakunis) of Armenia
  • M. Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, Routledge, 2001
  • R.G. Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
  • R.P. Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, Scarecrow Press, 2010
  • P. Erdkamp, A Companion to the Roman Army (Google eBook), John Wiley & Sons, 2010