Tirumala Deva Raya
He, after a few years of hardships, reestablished the Vijaynagar rule in Penukonda, in present day Andhra Pradesh. During this time the Southern Nayakas of Madurai and Gingee declared partial independence, while some others rebelled over Tirumala Deva Raya’s authority.
In 1567 he encountered another attack by the Bijapur Sultan; this time the Sultan was defeated, but also lost some territories. Tirumala Deva Raya later tactfully approved the new status of Southern Nayaks, who still paid some tributes and held him as their emperor. Tanjore and Mysore rulers still paid the annual tributes while Madurai and Gingee rulers grudgingly followed.
Tirumala Deva Raya also retained most of the Vijaynagar territories and assumed the title “Reviver of the Decadent Karnataka Empire”.
In 1570 he split the Viceroyalty among his three sons: first son Sriranga (Sriranga I) in Penukonda in charge of Telugu country, second son Rama (father of Sriranga II) in Srirangapatna in charge of the Kannada country and third son Venkata (a.k.a. Venkata II) in Chandragiri in charge of Tamil country. Penukonda was the Capital of the empire.
Tirumala Deva Raya retired in 1572 after feeling too old to rule and retired to a religious life of living till 1578.
- Rao, Velcheru Narayana, and David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Symbols of substance : court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu (Delhi ; Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1998) ; xix, 349 p.,  p. of plates : ill., maps ; 22 cm. ; Oxford India paperbacks ; Includes bibliographical references and index ; ISBN 0-19-564399-2.
- Sathianathaier, R. History of the Nayaks of Madura [microform] by R. Sathyanatha Aiyar ; edited for the University, with introduction and notes by S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar ([Madras] : Oxford University Press, 1924) ; see also ([London] : H. Milford, Oxford university press, 1924) ; xvi, 403 p. ; 21 cm. ; SAMP early 20th-century Indian books project item 10819.
- K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, (Reprinted 2002) ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
Aliya Rama Raya