Tirumular

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Tirumular.
Om symbol
Tirumurai
Om symbol
The twelve volumes of Tamil Śaiva hymns of the sixty-three Nayanars
Parts Name Author
1,2,3 Tirukadaikkappu Sambandar
4,5,6 Tevaram Tirunavukkarasar
7 Tirupaatu Sundarar
8 Tiruvacakam &
Tirukkovaiyar
Manikkavacakar
9 Tiruvisaippa &
Tiruppallaandu
Various
10 Tirumandhiram Tirumular
11 Various
12 Periya Puranam Sekkizhar
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Raja Raja Chola I
Nambiyandar Nambi

Tirumular (also spelt Thirumoolar etc., originally known as Cuntaranātar) was a Tamil Shaivite mystic and writer, considered one of the sixty-three Nayanars and one of the 18 Siddhars. His main work, the Tirumantiram (also sometimes written Tirumanthiram, Tirumandhiram, etc.), which consists of over 3000 verses, forms a part of the key text of the Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta, the Tirumurai.

Life[edit]

Tirumular was born in the pastoral herding community of Idaiyars.[1][2][3] but expressed the idea of "one caste, one God" and thus rejected the caste system.[4][5][6]

Legend has it that Tirumular was a travelling Shaiva saint and scholar from Kailash who used his yogic powers to transmigrate into the body of a southern cowherd, Mulan. He would wake up from a state of intense meditation once a year and compose one verse until he completed the Tirumantiram.

The Nayanar is said to have been one of the eight students of Tirunandi Devar. Tirumular, desiring to see the sage Agastya in the Pothigai Hills, left Kailash and journeyed southwards. On his way, he visited many Shaivite shrines. When he came to Tiruvavaduthurai, he took a bath in the Kaveri River then went to the temple. Upon leaving the temple and walking along the banks of the Kaveri, he noticed a herd of cows crying because their herder had died. Wanting to pacify the grief-stricken cows, Tirumular entered the body of the cowherd after safely depositing his own body in the trunk of a tree.

Mulan, the cowherd, was a resident of Sattanur and drove the cows back into the village in the evening. Mulan’s wife was expecting the return of her husband but when she approached him, he would not allow her to touch him, but said: "Oh lady, I am not your husband. Adore Lord Shiva and attain Liberation". He left and went away to a nearby Math.

The cowherd's wife complained to the village elders about her husband’s conduct. They examined him and after they came to the conclusion that he was a great Yogi who had attained spiritual eminence, instructed the lady to have no further contact with him. The next day, Tirumular followed the cows, but could not find his body in the trunk of the tree, where he had left it. It was the Lord’s Leela. Shiva wanted Tirumular to write a book in Tamil on Shaivite philosophy, containing the essence of all Shaivite agamas. Tirumular understood his wish and returned to Tiruvavaduthurai.

There he worshipped Shiva and sat under a Peepul tree in deep meditation. He was in samadhi for 3000 years. But, every year, he would come out of samadhi and compose a stanza: thus, in 3000 years he wrote 3000 stanzas, and the stanzas were compiled into a book titled Tirumantiram. Once he had finished, he returned to Kailash.

Chronology[edit]

The dates of Tirumular's life are controversial, and because his work makes reference to so many currents of religious thought, the dates that different scholars assign are often appealed to for anchoring the relative chronology of other religious literature in Tamil and Sanskrit. Verse 74 of the Tirumantiram makes the claim that Tirumular lived for 7 yuga before composing the Tirumantiram.[7]

Some are therefore inclined to place his composition well before the Common Era. The scholar and lexicographer S. Vaiyapuripillai, however, suggested that he probably belonged to the beginning of the eighth-century CE, pointing out that Tirumular could not very well be placed earlier given that he appears to refer to the Tevaram hymns of Sambandar, Appar and Sundarar, that he used "very late words" and that he made mention of the weekdays.[8]

Others wish to push the date still later: Dominic Goodall, for instance, appears to suggest, on the grounds of religious notions that appear in the work with Sanskrit labels for which a certain historical development can be traced in other datable works, that the Tirumantiram cannot be placed before the 11th- or 12th-century CED.[9] Yet another view, alluded to for instance by Vaiyapuripillai (ibid.), is that the text may contain an ancient core, but with "a good number of interpolated stanzas" of later date. Whatever the case, allusions to works and ideas in the Tirumantiram cannot, at least for the moment, be used as useful indicators of their chronology.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Subordinate and Marginal Groups in Early India. Oxford University Press, 2004. 2004. p. 139. 
  2. ^ Glimpses of Tamil Culture: Based on Periyapuranam. K. Nambi Arooran Koodal Publishers. 1977. p. 77. 
  3. ^ A handbook of Tamil Nadu. K. M. Venkataramaiah,International School of Dravidian Linguistics. 1996. p. 138. 
  4. ^ Manninezhath, Thomas (1993). Harmony of Religions: Vedānta Siddhānta Samarasam of Tāyumānavar. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 31. ISBN 978-8-12081-001-3. 
  5. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil (1973). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. BRILL. p. 226. ISBN 978-9-00403-591-1. 
  6. ^ Boehmer, Elleke; Chaudhuri, Rosinka, eds. (2010). The Indian Postcolonial: A Critical Reader. Routledge. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-13681-957-5. 
  7. ^ Tirumantiram A Tamil scriptural Classic. By Tirumular. Tamil Text with English Translation and Notes, B. Natarajan. Madras, Sri Ramakrishna Math, 1991, p.12.
  8. ^ Vaiyapuripillai's History of Tamil Language and Literature (From the Beginning to 1000 A.D.), Madras, New Century Book House, 1988 (after the first edition of 1956), particularly footnote 1 on p.78.
  9. ^ See pp.xxix-xxx in a Preface (entitled Explanatory remarks about the Śaiva Siddhānta and its treatment in modern secondary literature) to The Parākhyatantra. A Scripture of the Śaiva Siddhānta, Dominic Goodall, Pondicherry, French Institute of Pondicherry and Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, 2004.

External links[edit]

  • Thirumanthiram — Tamil version of Thirumanthiram
  • Tirumantiram — English version of Thirumanthiram
  • [1] - The Tirumandiram in English and Tamil with verse by verse commentary, in 10 volumes, by T.N. Ganapathy et al. Sponsored by Babaji’s Kriya Marshall Govindan