Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

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Tirupati
తిరుపతి
City
Tirupathi city view
Tirupathi city view
Tirupati is located in Andhra Pradesh
Tirupati
Tirupati
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 13°39′N 79°25′E / 13.65°N 79.42°E / 13.65; 79.42Coordinates: 13°39′N 79°25′E / 13.65°N 79.42°E / 13.65; 79.42
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Rayalaseema
District Chittoor
Government
 • Member of Parliament Varaprasad Rao Velagapalli
Elevation 161 m (528 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 287,035
 • Metro[2] 459,985
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 517 xxx
Telephone code +91–877
Vehicle registration AP-03
Website www.tirupaticorporation.org.in

Tirupati is a major pilgrimage and cultural city in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. It is located at the foothills of the Eastern Ghats, at a distance of 349 kilometres (217 mi) from Vijayawada, 65 kilometres (40 mi) from Chittoor, 150 kilometres (93 mi) from Chennai, 250 kilometres (160 mi) from Bangalore and 550 kilometres (340 mi) from Hyderabad. It is one of the richest pilgrimage cities of any religious faith in the world.[3]

Tirupati is famous for Venkateswara Swamy temple dedicated to Lord Venkateswara, located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) north west of Tirupati in the Tirumala hills at an elevation of 853 metres (2,799 ft). One of the most important pilgrimage centers in the world, the temple draws millions of pilgrims and is the busiest pilgrimage center in the world.[4] Tirupati has several temples and is a major economical and educational hub in the southern region of the state.

Etymology[edit]

The word Tirupati is derived from both Tamil and Sanskrit. In Sanskrit husband is called as Pati or Pathi, of his Pathni Sri Lakshmi devi and Tiru literally means 'Holy' or 'Sacred' in Tamil and together the temple is called as Tirupati.

Vaishnavites, commonly known as Vaikhanasas of Andhra pradesh wear thirunamam on their body, which represents the lord's sign. Later it eventually attracted many Vaishnavites who formalized the temple affairs. Saint ramanujacharya, a Tamil Vaishnavite, has aggregated and started Shri Vaishnavites settlement around the Govindarajaswamy temple in the city in the 11th century. He also regularized the pujas according to aagama saastras and named the mountain as Tirumala.

History[edit]

There is no clear history on the origin of the temple of Lord Venkateshwara, but it was maintained and upgraded by various kingdoms. These include the Pallava Kingdom around 9th Century AD, Chola Kingdom around 10th century AD and the latest one being Vijayanagara Empire around 14th to 15th century AD. It was during the rule of Vijayanagara Empire that the temple received increased contributions.[5]

The site was an established center of Vaishnavism around 5th century A.D. during which it was praised by Alvars (Vaishnava saints). The temple rites were formalized by the Vaishnavite saint Ramanujacharya himself, in the 11th century AD.[6][7] Tirupati survived the Muslim and British invasions. It is believed that during the invasions the deity of Sriranganatha from Srirangam was brought to Tirupati for safekeeping at Ranga Mandapam.

The Madras legislature passed a special act in 1933 whereby the Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam (TTD) committee was invested with powers of administration and control through a commissioner appointed by the Government of Madras.[citation needed]. Currently it is headed by Executive officer, an IAS of Andhra Pradesh cadre appointed by Govt of Andhra Pradesh. The current executive officer is M.G. Gopal.

Climate[edit]

Monsoon remains moderate and summer experiences temperatures ranging from 35 to 40 degrees Celsius. In winter the minimum temperatures will be between 18 and 20 degrees Celsius. Usually summer lasts from March to June, with the advent of rainy season in July, followed by winter which lasts till the end of February.

Climate data for Tirupathi, India
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
(85.8)
32.8
(91)
36.7
(98.1)
39.3
(102.7)
40.3
(104.5)
37.8
(100)
35.7
(96.3)
34.8
(94.6)
34.8
(94.6)
32.7
(90.9)
30.1
(86.2)
28.9
(84)
34.48
(94.06)
Average low °C (°F) 18.7
(65.7)
20.1
(68.2)
22.6
(72.7)
26.2
(79.2)
27.9
(82.2)
27.2
(81)
25.9
(78.6)
25.5
(77.9)
25.1
(77.2)
23.5
(74.3)
21.7
(71.1)
19.9
(67.8)
23.69
(74.66)
Precipitation mm (inches) 22.0
(0.866)
19.7
(0.776)
2.9
(0.114)
12.9
(0.508)
45.7
(1.799)
69.7
(2.744)
113.0
(4.449)
118.6
(4.669)
119.1
(4.689)
157.5
(6.201)
218.8
(8.614)
130.5
(5.138)
1,030.4
(40.567)
Source: Indian Meteorological Department[8]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 287,035. The total population constitute, 145,977 males and 141,058 females —a sex ratio of 966 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[9] 24,643 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 12,869 are boys and 11,774 are girls—a ratio of 915 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 87.55% (male 92.74%; female 82.21%) with 229,730 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[1][10]

The Urban agglomeration had a population of 459,985, of which males constitute 231,456, females constitute 228,529 —a sex ratio of 987 females per 1000 males and 41,589 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 356,558 literates with an average literacy rate of 85.22%.[2]

Governance[edit]

Tirupati is a municipal corporation. It contributes a member in central parliament and a member in state legislature in Indian politics. Tirupati Urban Development Authority (TUDA) is the planning authority.

Culture[edit]

Telugu is the official language. Hinduism is the major religion and most of the temples in Tirupati are of Dravidian architecture. Panche (Dhoti) and Cheera (Saree) are traditional attire of people here.

Festivals

The celebrates all major Hindu festivals including Deepavali, Sankranti, Vaikunta Ekadasi, Rama Navami and Janmashtami with great splendor, while the Brahmotsavam celebrated every year during September is the most important festival in Tirumala when it receives millions of devotees over a short span of a week. Rathasapthami is another festival, celebrated during February, when Lord Venkateswara's idol is taken in a procession around the temple chariots.[11] Natives of Tirupati also celebrate a week long festival, Gangamma Jatara, in the month of May every year.

Transport[edit]

Roadways

Sri Hari bus station is one of the largest in the state and has direct bus services to nearby towns and major cities across South India. There is a bus terminal at Alipiri for buses to Tirumala. A number of buses are operated by government operator APSRTC and private operators connecting Tirupati to other major cities and towns such as Chennai, Vellore, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam and Bangalore. Due to its proximity with Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, buses from KSRTC, TNSTC, SETC also operate to Tirupati. Tirupati city, itself has a wide network of well organised roads. A master plan is being implemented to decongest the traffic by widening existing roads, building flyovers under JNNURM scheme. A number of city buses ply in various routes in the city every day. The Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam runs free buses from Railway station and Central bus stand to Alipiri for the benefit of pilgrims.

Railways

Tirupati Main is a major railway station and has five platforms and presently undergoing modernization. Tirupati is well connected to major cities across India especially Chennai, Bangalore, Kochi, Trivandrum and Hyderabad. It is also connected by Chennai sub-urban railways in North-western line. Renigunta Junction which lies on the busy Chennai - Mumbai rail corridor, is 15 km away from Tirupati city. It has another railway station called Tirupati West which currently serves as terminal point for various night trains starting from Tirupati. Other small stations in the city includes CRS railway station, Tiruchanoor Halt, Chandragiri

Airways

Tirupati Airport is located 15 km from the city center and has flights to Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, New Delhi. Additionally the airport offers flights to Coimbatore, Kolkata, Mumbai. The closest international airport is located in Chennai, (Chennai International Airport) which is 130 km (81 mi) from Tirupati.

Places of interest[edit]

Chandragiri Fort and archaeological museum, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park[12] SV Zoological park is the Second largest zoo park in Asia.[13] Regional Science Center and planetarium, Jungle Book near Kapila Theertham are the other attractions. There are many temples in Tirupati and Tirumala. Some of them are the faomous Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, Alamelu Mangapuram Temple, Padmavathi Ammavari Temple, Govindaraja Swamy Temple, Kapila Theertham (dedicated to Lord Shiva and Parvati), ISKCON etc.

Education[edit]

Tirupati is a major educational hub in Andhra Pradesh.There are several universities and colleges including state government and Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam sponsored medical, pharmacy, agricultural and engineering colleges in the city.Sri Venkateswara University was founded in 1954 by the then chief minister of Andhra Pradesh Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu.It has been consistently among top universities in India in various surveys. Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam is one of the two women only universities in India. Other notable Universities include Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetham, Sri vekateswara Veterinary University, Sri Venkateswara Vedic University, Sri Venkateswara institute of medical sciences(SVIMS) etc. Tirupati, also has a number of engineering and degree colleges namely Sri Vidyanikethan Engineering College, SV College of Engineeering, Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, SV degree college etc.

Entertainment[edit]

Sri Mahati Auditorium is a South India's largest auditorium, owned and operated by TTD used exclusive for cultural and spiritual activities. There are several parks in Tirupati, of which Tirupati Municipal Park is notable, abutting the Kapilatheertham by-pass road in Tirupati. This park is ideal for an evening stroll. The Shilparamam (Urban Haat) is located on the Tirupati-Tiruchanur road, set up jointly by the Central and the State Tourism Departments. Tirupati has many cinema halls which screen Telugu, Tamil, English and Hindi movies.

Media[edit]

Telugu newspapers – Andhra Bhoomi, Saakshi, Eenadu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Tamil newspapers - Dinamalar, Dinakaran, Daily Thanthi and English newspapers – Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu, Indian Express, The Hans India are also available in the City. Devotional channel SVBC is telecasted from Tirumala. Tirupati has All India Radio station and is served by FM stations like 92.7 Big FM, 93.5 Red FM.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Census 2011" (pdf). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  3. ^ Uma Sudhir (13 September 2007). "Tirupati Ousts Vatican, Reigns at Top". NDTV.com. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  4. ^ "Tirupati crossed Vatican-The Busiest Pilgrimage centre, Inc – Tirupati". ndtv.com. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  5. ^ "Temple History". 
  6. ^ "Bhakti Movements". 
  7. ^ "History of Tirumala". 
  8. ^ "Climatological Data of Important Cities". Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
  9. ^ "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  11. ^ "Rathasapthami photos". Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. 
  12. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2008/08/11/stories/2008081159160200.htm
  13. ^ "Asia’s biggest zoo beckons tourists". The Siasat Daily. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 

External links[edit]