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|— City —|
|• MLA||Bhumana Karunakar Reddy (y.s.r.c.p) (Tirupati urban and Renigunta)
Aruna Kumari Galla (Tirupati rural and Chandragiri)
|Elevation||161 m (528 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Tirupati is a major pilgrimage and cultural city in the Chittoor district. It is the largest city in the Rayalaseema region of the Indian state Andhra Pradesh. It is located at the foothills of the Eastern Ghats, 550 kilometres (340 mi) south of Hyderabad, the capital of the state, 250 kilometres (160 mi) east of Bangalore, 65 kilometres (40 mi) from Chittoor, and 150 kilometres (93 mi) north of Chennai.
Tirupati is famous for the richest temple Venkateswara Swamy temple dedicated to Lord Venkateswara, located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) north west of Tirupati in the Tirumala hills at an elevation of 853 metres (2,799 ft). One of the most important pilgrimage centers in the World, the temple draws millions of pilgrims and is the busiest pilgrimage centre in the world. Tirupati City itself has several temples and is famous for its red wooden toys, copper and brass idols. Also, the city is a major economical and educational hub in the southern region of the state. Tirupati is also the largest Metropolitan city in Rayalaseema and Southern Andhra Pradesh, and is the 4th largest city in terms of stand-alone city basis.
The Tirumala hills are the world's second oldest rock mountains.Tiru means 'Holy' or 'Sacred' and mala means hills/mountain in Tamil Language. Therefore it translates as Holy mountains.(Anthropological Survey of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Dept. of Culture, Govt. of India)
There is no clear history on the origin of the temple of Lord Venkateshwara, but it was maintained and upgraded by various kingdoms. These include the Pallava Kingdom around 9th Century AD, Chola Kingdom around 10th century AD and the latest one being Vijayanagara Empire around 14th to 15th century AD. It was during the rule of Vijayanagara Empire that the temple received increased contributions.
The site was an established center of Vaishnavism around 5th century A.D. during which Tirupati was praised by Alvars (Vaishnava saints); belonging to the Bhakti movement in Dravidian Land, who were known for their poems and literary works on Lord Venkateswara. Tirupati's significance in Southern Vaishnava tradition is next only to Srirangam, and the temple rites were formalized by the Vaishnavite saint Ramanujacharya himself, in the 11th century AD.
Tirupati survived the Muslim invasions not only from South India but also from the British two times, unlike other temples such as the Meenakshi temple in Madurai and Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam. It is believed that during the invasions the deity of Sriranganatha from Srirangam was brought to Tirupati for safekeeping. To commemorate this event, a hall in Tirupati is still known as the Ranganatha Mandapam.
Tirupathi is the one of the most protected shrines in the world.
The Madras legislature passed a special act in 1933 whereby the Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam (TTD) committee was invested with powers of administration and control through a commissioner appointed by the Government of Madras. A Ryot Advisory Council was formed for the management of the estates of the TTD, and was assisted by a Religious Advisory Council with regard to religious matters.
The first establishment of the City was near Kotturu, today's K.T. Road area. Later it was shifted near the temple of Govindaraja Swamy with the temple as the center of the city. It is today's railway station area. Now the city is expanded to nearby areas.
Tirupati has extremes of climate. Monsoon remains moderate and summer experiences temperatures ranging from 42 to 45 degrees Celsius (107.6 F & 113 F). In winter the minimum temperatures will be between 10 and 18 degrees Celsius ( 50 F to 64.4 F). Usually summer lasts from March to June, with the advent of rainy season in July, followed by winter which lasts till the end of February.
|Climate data for Tirupati, India|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.9
|Average low °C (°F)||18.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||22.0
|Source: Indian Meteorological Department|
As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Tirupati is 459,985 and is the 9th most populous urban agglomeration in Andhra Pradesh. The sex ratio of Tirupati city is 969 per 1000 males.
Language and culture
Telugu is widely spoken here and it is also the official language of the City. Tamil also spoken here. Most of the temples in Tirupati have been built using Dravidian architecture. Most of the inscriptions in the temple complex are in Tamil inscriptions. Hinduism is the major religion here. Dhoti(Veshti/Panche/Mundu) and Sari(Cheera) are traditional attire of people here. Dresses like churidar and pants-shirt have become common in recent decades. Practices of tonsure and using tilaka are very popular among devotees of Lord Venkateswara. Songs and prayers of Lord Venkateswara are generally heard all over the town.Particularly, SriVenkateswara Suprabhatham and Keerthanas sung by Annamacharya on Lord Venkateswara in 13th century will be heard even today in every house.
Tirupati Municipal Corporation is a major Municipal Corporation in Andhra Pradesh. Although Chittoor is the headquarters of the district, much of the business activities and major government establishments, and operations take place only in Tirupati.
SriCity which is a Planned Integrated Business City (Township) is also located at the distance of about 84 km on east. the part of the Sricity SEZ comes under Tirupati constituency.
Tirupati central bus terminal (Srihari bus station) is one of the largest in the state. Tirupati has direct bus services to nearby towns and major cities across South India.There are 4 bus stands in the city. There is a dedicated Bus Stand at Alipiri for buses (once in every 2 minutes) to Tirumala. The city has a well planned network of roads with synchronized traffic control system and being maintained by TTD itself, to cater the needs of the visiting pilgrims.
Tirupati Main is a major railway station which is well equipped and has five platforms and presently undergoing modernization, including three escalators. There are many trains travelling across the country with Tirupati as the starting point. Tirupati is well connected to major cities across India, esp. Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad. It is connected by Chennai sub-urban railways in North-western line.
Renigunta junction which lies on the busy Chennai and Mumbai rail route, is just 10 minutes drive from Tirupati city,it has five platforms,it is second major junction after guntakal junction and every train has halt here including Duronto Express. From here one can catch major trains to almost every part of the Country. Himsagar Express, Kerala Express, Navyug Express, Ten Jammu Express are some of the trains to New Delhi(Via. Nagpur, Itarsi, Bhopal) that passes through Renigunta. Gurudev Express to Kolkatta (Howrah Junction).
Gudur junction also serves the needs of Pilgrims. Gudur Junction is one of the major junction in south India, is 93 km from Tirupati.
Tirupati Airport has been declared as an International airport but is yet to operate direct international flights. Currently the airport has flights to Hyderabad, Vizag, New Delhi via Hyderabad. Additionally the airport offers flights to Coimbatore, Kolkata, Mumbai via Hyderabad. International Cargo currently connects to Dubai. The airport is located 15 km from the city centre. Closest international airport is located in Chennai, (Chennai International Airport) which is 130 km (81 mi) from Tirupati. The Tirupati airport is to be upgraded to an International Airport and the upgrade process is underway. On 2 September 2010 PrimeMinister Laid the Foundation Stone for building new terminal of International airport.
Telugu newspapers – Andhra Bhoomi, Saakshi, Eenadu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Andhra Voice and Prajashakthi and English newspapers – Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu, Indian Express, The Hans India are also available in the City. Most of the Telugu, Hindi and English television channels, Devotional channel SVBC and the local city cable are available.
The town celebrates most Vaishnava festivals including Vaikunta Ekadasi, Rama Navami and Janmashtami with great splendor, while the Brahmotsavam celebrated every year during September is the most important festival in Tirumala when it receives millions of devotees over a short span of a week. Rathasapthami (Magha Shuddha Saptami) is another festival, celebrated during February, when Lord Venkateswara's idol is taken in a procession around the temple chariots.
Gangamma Jathra is also celebrated as a major local festival. The Goddess Gangamma is offered animal sacrifices and also pongal and other offerings by the devotees. She is considered the sister of Lord Govinda.
There are many temples in Tirupati and Tirumala. Some of them are:
- Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu as Venkateswara (also known as Balaji and Srinivasa) attracts followers from a wide range of Hindu traditions.
- Alamelu Mangamma Shrine Or Sri Padmavathi Ammavari Temple in Tiruchanur also called Alamelumangapuram.
- Govindaraja Swamy Temple
- Kodanda Rama Swamy Temple: Lord Rama, Sita and Lakshmana are the presiding deities of the temple. Lord Anjaneya Swamy is seen near the foot of Lord Rama. The temple is in the heart of the city. There is also another temple dedicated to Lord Anjaneya Swamy opposite to Kodhanda Rama Swamy Temple. Prasadams are offered daily to pilgrims.SriRama’s birthday is Celebrated as Sri Rama Navami (On Chaitra Shukla Navami, Punarvasu Nakshatra fourth Pada) as Rama Born On that Day. SriRama Navami is also the Same Day as the Day Of Killing Demon Ravana and Successfully Returning Victorious Rama to Ayodhya With Sita, Lakshmana, Hanuma, Sugriva, Jambavantha, Angadha etc., from Completing his Exile Period and then Sri Rama's Coronation(Saamraajya Pattabhisekham) Ceremony took Place on the Following Day or very Next Day when returned from Exile On Chaitra Shukla Dasami, Pushya Constellation (Chaitra Shukla Dasami, Pushyami Constellation, the same Muhurtha kept for Rama’s Coronation which is given by Dasaratha and Vasista before SriRama’s 14 years of Exile, Padhuka Pattabhisekham [happened before Rama completing his exile time] done by Rama’s brother Bharatha, when then Ayodhya is ruled by his Padhuka or Rama shoes till the end of 14 years exile time period of Rama returning Ayodhya) which is on Darmaraja Dasami day after SriRama Navami day, Lord Rama and his virtues besides, his popular regime ‘Rama Raajyam' to mark DharmaRaja Dashami as part of Sri RamaNavami as 'Ramo Vigrahavan Dharmah' Which Means Rama is The Embodiment Of Dharma Or Dharma has taken a form of Ramachandrah , It is the Happiest and Unforgettable Day to Every Hindu.
- Srinivasa Mangapuram:This temple is dedicated to Kalyana Venkateswara Swamy (married Venkateswara Swamy). According to the Vishnava scriptures, Venkateswara swamy, after getting married, stayed in this place for about six months and then walked to Tirumala.
- Kapila Theertham: This temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and Parvati. There is a beautiful waterfall near the temple.
- ISKCON Lord Krishna Temple – The temple has its own style of architecture with the towers coloured in gold and white. The carvings of Lord Narasimha Swamy, Lord Varaha Swamy and Krishna Leela are marvelous. Glass painting works on the windows depicting Lord Krishna's playful acts and the ceilings decorated like Tanjore art reveals the colourful masterpiece in art work. Each pillar is decorated with ten avatars of Lord Vishnu. The temple inside the sanctum has Lord Krishna with beautifully dressed Gopis. There is a beautiful park surrounded with lot of flowers, ponds, fountains and with Krishna Leela idols. The temple is on the way to Tirumala Hills.
- Lord Shiva temple at Yogimallavaram, near to Tirupati is very old and is very famous.
- Hanuman temple at Tirumala is where Hanuman's mother Anjana did penance.
- Avanakshamma temple – 42 km from Tirupati
- Sri Venugopala Swamy Temple in Karvetinagaram, 40 km from Tirupati
- Sri Kalyana Venkateswara Swamy Temple – Narayanavanam, 48 km from Tirupati
- Sri Vedanarayana Swamy Temple – Nagalapuram, about 60 km from Tirupati
- Sri Prasanna Venkateswara Swamy Temple – Appalayagunta, 20 km from Tirupati
- Sri Agusthyeswara Swamy Temple – Thondawada, 10 km from Tirupati
- Parasurameswara Temple – Gudimallam, 20 km from Tirupati. Though a small village, historically it is very important, because it has a beautiful Siva Temple which is popularly known as "the Parasurameswara Temple." The main importance of the temple lies in the Linga which is housed in the Garbhagriha of the temple. This is supposed to be the earliest Linga discovered so far and it has been assigned to the 2nd or 1st century BC. The name of the temple is mentioned as Parasurameswara Temple in the inscriptions.
There is also another small temple for Lord Vishnu. The place is on the foothills of Tirumala. Giant Nandikeshwara statue is seen at the entrance of the temple. There is a rock garden in Tirumala called Shilatoranam.
- Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park is the second of its kind in the Andhra Pradesh. It has many species of animals and plants which are being conserved. Nearly 10 to 15 tigers are present in this zoo.
- Regional Science Center is a science center with a planetarium.
SV Zoological park is the Second largest zoo park in Asia. It has a Lion safari which has about 30 Lions.
- Carriage Repair Shop ( CRS ) in Renigunta is only of that kind in South AP.
- Chandragiri Fort and archeological Museum about 12 KM is of Historical importance.
Tirupati is a major educational hub in South India.Tirupati is home to several universities,apart from these universities, it has state government and Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam sponsored medical, pharmacy, agricultural colleges and also engineering colleges.Tirupati also has several academic institutions offering degree programmes in Science, Medicine, Arts, Commerce and Agricultural Sciences. Some of these colleges have been established more than 50 years ago.
Universities in Tirupati
- Sri Venkateswara University
- Sri Padmavati Mahila Viswavidyalayam (SPMVV) (one of two women's universities in India)
- Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth – Directorate of Distance Education
- Sri Venkateswara Vedic University
- Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU)
- Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences University
- Sri Venkateswara Medical College
- S V U College of Engineering
- Sri Venkateswara Government Polytechnic
- Sri Venkateswara Agriculture College
Educational Institutions maintained by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam(TTD)
Educational Institutions run by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam(TTD) are:
Professional Colleges by TTD
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Institute of Traditional Sculpture & Architecture, Tirupati
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Polytechnic for the Physically Challenged (SVPPC), Tirupati
- SPW(Sri Padmavathi Women's) Polytechnic, Tirupati
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Ayurvedic College, Tirupati
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Yoga Institute, Tirupati
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) College of Music and Dance, Tirupati
Oriental Colleges by TTD
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Oriental College, Tirupati
Degree Colleges by TTD
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) College, New Delhi
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Arts college,Tirupati
- SPW(Sri Padmavathi Women's) College, Tirupati
- Sri Govindaraja Swami Arts College, Tirupati
Junior Colleges by TTD
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Junior College, Tirupati
- SPW(Sri Padmavathi Women's) Junior College, Tirupati
High schools by TTD
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) High School, Tirupati
- SP(Sri Padmavathi) Girls High School, Tirupati
- SGS High School, Tirupati
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Oriental High School, Tirupati
- SKRS (EM) High School, Tirupati
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) High School, Tirumala
- SKS High School, Thatithopu
Elementary Schools by TTD
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Elementary School, Tirupati
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Elementary School, Tirumala
- SV(Sri Venkateswara) Elementary School, Tirumala
Other Educational Institutions
Around 24 engineering colleges and 5 pharmacy colleges exist in and around Tirupathi, including:
- Sri Venkateswara University College of Engineering (SVUCE).
- Siddharth Institute of Engineering and Technology (SIETK) (Puttur, locating 35 KM away from Tirupathi on Chennai -Tirupathi Highway)(http://www.sietk.org/),(http://www.sietk.com/).
- Siddharth Institute of Science and Technology (SISTK) (Puttur, locating 35 KM away from Tirupathi on Chennai -Tirupathi Highway).
- KMM Institute of PG Studies, Rami reddy palli, Tirupati(near 10km).
- JB Institute of PG courses, Renigunta Road, Tirupati.
- JB Institute of Women's Engineering College, Tirupati.
- Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering (SVCE), Karakambaadi Road, Tirupati.
- Sree Vidyaniketan Engineering College (SVEC) A. Rangempeta, 16 km from Tirupati.
- Sree Institute of Technical Education (SHRE) Renigunata-Srikalahasthi Highway, Tirupati.
- Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Tirupati.
- Seshachala Institute Of Engineering & Technology (Puttur – Tirupati Main Road, SVS Nagar, Vadamalapeta, Tirupati), 15 km from Tirupati.
- Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Venkatramapuram, Tirupati
- Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy (SPSP), Thiruchanoor
- Vaishnavi Institute of Technology (VITT), Tanapalli.
- Vaishnavi Institute of Technology for Women (VITW), Kuntrapakkam Village, 10 km from Tirupati
- Chadalawada Venkatasubbaiah College of Engineering (CVCE), Renigunta road, Chadalawada nagar, Tirupati.
- Emeralds Educational Institutions
- Yogananda Institute of Technology and Science (YITS), Renigunta, Tirupati
The Dairy Technology Programme under SV Veterinary University offering B. Tech (Dairy Technology) degree since 1983 has been elevated during the year 2009 to College of Dairy Technology, first of its kind in Andhra Pradesh.
Other High Schools in Tirupati
- Prasanth English Medium High School
- S. P. Girls High School
- Akshara Inter Nationl School
- The Aim Concept School
- Arunodaya High School
- Brilliant High School
- Cambridge High School
- Little Angels High School
- Chaitanya English Medium School
- Goutham Talent School
- Geethanjali English Medium High School
- Keshava Reddy Concept School
- Sai Medha Public School
- Sri Chaithanya Children's Academy
- Narayana International School
- Oxford Public School
- Sree Vidyaniketan International School
Other Degree Colleges in Tirupati
- Sree Vidyanikethan Degree College
- Sree Gayathri Degree College
- Emeralds Degree College
- Seicom Degree College
- Dr Agarala Eswara Reddy Degee & PG College
- GATE Degree College
- KMM Degree College
- Dr. Kunchala Rajaratnam Christian Degree College
- OVR Degree College
- Krishna Teja Degree College
- Sri Rama Degree College
- Viswabharathy degree college
Private Law College
Sports and entertainment
Sri Mahati Auditorium is a major auditorium owned & operated by TTD. Exclusive for Cultural & Spiritual activities. There are several parks in Tirupati, of which Tirupati Municipal Park is notable, abutting the Kapilatheertham by-pass road in Tirupati. This park is ideal for an evening stroll. Dancing musical fountains here are a special attraction.
The Shilparamam (Urban Haat) is located on the Tirupati-Tiruchanur road. This set up jointly by the Central and the State Tourism Departments. It houses a multipurpose auditorium with 600 seating capacity. Also has a boat club. Every Saturday and Sunday cultural programmes are conducted in the evenings.
Tirupati has nearly 25 cinema halls including a Multiplex, which screen Telugu, English and Hindi movies.
Cricket is the most watched and played sport in Tirupati. Volleyball is a major sport mainly in the rural areas surrounding the town. Tennis, Volleyball, and Badminton are played in colleges. Chess is also quite popular in Tirupati. The sports complex in S.V.Arts college campus is another special attraction.
Government and politics
Tirupati is a major municipal corporation in the Andhra Pradesh state. It contributes a member in central parliament and a member in state legislature in Indian politics. Chinta Mohan is the current MP from Indian National Congress (INC) and Bhumana Karunakar Reddy is the MLA from YSR Congress Party (YSRP). Chandragiri is a suburb accounting to one more seat for the state assembly. Tirupati Urban Development Authority (TUDA) was established long back to develop the city. It is involved in the construction of second fly-over in the city and extending all two lane roads to four lane. Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD) also contributes a maximum of funds for the development of the city. Major roads like the traffic-loaded Tirumala bypass and the rail underpass near the railway station was taken up by TTD along with TUDA.
- Assembly constituency
List of elected members:
- 1976 - P.S. Gurava Reddy
Alipiri entrance way to Tirumala
Kodhandaramaswamy Temple at Tirupati
ISKCON Temple at Tirupati
Raajamudra of vijayanagar empire at Alipiri Gopuram in Tirupathi
- Srinivasa Mangapuram
- Natural Arch, Tirumala hills
- Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park
- "Tirupati crossed Vatican-The Busiest Pilgrimage centre, Inc – Tirupati". ndtv.com. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "Temple History".
- "Bhakti Movements".
- "History of Tirumala".
- "Climatological Data of Important Cities". Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Tirupati airport gets international status". Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- "Rathasapthami photos". Archived from the original on 2009-10-27.
- Election Commission of India. APAssembly results.1977–2004
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tirupati|
- Tirupati at the Open Directory Project
- Tirupati travel guide from Wikivoyage
- The New Indian Express - Tirupati Edititon English E-paper
- The Hans India - Tirupati Edititon English E-paper