Tirur

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For the village in Iran, see Tirur, Iran.
Tirur
തിരൂര്‍
तिरुर
Town
Thunjan Parambu
Thunjan Parambu
Tirur is located in Kerala
Tirur
Tirur
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 10°54′N 75°55′E / 10.9°N 75.92°E / 10.9; 75.92Coordinates: 10°54′N 75°55′E / 10.9°N 75.92°E / 10.9; 75.92
Country  India
State Kerala
District Malappuram
Government
 • Type Municipality
Area
 • Total 16.55 km2 (6.39 sq mi)
Elevation 2 m (7 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 58,490
 • Density 2,981/km2 (7,720/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 676101
Telephone code 0494
Vehicle registration KL-55
Website http://www.tirurmunicipality.in/

Tirur is a municipal town in Malappuram district in the Indian state of Kerala spread over an area of 16.55 square kilometres (6.39 sq mi). It is one of the business centers of Malappuram district and is situated 26 kilometres (16 mi) west of Malappuram and 41 kilometres (25 mi) south of Kozhikode, on the Shoranur–Mangalore section Section of the MangaloreChennai railway line. Tirur is also a major regional trading centre for fish and betel leaf and has an average elevation of 2 metres (6 ft 7 in). As of 2001 India census,[1] Tirur had a population of 53,650, of which 48% are male and 52% female. Tirur has an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 78%. In Tirur, 14% of the population is under six years of age. Tirur assembly constituency is part of Ponnani (Lok Sabha constituency).[2]

Tirur was part of the Kingdom of Tanur (Vettattnad) in medieval times and the site of part of the first railroad laid by the British in Kerala. The 16th-century poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, who is considered to be the father of the Malayalam language literature, lived in the town. Thunchan Parambu in Tirur is highly venerated and its sand is believed to be sacred. The sand is used in Vidyāraṃbhaṃ, especially on Vijayadashami.

Places and events of cultural and social importance[edit]

Thunjan Paramba[edit]

Main article: Tuncan Parambu

The birthplace of Thunjathu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan, the father of Malayalam language. The famous "Thunjan Utsavam" is held here every year in the first week of February. During this festival many literary luminaries, singers and classical dancers gather here.

Thunjan Paramba is located in Annara, 1.5 km away from Tirur railway station. A memorial for the great poet has been built at Thunjan Paramba, where a week long literary mela is organised in the last week of December. This place is sacred for all who speak Malayalam.

Thunjan Paramba is a hallowed ground where hundreds of children are introduced into the world of writing, soon after infancy, when they first trace the letters of the Malayalam alphabets in sand taken from that revered spot which was Ezhuthachan's home. People in thousands reach Thunjan Paramba with their children, to initiate them into the world of letters on the Vijayadasami day. Children are made to write on the white sands of Thunjan Paramba with their fingers. Also young poets of Kerala come on that day to offer their first poem. A Nux vomica (Kangiram) tree, the leaves of which are not bitter, is a surprise at the Thunjan Paramba.

he gate of thunjan parambu from behind
Thunjan's bird (Thunjante Kili, a significant figure in the "Kilipattu Prasthanam")

Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan Malayalam University[edit]

Kerala's Chief Minister Oommen Chandy inaugurated the Thunchathu Ezhuthachan Malayalam University at Tirur Thunchanparambu on November 1, 2012. There are seven MA courses in the Malayalam language, linguistics, creative writing, culture and traditional studies, mass communication and journalism, local self governance and environmental studies. The second intake of students were inducted on 18 August 2014.

Thirunavaya/Mamankam Festival[edit]

The historically important land of ancient Mamankam, Thirunavaya is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) south of Tirur on the banks of Bharathapuzha River.

The area has three temples dedicated to the Trimurtis, the gods of creation, sustenance and annihilation of life, according to the Hindu belief strewn on the banks of the Bharathapuzha. The well-known vedic Vidyalaya Othanmar Madom of ancient times, is on the bank of Bharathapuzha, near the Siva Temple. This madom was a centre of Aryanisation through Sanskrit and Vedic education, as Thirunavaya was believed to be the main centre where Parasurama brought and settled Brahmins.

The Palace (Mana) of Puranic fame Azhvanchery Thamprakkal is 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of Thirunnavaya.

Chandanakavu, the birthplace of the great 16th-century Sanskrit poet and grammarian Melapthur Narayana Bahttathiri, is 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Tirur on the Thirunnavaya-Kottakal road. A memorial has been built there for the poet, where small children are brought for their formal initiation into learning on Vijayadasami day, as in Thunjan parambu.

Navamunkuda Temple, believed to be constructed by Nava yogis on the right bank of Bharathapuzha, is an important Vishnu temple in Kerala. Pitru Tharpanam is a ritual, held here on the day of Amavasi in Karkidaka (July). Balikarma is offered by people in their wet clothes, after a dip in the river, for the salvation of sins and to appease the manes.[clarification needed What does "mane" mean here?]

The martial arts festival Kalripayattu is conducted during summer on the sands of dry Bharathapuzha. The well known Changampalli Kalari, is near Thirunavaya.

During the second week of February a Sarvodaya Mela is conducted in Thirunavaya where the Gandhians of Kerala used to assemble. The Santikudeeram, established by the nationalist leader K. Kelappan, is the centre of this mela gathering.

Wagon Tragedy[edit]

The Wagon Tragedy was the death of a large number of prisoners on 10 November 1921 in the Malabar region of Kerala state of India. The prisoners had been taken into custody following unrest known as Moplah rebellion in Malabar, and their deaths through apparent negligence discredited the British Raj and generated sympathy for the Indian independence movement.

Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi and the national leaders of India, there was a widespread and peaceful uprising against the British colonial rule of India. After a series of events that culminated in violent clashes between police and protesters, Martial law was introduced and the rebellion mostly crushed. The British packed 70 prisoners into a railway goods wagon at Tirur railway station to be sent to the Coimbatore jails. By the time they reached their destination 61 of the prisoners had died from suffocation. A monument to this notorious tragedy can be now seen in Tirur.

Places of worship[edit]

Garudan Kavu[edit]

Situated 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from Tirur, Garudan Kavu is the only temple in India dedicated to Garuda, the bird deity. This Garuda Temple is about 1800 years old.[3] Worshipping here is mainly meant for easy recovery from diseases and for relief from serpent poisons. All Sundays are important here especially the 41 days of Mandalakalam (from 16 November to 28 December). It is said that the legendary Perumthachan was the architect of this Garuda statue in the temple. Permuthachan built the temple for the Raja of the Kingdom of Tanur (Vettathunad). A rare ecological practice Live snakes are offered before Lord Garuda here. People affected by snakes arrive at the temple with live snakes caught in earthen pots covered by cotton clothes. When the temple is open from the gopura the pot is thrown to the temple. The snake will stand up aggressively after this event. The shanthi of the temple will come with Garuda Panchaksari manthra theertha and anoint the arrived snake with it. Then the snake will crawl to the south and is seen no more thereafter. It has become the food for Garuda as it were! It is a miracle that the temple or its neighbourhood does not get infested with poisonous snakes gradually as could logically be deduced. There is no story of any body receiving a snake bite from the temple for hundreds of years, in spite of this strange practice from devotees.

Alathiyur Hanuman Kavu[edit]

The Alathiyur Hanuman Kavu temple is about 8 km from Tirur railway station. Thousands of pilgrims from all over India come here to worship lord Hanuman. This is supposedly the place where Lord Rama described Sita, and gave Hanuman his ring to authenticate Hanuman as his messenger, and sent him off to visit Sita in Lanka, where she was being held captive by Ravana. This is supposedly the spot where Hanuman took a huge leap towards Lanka. The speciality of this temple is that Lakshmana, Lord Rama’s brother, has a separate Sanctum. It seems that Lord Rama asked Lashmana to leave the room when he was describing Sita and giving Hanuman his ring. Lord Rama and his brother Lakshmana were inseparable, and so this temple is sort of unique in that they are not together. It is believed that alathiyoor Perumthikovil ('Hanuman Kavu') Temple was erected and consecrated by Sage Vasishta, who is prominent among the Saptarshis, some 3000 years ago.[4]

Chamravattom Sastha Temple[edit]

Chamravattom Sastha Temple is located 15 km away from Tirur, on the banks of Bharathapuzha. It is said that the legendary Perumthachan was the architect of this temple.[5] The deity is on level with the river bed, lower than the sanctum sanctorum. In the monsoon season, the temple gets drowned by floods. This is considered as the holy bath for the deity.

Triprangode Kalasamharamurthy temple[edit]

Triprangode Siva temple is also nearby which has historical importance too. The legend behind the temple is that Markandeyan, a very young devotee of Lord Siva, who had his parents to take care of, was scheduled to die at a very young age. When lord Yama came to take his soul away, Markandeyan approached Lord Vishnu (at the Navamukundan temple), to request him to save him from death. Lord Vishnu had to turn him down, and direct him to request Lord Siva instead. So off Markandeya goes to Lord Siva. He is said to have embraced a Siva Linga at the Triprangode temple, and Lord Siva is said to have killed Yama, the messenger of death, at this spot.[6] There are a total of five Siva lingas at this temple. The first being the linga that Markandeyan embraced, the next three being the steps that Lord Siva took on the way to killing Lord Yama, and the last being the extremely angry Lord Siva, immediately after killing Lord Yama.

Vyrankodu Bhagavathi Temple[edit]

Vyrankodu Bhagavathi temple is another famous temple near Tirur (approximately 8 km away). The Theeyatt (jumping into fire) is the well known festival here. Vyrankottu Bhagavthi is worshipped as 'Desathin Devatha' (Goddess of the land) of this part of Ernadu. The Bhagavathi's thattakam (territory) extends from Kuttipuram to Kadalundi, Ferok. She is considered to be very powerful and is worshipped by all people irrespective of caste & creed. Another smaller Bhagavathi Thara (Temple of Goddess) considered to be the sister of Vyrankodu Bhagavathi is situated in Kuttur. The annual festival (Bhagavthi attu) of this temple attracts many people.

Trikkandiyoor Maha-Siva Temple[edit]

One of the major pilgrimage centre in Tirur is the Trikkandiyoor Siva Temple situated at Trikkandiyoor. Several other temples are also there surrounding this temple such as Ambalakulangare temple, Ayyapan kavu and Krishna temlple. Vaavulsavam is the major festival associated with Trikkandiyoor temple. There is another famous Shiva temple in the same name is there at Mavelikkara. The temple is known as Kandiyoor Mahadevar temple. The worshipers and devotees call Trikandiyoor temple for this temple also.

Puthiyangadi Masjid[edit]

Puthiyangadi is a small town near Tirur and is considered sacred by Muslims. The Puthiyangadi Mosque/Jaaram is very famous and every year, in the month of January, the 'Pudiyangadi Nercha festival is held at this mosque. Several elephants line up in the famous procession from Tirur to Pudiyangadi, during the festival. This festival has been discontinued for the past few years, due to differences of opinion among the families responsible for organising the festival.

Tirur is also famous for the harmony among different religions. Its secular nature has attracted immigration from various areas in the south of India.

Tourism[edit]

Tirur Railway Station
Tirur Railway Station

The Tirur-Koottayi road ends at Padinjarekara, better known as Padinjarekara Azhimugham, where the Bharathapuzha and Tirur River s converge to drain into the sea. This place is noted for migratory birds, gathering in their thousands during February - April. This beautiful beach is very near Tirur and is also famous for its astonishing scenic beauty. This beach has long been a favourite destination for both domestic and international travellers as well as nature lovers. Most of the travelers to Malappuram district and pilgrims who are heading to the Kadambuzha Baghavathi Temple and other temples stay here.

Transportation[edit]

  • Railway Station: Tirur Railway Station is one of the major railway stations in the Malabar region. Almost every train stops here, connecting the Malappuram district to the rest of the country.
  • Road: Tirur is well connected to the other cities by road, even though no National Highway passes through the town. The Chamravattom bridge connects Kochi with Kozhikode. There are regular buses plying between Tirur and cities like Malappuram, Kozhikode, Ernakulam, Guruvayur, Thrissur and Coimbatore. There are a few private buses offering over night journey to Bangalore
  • Nearest Airport: Calicut International Airport is approximately 35 kilometres away.

Educational institutions[edit]

There are many schools both private and govt. and 2 colleges & polytechnic in Tirur.

Name Type Sector
Thunchan Memorial Govt. College,[7] Vakkad Post Grad. College Govt.
SSUS Regional Centre Tirur,[8] Thazhethara Post-grad. College Private
SSMPT[9] Polytechnic Private
Food Craft Institute[10] Professional Govt.
MDPS [11] ITI Private
IHRD Extension Centre [12] Professional Govt.
MES Central School[13] High School Private
MET High School, Alathiyur [14] High School Private
TIC Secondary School High School Private
Fathima Matha English School High School Private
JMHSS Tirur High School Private
NSS English School High School Private
MET Tirur Central School[15] High School Private
Bharathiya Vidya Bhavan English School,[16] Tirunavaya High School Private
MSM Higher Secondary School, Kallingaparamba High School Private
Govt. Girls HSS, B. P. Angadi High School Govt.
Govt. Boys HSS High School Govt.
Govt. HSS, Ezhur High School Govt.
Govt. HSS, Niramaruthur High School Govt.
KHMHS, Alathiyur High School Private
NMHSS, Thirunavaya High School Private
GVHSS, Paravanna High School Govt.

Malayalam university

Malayalam university

Prominent people from Tirur[edit]

Name Century Field/occupation
Vatasseri Parameshwaran Nambudiri 14-15 Astronomer-mathematician
Vatasseri Damodara Nambudiri 15 Astronomer-mathematician
Kelallur Nilakantha Somayaji 15-16 Astronomer-mathematician
Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan 16 Malayalam language
Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri 16-17 Sanskrit
Achyuta Pisharati 16-17 Astronomer-mathematician, Sanskrit
Vallathol Narayana Menon 19-20 Malayalam Poet
Tirur Nambissan 20 Kathakali musician
K Damodharan 20
C. Radhakrishnan 20-21 Writer & Film director
Venu [17] 20-21 Cartoonist

Other facts[edit]

  • The first railway line of Kerala was from Beypore to Tirur commissioned on 12 March 1861.[18]
  • The betel leaves known as Tirur Lanka Pan, largely in demand in Karachi and Lahore are exported from Tirur.[19]

Needed Developments[edit]

Tirur District

See also[edit]

Nearest Locations

References[edit]

External links[edit]