Titan IIIC

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Titan IIIC
DF-SC-84-05192 cropped.jpeg
Launch of a Titan IIIC
Function Medium/Heavy launch vehicle
Manufacturer Martin
Country of origin United States
Size
Height 42 m (137 ft)
Diameter 3.05m (10 ft)
Mass 626,190 kg (1,380,510 lb)
Stages 2-3
Capacity
Payload to LEO 13,100kg (28,900 lb)
Payload to
GTO
3,000 kg (6,600 lb)
Payload to
Mars
1,200 kg (2,650 lb)
Associated rockets
Family Titan
Launch history
Status Retired
Launch sites LC-40 & 41, CCAFS
SLC-6, Vandenberg AFB (unused)
Total launches 36
Successes 31
Failures 5
First flight 18 June 1965
Last flight 6 March 1982
Boosters (Stage 0) - UA1205
No boosters 2
Thrust 5,850 kN (1,315,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 263 secs
Burn time 115 seconds
Fuel Solid
First Stage
Engines 2 LR87-11
Thrust 2,340 kN (526,000 lbf)
Burn time 147 seconds
Fuel Aerozine-50/N2O4
Second Stage
Engines 1 LR91-11
Thrust 450 kN (102,000 lbf)
Burn time 205 seconds
Fuel Aerozine-50/N2O4
Upper Stage - Transtage
Engines 2 AJ-10-138
Thrust 71 kN (16,000 lbf)
Burn time 440 seconds
Fuel Aerozine 50/N2O4

The Titan IIIC was an expendable launch system used by the United States Air Force from 1965 until 1982. It was the first Titan booster to feature large solid rocket motors and was planned to be used as a launcher for the Dyna-Soar and Manned Orbiting Laboratory, though both programs were cancelled before any astronauts flew. The majority of the launcher's payloads were DoD satellites, namely for military communications and early warning, though one flight was performed by NASA. The Titan IIIC was launched exclusively from Cape Canaveral while its sibling, the Titan IIID, was launched only from Vandenberg AFB.

History[edit]

The Titan rocket family was established in October 1955 when the Air Force awarded the Glenn L. Martin Company (later Martin Marietta and now Lockheed Martin) a contract to build an intercontinental ballistic missile (SM-68). It became known as the Titan I, the nation's first two-stage ICBM, and replaced the Atlas ICBM as the second underground, vertically stored, silo-based ICBM. Both stages of the Titan I used liquid oxygen and RP-1 (kerosene) as propellants. A subsequent version of the Titan family, the Titan II, was similar to the Titan I, but was much more powerful. Designated as LGM-25C, the Titan II was the largest missile at the time, to be developed by the USAF. The Titan II had newly developed engines which used Aerozine 50 and Nitrogen Tetroxide as fuel and oxidizer.

The Titan III family consisted of an enhanced Titan II core with or without solid rocket strap-on boosters and an assortment of upper stages. All SRM-equipped Titans (IIIC, IIID, IIIE, 34D, and 4) launched with only the SRMs firing at liftoff, the core stage not activating until SRM jettison at two minutes into launch. The Titan IIIA (an early test variant flown in 1964-65) and IIIB (flown from 1966-87 with various upper stages) had no SRMs.[1] The Titan III launchers provided assured capability and flexibility for launch of large-class payloads.

As the IIIC consisted of mostly proven hardware, launch problems were generally only caused by the upper stages and/or payload. The second flight in October 1965 failed when the Transstage disintegrated in orbit and a flight the following August was lost when the shroud broke up at T+78 seconds, triggering an RSO destruct. The only other total failure was in 1978 when the Titan's second stage malfunctioned and had to be destroyed.

The first Titan IIIC flew on June 18, 1965 and was the most powerful launcher used by the Air Force until it was replaced by the Titan 34D in 1982. The last IIIC was launched in March 1982.

Design[edit]

MOL mockup launch by a Titan IIIC on Nov. 3, 1966 from LC-41 Cape Canaveral

The Titan IIIC weighed about 626,000 kg (1,380,000 lb) at liftoff and consisted of a two-stage Titan core and upper stage called the Titan Transtage, both burning hypergolic liquid fuel, and two large UA1205 solid rocket boosters.

The solid boosters were ignited on the ground and were designated "stage 0". Each booster composed of five segments and was 3.0 m (10 ft) in diameter, 26 m (85 ft) long, and weighed nearly 230,000 kg (500,000 lb). They produced a combined 10,600 kN (2,380,000 lbf) thrust at sea level and burned for approximately 115 seconds.[2] Solid booster jettison occurred at approximately 116 seconds.[3]

About two seconds later, the first core stage ignited. Designated the Titan 3A-1, this stage was powered by two Aerojet LR-87-11 engines that burned about 110,000 kg (240,000 lb) of Aerozine 50 and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and produced 2,340 kN (526,000 lbf) thrust over 147 seconds. The Aerozine 50 and NTO were stored in structurally independent tanks to minimize the hazard of the two mixing if a leak should have developed in either tank.

The second core stage, the Titan 3A-2, contained about 25,000 kg (55,000 lb) of propellant and was powered by a single Aerojet LR-91-11, which produced 450 kN (102,000 lbf) for 145 seconds.

The upper stage, the Titan Transtage, also burned Aerozine 50 and NTO. Its two Aerojet AJ-10-138 engines were restartable, allowing flexible orbital operations including orbital trimming, geostationary transfer and insertion, and delivery of multiple payloads to different orbits. This required complex guidance and instrumentation.[3] Transtage contained about 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) of propellant and its engines delivered 71 kN (16,000 lbf).

General characteristics[edit]

  • Primary Function: Space booster
  • Builder: Martin Marietta
  • Power Plant:
  • Length: 42 m
    • Stage 0: 25.91 m
    • Stage 1: 22.28 m
    • Stage 2: 7.9 m
    • Stage 3: 4.57 m
  • Diameter:
    • Stage 0: 3.05 m
    • Stage 1: 3.05 m
    • Stage 2: 3.05 m
    • Stage 3: 3.05 m
  • Mass:
    • Stage 0: Empty 33,798 kg/ea; Full 226,233 kg/ea
    • Stage 1: Empty 5,443 kg; Full 116,573 kg
    • Stage 2: Empty 2,653 kg; Full 29,188 kg
    • Stage 3: Empty 1,950 kg; Full 12,247 kg
  • Lift capability:
    • Up to 28,900 lb (13,100 kg) into a low-earth orbit with 28 degrees inclination.
    • Up to 6,600 lb (3,000 kg) into a geosynchronous transfer orbit when launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL.
  • Maximum takeoff weight: 626,190 kg
  • Cost:
  • Date deployed: June 1965.
  • Launch sites: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL., and Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA.

Launch history[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/titan3b.htm
  2. ^ "Titan 3C". Astronautix. Retrieved February 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Titan". braeunig.us. Retrieved February 2015. 

External links[edit]