Titanic II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the Clive Palmer project. For the 2010 disaster film, see Titanic II (film). For other resurrection projects, see Replica Titanic. For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation).
3D model of Titanic II.png
3D rendering of Titanic II
Career Blue Star Line Cruises Flag 2.svg
Name: Titanic II
Owner: Blue Star Line Cruises Flag 2.svg Blue Star Line
Builder: CSC Jinling, Nanjing[1]
Cost: $500 million (estimated)[1]
Status: Project halted
General characteristics
Class & type: Modern interpretation of Olympic-class ocean liner
Tonnage: 56,000 GT (estimate)
Length: 269.15 m (883 ft 0 in)
Beam: 32.2 m (105 ft 8 in)
Height: 53.35 m (175 ft 0 in)
Draught: 7.5 m (24 ft 7 in) (normal); 7.926 m (26 ft 0 in) (max)
Depth: 19.74 m (64 ft 9 in)
Decks: 10
Installed power:
  • 2 × Wärtsilä 12V46F
  • 2 × Wärtsilä 8L46F
  • 48,000 kW (64,000 hp) (combined)
Propulsion: Diesel-electric; three azimuth thrusters; (3 × 10 MW) [2]
Speed: 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph) (maximum)[3]
Capacity: 1,680 (double capacity); 2,435 (maximum)
Crew: 900

Titanic II is a proposed ocean liner, to be built as a look-a-like of the Olympic-class RMS Titanic. The new ship, if ever built, would have gross tonnage (GT) of 56,000 while original ship measured about 46,000 gross register tons (GRT).[note 1] The project was announced by Australian billionaire Clive Palmer in April 2012, as the flagship of a proposed cruise company Blue Star Line.[4] The intended launch date was originally set in 2016,[5] with the ship sailing from Southampton to New York within the same year.[6][7] However, there is increasing uncertainty over the future of the project,[8] and latest claims tentatively place the launch in 2018,[9] amid reports of vast financial losses being incurred by Palmer,[10] as well as his being investigated for financial fraud.[11]

History[edit]

Previous projects[edit]

See also: Replica Titanic
The original RMS Titanic in 1912.

The concept of a replica of the Titanic has been explored several times, especially following the resurgence of interest following the release of the film Titanic in 1997. The most widely publicized project was that of South African businessman Sarel Gous.

The South African project began in 1998, and was one of the subjects of an article in Popular Mechanics magazine in September of that year.[12] The article discussed the changes to the original design required to produce a safe and economically viable ship, including a welded rather than riveted hull, diesel-electric propulsion in place of steam engines, and a bulbous bow. The article concluded that although the various Titanic revival projects would cost $400–$600 million, they could be economically viable.

Although he originally intended to construct the ship in Durban, Gous presented his £500 million proposal to Belfast City Council in June 2000.[13] He commissioned Olsen Designs to design the ship, advised by Harland and Wolff Technical Services who produced a feasibility study, and Callcott Anderson to design the interior. In November 2000, he began his attempts to raise capital, including through government grants and a stock market flotation.[14] After signing an agreement with a Monaco-based investment banking company, Gous claimed that construction would begin at Harland and Wolff within nine months.[15] The design changed repeatedly, with claims emerging of 'the world's largest liner' with capacity for 2,600 passengers, and increasingly divergent plans for a heliport, swimming pools and discos eventually being released.[16] In 2006, after repeatedly failing to secure investment, the project was abandoned.[16]

Design stage[edit]

Clive Palmer, chairman of the Blue Star Line.

Clive Palmer first announced the project in a press conference on 30 April 2012,[17] following the signature of a memorandum of understanding with state-owned Chinese shipyard CSC Jinling ten days before.[18] On 19 June, it was announced that Finnish naval architecture firm Deltamarin Ltd. had been commissioned to undertake the design of the ship,[19][20] and on 17 July a preliminary general arrangement was published.[21]

In October 2012, Blue Star Lines announced that Titanic expert Steve Hall had been appointed as Design Consultant and Historian for the project,[22] and that Titanic interiors expert Daniel Klistorner had been appointed as Interior Design Consultant and Historian.[23] Hall and Klistorner had previously co-authored books such as Titanic: The Ship Magnificent and Titanic in Photographs, and gave a technical presentation at the unveiling of the designs in New York, as well as at the dinner in London.[23] Later that month, it was announced that an advisory board would be formed to provide "suggestions and recommendations to Blue Star Line to ensure the Titanic II appropriately and respectfully pays homage to Titanic, her crew and passengers." Terry Ismay, the great-great nephew of White Star Line chairman and Titanic survivor J. Bruce Ismay will be a member of the board,[24] as well as Helen Benziger, great-granddaughter of Titanic survivor Margaret 'Molly' Brown.[25]

The design for the Titanic II was unveiled at worldwide launch events in Macau (China), New York (United States), Halifax (Canada), London & Southampton (United Kingdom). The gala event in New York was the official Global Launch and was held aboard the USS Intrepid in New York City on 26 February 2013.[26][27] The gala dinner in London (UK) was held at the Natural History Museum on 2 March, and was accompanied by a display of items salvaged from the Titanic.[28] There was also a breakfast held in Southampton on 13 March.

On 16 April 2014 it was announced that Deltamarin had been contracted for the project development phase, and would be responsible for coordinating the various parties involved in the project, including the shipyard, architects, interior designers and operations managers.[29] The feasibility study was complete, and the project development phase was ongoing. The signature of a contract and keel laying was expected in March 2014.[30]

Further contracts and agreements relating to the design and construction were announced later in 2013; the appointment of V.Ships Leisure as ship management services partner,[31] and of Tillberg Design as provider of architectural and interior design services.[32][33] On July 17, 2013, Blue Star Line announced that the classification society Lloyd's Register has joined the Titanic II project.[34] The work carried by Lloyd's would ensure that the ship's design complied with the current SOLAS regulations.

Model testing using a 9.3-metre (31 ft) wooden model was undertaken in September 2013 at the Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt (HSVA). Resistance and powering tests were carried out in a 300-metre (980 ft) towing tank.[35][36]

In an interview in February 2014, Palmer claimed that keel laying would take place in September 2014. He cautioned that the project was "a big job", that the original Titanic took seven years to build while they have been working for only two and a half, and said that he would have liked to start sooner but "wanted to make sure we don't make any mistakes". He claimed that a selection of cabins were being constructed on land for approval, and that this would be completed by July 2014.[37]

Design and construction[edit]

The gross tonnage of the replica will be 56,000 GT, considerably more than that of the original.[note 1]

Comparison with the original RMS Titanic[edit]

The ship is being designed to be as similar in internal and external appearance to the Titanic as possible. However, modern safety regulations and economic considerations will dictate several major changes to the design, including:

  • Greater beam for enhanced stability[38][39]
  • Welded, not riveted, hull[38]
  • Reduced draught[38]
  • Bulbous bow for higher fuel efficiency, although moderately sized compared to modern ships [38]
A preliminary comparison of the profiles of the Titanic (blue) and the Titanic II (red).
  • Stabilisers to reduce roll[38]
  • Diesel-electric propulsion system with four diesel generating sets providing power for three azimuth thrusters to replace the original coal-fired boilers, steam engines and steam turbine, as well as the rudder. Also, the ship will have 2 bow thrusters.[38]
  • An additional 'safety deck' between C and D decks for modern lifeboats and marine evacuation systems, with the boat deck housing replicas of the original lifeboats. Space for the deck has been made by lowering decks D and below by 2.8 metres, and for the taller centre section of the safety deck, which houses the lifeboats, by raising the superstructure by 1.3 metres. In spite of the reduced draft, space has been made for the lowered decks by removing the orlop deck, which mainly housed the boilers.[38]
  • New 'escape staircases' in addition to the original staircases, housed in the redundant boiler exhaust uptakes.[38]
  • Observation decks in the redundant first two funnels, which will have, according to Deltamarin, tinted window coverings to blend in with the funnels' color, intended to be as close as possible to the original "White Star buff." [38]
  • No sheer or camber,[38] unlike the original. Pronounced sheer was a cosmetic feature of ocean liners, intended to add a graceful appearance to the ship, but made construction more difficult and therefore costly.[40] Renderings released in February 2013 show an upwards rake added to C Deck at the bow and stern to give a superficial appearance of sheer, although an inauthentic wedge-shaped gap has had to be added between C and D decks in these areas to produce this effect.[41]
  • A higher bridge relative to the bow, as the superstructure has been raised by 1.3 metres by the centre section of the safety deck, and also by the removal of the sheer.[38] This negates the requirement on the original Titanic for lookouts.
  • An overall increase in the height of the ship above the waterline (due to the insertion of the safety deck). However, the total height of the ship from the keel to funnels will be the same as the original, at 175 ft.[42][not in citation given]
  • Video of water tank testing in 2013 indicate that the stern lines of Titanic II bears little resemblance to Titanic's 1912 era counter stern.[43]

Power plant and propulsion[edit]

For economic reasons, the steam engines and coal-fired boilers of the original Titanic have been replaced with a modern diesel-electric propulsion system. The space which housed the boilers will be used for crew quarters and ships systems. Power will be produced by four Wärtsilä 46F medium-speed four-stroke diesel generating sets; two twelve-cylinder 12V46F engines producing 14,400 kilowatts (19,300 hp) each, and two eight-cylinder 8L46F engines producing 9,600 kilowatts (12,900 hp) each, running on heavy fuel oil and marine gas oil.[38] Propulsion will be by three azimuth thrusters which will also be used for maneuvering, while the replica of the rudder of the Titanic II is purely cosmetic, and will not extend substantially below the waterline.[38] The positioning of the azimuth thrusters has necessitated the stern being made substantially more blunt than the original.[38]

View of a corridor on the RMS Queen Mary showing the sheer. This feature will be lost on the Titanic II.

Interior[edit]

The interior of the ship is intended to be as similar as possible to the original. Tillberg Design of Sweden has been contracted to produce drawings replicating Titanic's original interiors. However, the original wooden panelling does not conform to modern fire regulations, so as in Queen Elizabeth 2, veneers will have to be used. Plans show a layout broadly similar to the original, but with the third-class cabins modernised, and consideration being given to en-suite cabins throughout the ship.[dated info] The room freed up by eliminating the steam boilers of the original ship will be used for crew quarters and various services.[38]

Criticism[edit]

If built, the Titanic II would represent the first major passenger vessel constructed in China, a country with much more experience of building cargo ships than cruise ships, and a significant investment would be required to ensure it meets the much more stringent safety requirements for passenger vessels.[44]

The Chinese state-owned CSC Jinling shipyard has never built a large passenger vessel. In addition, it has no drydock, instead using side launching from a 200 m slipway.[45] The 269 m Titanic II would be the largest side-launched vessel in history by a huge margin,[46] and would require a significant extension to the shipyard's facilities.

Representatives from the shipyard have questioned whether the ship can be completed by 2016, and emphasize that no contract has yet been signed.[44]

Clive Palmer has been described as an 'eccentric billionaire' with a reputation for bizarre publicity stunts, such as the attempt to create a massive Jurassic Park style dinosaur theme park at his golf resort.[47][48][49] It has also been noted that the publicity surrounding the Titanic II coincided with Palmer's announcement of his entry into Australian federal politics, which was made immediately following the Titanic II conference.[50] Palmer had previously claimed that he was the target of a conspiracy involving Barack Obama, the CIA, the Rockefeller Foundation and Greenpeace, who he believed were attempting to close down his mining operation.[51] In 2010, Palmer started a company called Zeppelin International, with the intention of making a commercially viable Zeppelin.[52] After the plan came to nothing, it was ridiculed as the 'bizarre move of the year' by Australian business website Smartcompany.[53] He has gained a reputation in Australia for floating ambitious and unusual business ideas which he fails to see through, and the Titanic II has been described as 'a classic Clive Palmer announcement'.[54]

The idea of a commercialised replica of the Titanic has itself been criticised, being described as "insensitive" and "a mockery of the memory of those who died".[55] Cunard Line, which merged with the White Star Line, stated that they "have always been very mindful and very respectful of such a tragic event [and] don't think that building a replica or a 'II' is appropriate."[56]

Future[edit]

In June 2013, it was reported that Clive Palmer may be experiencing financial difficulties, and that his two most prominent businesses were running at a loss.[57] This followed the leaking of a letter where he asked a Chinese business partner for a $200 million AUD payment.[57] His net worth was believed to have fallen by $1.6 billion AUD in 2013.[58]

When the project was first announced in 2012, Palmer claimed that the start of construction would begin before the end of the year, with a 2016 launch. Following the launch events in 2013, he then claimed that construction would begin 'within a few weeks', with launch and maiden voyage still listed as 2016.[59] In an August 2013 interview, Palmer however indicated that construction would not begin until March 2014, while still citing 2016 as the intended completion date.[60] In the event, there were no news of either steelcutting or actual construction taking place in March 2014. More recent claims place the cutting of first steel in late 2014,[61] with launch delayed by two years to 2018.[9]

An Asia Cruise News article in March 2014 claimed that the project was "a bit frozen" and that Palmer was 'thought to be reconsidering the project' after failing to secure sponsorship or find a partner at a Chinese shipyard. He was also said to have been disappointed by the quotes to build in China in terms of both delivery time and price. In response, Blue Star Line reiterated the claim that the project was "on track".[62]

It was reported in late March 2014 that the project was unlikely to go ahead, and that the Chinese 'had lost interest in the project'. CSC Jinling responded by saying that it would be "difficult for us to build the Titanic II but we have confidence to build it". Blue Star Line reiterated claims that the keel would be laid in Q3 2014.[8]

In May 2014 Blue Star Line and designers Deltamarin signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Chinese company AVIC – which owns Deltamarin – to promote the project within China, and to attempt to secure sponsors. It was reported that the first project development phase is complete, and that the evaluation and the project master plan development is ongoing.[9]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The original Titanic had a gross register tonnage of 46,328 GRT, which is not directly comparable with modern gross tonnage. However, as one register ton is equal to 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3), an approximate value of 39,640 GT can be calculated by using the formulae given in the The International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cruise Ship Orderbook. Cruise Industry News. Retrieved on 2013-04-23.
  2. ^ [1]. Deltamarin Blog: Updated Titanic II Tests Retrieved on 2013-05-11.
  3. ^ The Titanic sails again: Australian tycoon unveils plans for perfect replica of doomed vessel (except with a few more lifeboats). Daily Mail, 25 February 2013. Retrieved on 2013-05-11.
  4. ^ Calligeros, Marissa (30 April 2012). "Clive Palmer plans to build Titanic II". Sydney Morning Herald. 
  5. ^ Fickling, David (30 April 2012). "Titanic II to Be Built by Billionaire Palmer, Chinese Yard". Bloomberg. 
  6. ^ Rourke, Alison (30 April 2012). "Titanic II announced". Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  7. ^ "Titanic II confirmed will set sail from Southampton". Daily Mail (London). 4 October 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  8. ^ a b Donaghey, Kathleen (29 March 2014). "Clive Palmer’s Titanic II project behind schedule, may have stalled". news.com.au. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c "Palmer pushes Titanic II launch back by two years". Asia Cruise News. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  10. ^ Smith, Leesa. "Clive Palmer loses half his fortune in a year". Daily Mail. Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  11. ^ Pearlman, Jonathon. "Australian MP and "Titanic II" tycoon Clive Palmer investigated for fraud". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  12. ^ Wilson, James (September 1998 p. 56-59). Titanic Reborn. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  13. ^ "Tycoon presents Titanic II proposal". BBC News. 9 June 2000. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  14. ^ Ringshaw, Grant (19 November 2000). "A Titanic task". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  15. ^ Oldham, Jeanette (20 November 2000). "Dreams afloat to build Titanic II". HighBeam Research. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Louis, Epstein. "To Build a New Titanic?". Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  17. ^ "Clive Palmer Launches Titanic II". Blue Star Line. 30 April 2012. 
  18. ^ "MOU CSC Jinling and Blue Star Line". Blue Star Line. 20 April 2012. 
  19. ^ Jabour, Bridie (19 June 2012). "Titanic II a step closer to reality". Brisbane Times. 
  20. ^ "Global Ship Design Firm Commissioned to Titanic II Project". Blue Star Line. 19 June 2012. 
  21. ^ "First Glimpse At Titanic II Plans". Blue Star Line. 19 June 2012. 
  22. ^ "Renown Titanic Historian Joins Titanic II Project". Blue Star Line. 1 October 2012. 
  23. ^ a b "Titanic Researcher and Interiors Expert Joins Blue Star Line". Blue Star Line. 11 October 2012. 
  24. ^ "White Star Line Chairman Descendant Joins Titanic II Project". Blue Star Line. 19 October 2012. 
  25. ^ "Molly Brown Descendant Joins Titanic II Project". Blue Star Line. 21 October 2012. 
  26. ^ "New Dates for Titanic II Global Launch and Events". Blue Star Line. 20 December 2012. 
  27. ^ "Design for Titanic II to be unveiled in NYC". MYFOXNY.COM. 3 October 2012. 
  28. ^ "London Event To Celebrate Titanic II Project". Blue Star Line. 9 October 2012. 
  29. ^ Crook, Andrew. "Deltamarin to manage Titanic II project development". Blue Star Line. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  30. ^ "Titanic II tycoon Clive Palmer plans movie cameo". London: Daily Telegraph. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  31. ^ "V.SHIPS Leisure Appointed To Titanic II". Blue Star Line. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  32. ^ "Titanic II Engages World’s Leading Marine Architecture and Interior Design Company". Blue Star Line. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  33. ^ "TITANIC II". Tillberg Design. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  34. ^ "Lloyd’s Register Joins Titanic II Project". Blue Star Line. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  35. ^ "Clive Palmer announces Titanic II model tests to be held in Germany". Robert's Cruise & Tour Leading E.U. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  36. ^ "Titanic II: Replica of proposed liner tested". British Broadcasting Corporation. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  37. ^ Grattan, Michelle. "Politics with Michelle Grattan: Clive Palmer". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Deltamarin. "General Arrangement, Titanic II Project". Blue Star Line. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  39. ^ "Get a Glimpse of Titanic II". Cruise News. 25 July 2012. 
  40. ^ Vandersteel, William. "SS Oceanic; A Matter of Design". ssmaritime.com. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  41. ^ "The Return of a Legend". Blue Star Line. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  42. ^ "Titanic II: Return Of The Legend". Blue Star Line. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  43. ^ "Titanic II Model Test - Hamburg, Germany - September 2013" Titanic 2 Blue Star Line
  44. ^ a b Yi, Zheng. "Titanic II agreed but no contract signed". Global Times. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  45. ^ "Our Partners". Blue Star Line. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  46. ^ Khetan, Ashok. "World's Biggest Side Launch of Ship in Gujarat". Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  47. ^ Alwyn-Jones, John. "Clive Palmer goes even more eccentric". E-Global Travel Media. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  48. ^ "The Titanic, a dinosaur, JFK and the Australian PGA Championship". aussiegolfer.net. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  49. ^ "Is an Australian billionaire about to launch the real-life Jurassic Park?". London: Daily Mail. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  50. ^ McKechnie, Kirrin. "Clive Palmer's Titanic bid for federal politics". ABC News. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  51. ^ Farr, Malcolm (22 March 2012). "Mining magnate Clive Palmer says CIA is behind campaign to kill coal industry". News.com.au. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  52. ^ Cowie, Tom. "Clive Palmer’s magnificent flying machines". Crikey.com.au. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  53. ^ Thomson, James. "The best & the worst of 2010". Smartcompany. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  54. ^ Thomson, James. "How Clive Palmer funds his amazing adventures". Smartcompany. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  55. ^ Gaynor, Hazel. "Sinking feeling: unease about Titanic II plan". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  56. ^ Stafford, Stephen (5 March 2013). "Titanic 2: Mixed reaction at Southampton launch event". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  57. ^ a b Khadem, Nassim. "Clive Palmer disputes ‘beat-up’ about Queensland Nickel’s future". BRW. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  58. ^ Mccullough, James (22 May 2013). "Clive Palmer still Queensland's richest person". news.com.au. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  59. ^ Smith, Oliver (19 June 2012). "Titanic II moves a step closer". London: Daily Telegraph. 
  60. ^ "Australian tycoon says Titanic project is about love". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  61. ^ "Deltamarin designs Titanic II". Deltamarin. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  62. ^ "‘It’s on track,’ Blue Star maintains, as doubts over Titanic II surface". Asia Cruise News. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 

External links[edit]