Tityridae

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Tityridae
Pachyramphus castaneus.jpg
Chestnut-crowned becard
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Suborder: Tyranni
Family: Tityridae
G.R.Gray, 1840
Genera

see text

Tityridae is family of suboscine passerine birds found in forest and woodland in the Neotropics. The approximately 30 species in this family were formerly spread over the families Tyrannidae, Pipridae and Cotingidae (see Taxonomy). As yet, no widely accepted common name exists for the family, although tityras and allies and tityras, mourners and allies have been used. They are small to medium-sized birds. Under current classification, the family ranges in size from the buff-throated purpletuft, at 9.5 cm (3.75 in) and 10 grams (0.35 oz), to the masked tityra, at up to 22 cm (8.7 in) and 88 grams (3.1 oz).[1][2] Most have relatively short tails and large heads.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

Traditionally, the genus Laniocera was included in the family Tyrannidae, the genera Iodopleura, Laniisoma, Tityra, Pachyramphus and Xenopsaris were included in the family Cotingidae, and Schiffornis was included in the family Pipridae. Three of these genera, Tityra, Pachyramphus and Xenopsaris, were later moved to Tyrannidae based on the morphology of their skull and syrinx.[3]

The existence of the family Tityridae (although simply treated as a clade) was first proposed in 1989 based on the morphology of several syringeal and skeletal features.[4] The existence of this family has later been confirmed by multiple studies involving both mtDNA and nDNA.[5][6][7][8][9] Evidence suggests there are two basal clades within this family, the first including the genera Schiffornis, Laniocera, and Laniisoma (with strong bootstrap support), and the second include Iodopleura, Tityra, Xenopsaris, and Pachyramphus (with poor bootstrap support).[10]

Species[edit]

In addition to the species listed below, the swallow-tailed cotinga and kinglet calyptura may belong in this family, but hard scientific data is lacking, and they are therefore considered incertae sedis by recent authorities such as SACC.[11] Recent evidence suggests that the Sharpbill belong in this family,[5][6] but, as recommended by SACC, it is retained as incertae sedis until this placement is confirmed by additional data.

  • genus Laniisoma.
    • Shrike-like laniisoma (Laniisoma elegans).
      • Brazilian laniisoma (Laniisoma (elegans) elegans).
      • Andean laniisoma (Laniisoma (elegans) buckleyi).

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.arkive.org/buff-throated-purpletuft/iodopleura-pipra/
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=40mFwoALUFUC&pg=PA648&lpg=PA648&dq=masked+tityra+cm&source=bl&ots=1QWw-97zQ0&sig=DOY8lyPDa8N0soy41DWzG53PUiM&hl=en&ei=uGyCTdb9FoKztwed4q22BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=masked%20tityra%20cm&f=false
  3. ^ Ames, P. L. 1971. The morphology of the syrinx in passerine birds. Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin, v. 37.
  4. ^ Prum, R. O., & W. E. Lanyon. 1989. Monophyly and phylogeny of the Schiffornis group (Tyrannoidea). Condor 91: 444-461.
  5. ^ a b Ericson, P. G. P., D. Zuccon, U. S. Johansson, H. Alvarenga, and R. O. Prum. 2006. Higher-level phylogeny and morphological evolution of tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:471-483.
  6. ^ a b Ohlson, J. I., R. O. Prum, and P. G. P. Ericson. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the cotingas (Aves: Cotingidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42:25-37.
  7. ^ Chesser, R. T. 2004. Molecular systematics of New World suboscine birds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 11-24.
  8. ^ Johansson, U. S., M. Irestedt, T. J. Parsons, & P. G. P. Ericson. 2002. Basal phylogeny of the Tyrannoidea based on comparisons of cytochrome b and exons of nuclear c-myc and RAG-1 genes. Auk 119: 984-995.
  9. ^ Prum, R. O., N. H. Rice, J. A. Mobley, and W. W. Dimmick. 2000. A preliminary phylogenetic hypothesis for the cotingas (Cotingidae) based on mitochondrial DNA. Auk 117: 236-241.
  10. ^ Barber, B., & N. Rice. 2007. Systematics and evolution in the Tityrinae (Passeriformes: Tyrannoidea). Auk 124(4): 1317-1329.
  11. ^ Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, & K. J. Zimmer. 2007. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 12 December 2007.