The entrance to Tivoli, illuminated at night
Tivoli Gardens (or simply Tivoli) is a famous amusement park and pleasure garden in Copenhagen, Denmark. The park opened on August 15, 1843 and is the second oldest amusement park in the world, after Dyrehavsbakken in nearby Klampenborg.
With 4.033 million visitors in 2012, Tivoli is the second most popular seasonal theme park in the world, the most visited theme park in Scandinavia and the fourth most visited in Europe, only behind Disneyland Paris, Europa-Park Rust and the Efteling.
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The amusement park was first called "Tivoli & Vauxhall"; "Tivoli" alluding to the Jardin de Tivoli in Paris (which in its turn had been named from Tivoli near Rome), and "Vauxhall" alluding to the Vauxhall Gardens in London. It is also mentioned in various books like Number the stars by Lois Lowry
Tivoli's founder, Georg Carstensen (b. 1812 – d. 1857), obtained a five-year charter to create Tivoli by telling King Christian VIII that "when the people are amusing themselves, they do not think about politics". The monarch granted Carstensen use of roughly 15 acres (61,000 m²) of the fortified glacis outside Vesterport (the West Gate) for an annual rent. Therefore, until the 1850s, Tivoli was outside the city, accessible through Vesterport.
From the very start, Tivoli included a variety of attractions: buildings in the exotic style of an imaginary Orient: a theatre, band stands, restaurants and cafés, flower gardens, and mechanical amusement rides such as a merry-go-round and a primitive scenic railway. After dark, coloured lamps illuminated the gardens. On certain evenings, specially designed fireworks could be seen reflected in Tivoli's lake.
Composer Hans Christian Lumbye (b. 1810 – d. 1874) was Tivoli's musical director from 1843 to 1872. Lumbye was inspired by Viennese waltz composers like the Strauss family (Johann Strauss I and his sons), and became known as the "Strauss of the North." Many of his compositions are specifically inspired by the gardens, including "Salute to the Ticket Holders of Tivoli", "Carnival Joys" and "A Festive Night at Tivoli". The Tivoli Symphony Orchestra still performs many of his works.
In 1874, Chinese style Pantomimeteatret (The Pantomime Theatre) took the place of an older smaller theatre. The audience stands in the open, the stage being inside the building. The theatre's "curtain" is a mechanical peacock's tail. From the very beginning, the theatre was the home of Italian pantomimes, introduced in Denmark by the Italian Giuseppe Casorti. This tradition, which is dependent on the Italian Commedia dell'Arte has been kept alive, including the characters Cassander (the old father), Columbine (his beautiful daughter), Harlequin (her lover), and, especially popular with the youngest spectators, the stupid servant Pierrot. The absence of spoken dialogue is an advantage, as Tivoli is now an international tourist attraction.
In 1943, Nazi sympathisers burnt many of Tivoli's buildings, including the concert hall, to the ground. Temporary buildings were constructed in their place and the park was back in operation after a few weeks.
Tivoli is always evolving without abandoning its original charm or traditions. As Georg Carstensen said in 1844, "Tivoli will never, so to speak, be finished," a sentiment echoed just over a century later when Walt Disney said of his own Tivoli-inspired theme park, "Disneyland will never be finished as long as there is imagination left in the world." Walt Disney during a trip overseas with his wife Lilly visited Tivoli Gardens. Walt was so impressed with the Danish amusement park, he immediately decided Disneyland should try to emulate its "happy and unbuttoned air of relaxed fun."
The Park 
The world´s most popular city park appeals equally to the local population as it does to visitors to the city. Tivoli Gardens is more than an amusement park, it is equally as popular as a place to go dining and people-watching. The 21-acre park is beautifully landscaped with fountains and flower beds. The park prides itself in the more than 111,000 custom-designed lights that illuminate it at night and the more than 400,000 colorful flowers, including 65,000 tulips. The architecture of the buildings in the park is wonderful. Behold the stately Nimb Palace Hotel with its Moorish-style facade sporting magnificent towers and minarets. The Chinese Tower was built in 1900 and looks magical at night with the light reflecting off the central lake where the 18th century frigate St George III beckons attention. Other notable structures in the park include the Glass Hall Theater, the Concert Hall, the Pantomime Theater, Plænen.
The park´s famous main entrance off Vesterbrogade was designed by Emil Blichfeldt and Richard Bergmann in 1889 - 90.
The park is best known for its wooden roller coaster, Rutschebanen, or as some people call it, Bjergbanen (the Mountain Coaster), built in 1914. It is one of world's oldest wooden roller coasters that is still operating today. An operator controls the ride by braking down the hills so it won't gain too much speed. It is an ACE Coaster Classic.
Another roller coaster, Dæmonen (The Demon), features an Immelmann loop, a loop, and a Zero-G roll all during the ride time of just one minute and forty six seconds. An old roller coaster, Slangen, was removed to have enough space for The Demon. Dæmonen is situated next to the concert hall.
On 1 May 2009 Tivoli opened the new ride Vertigo, a looping plane ride where the rider pilots the ride, able to control the plane.
Roller Coasters 
|Ride Name||Type||Opened in||Manufacturer||Additional Information|
|The Camel Train||steel sit down||1974||Zierer||Reaches a speed of 16 mph (26 km) on a 198 ft long track (60m) and a height of 11 ft (3m); age limit 2 years old. Small Tivoli model, train 2x6.|
|Dæmomon (The Demon)||floorless steel sit down||2004||Bolliger & Mabillard||Reaches a speed of 48 mph (77 km) on a 1851 ft long track (564m) and a height of 92 ft (28m) with 3 inversions (loop, immelmann, zero g-roll); height limit 1,32m. Floorless Custom Coaster, train 4x6.|
|Jule Expressen||steel sit down indoor||2008||Technical Park||This indoor coaster runs on 229 ft long track (70m) and is only operated during the Christmas Season. Rocket Reindeer model, car 2+2.|
|Odin Express||steel sit down||1985||Mack Rides||Reaches a speed of 37 mph (60 km) on a 984 ft long track (300m); age limit 2 years old. Custom Powered Coaster, train 2x10.|
|Rutschbanen (The Roller Coaster)||wooden sit down||1914||LeMarcus A. Thompson||This classic coaster reaches a speed of 31 mph (50 km) on a 2362 ft long track (720m) and a height of 43 ft (13m). Themed around a mountain, train 2x12.|
Other Rides 
- Bumper Cars - classic bumper cars that date from 1926.
- The Dragon - giant swing / flic flac ride that opened in 1995; height limit 1,4m. Huss.
- The Ferris Wheel this ferris wheel was opened during WWII in 1943.
- The Flying Trunk - a 7 minute H.C. Andersen-inspired dark ride that opened in 1993 and was renovated in 2010. Mack Rides.
- Galley Ships - roundabout boats that opened in 1937.
- The Golden Tower - drop tower that opened in 1999; height limit 1,4m. S&S Worldwide.
- The Mine - dark ride in a boat that opened in 2003; this 200 meters long mine-themed ride has a 2m drop. Mack Rides.
- The Monsoon - giant swing, a magic carpet ride that opened in 2001; height limit 1,4. Zierer.
- Snurretoppen - breakdance spinner that opened in 1988; height limit 1,3m. Huss.
- Spinning Top - spinner ride that opened in 1988.
- Star Flyer (Himmelskibet) - a 80 m tall sky flyer that opened in 2006; height limit 1,2m. Funtime.
- Vertigo giant swing that opened in 2009; height limit 1,4m. Technical Park. This looping plane ride reaches a speed of 60 mph (100 km) and a height of 30 meters.
Kiddie Rides 
- The Big Clock - mini ferris wheel that opened in 1970.
- Dragon Boats - pilot your own boat on the water, opened in 1936.
- Dyrekarussellen - classic carousel ride from 1920.
- The Fun House - your fun house fun.
- The Light House - air carousel that opened in 2010.
- The Little Pilot - airplanes that opened in 1990.
- Nautilus - roundabout boats that opened in 2007.
- Petzi's World - play ground for kids.
- The Panda - mini drop tower that opened in 2000. Zamperla.
- Rasmus Klump - play and picnic area.
- The Temple Tower pull yourself up tower ride that opened in 2000. Heege.
- Trolley Bus - crazy bus. Zamperla.
- Vintage Cars - on track cars that opened in 1959.
Other Attractions 
- The Pantomime Theater has free pantomime shows.
- The Tivoli Guard Boys stars boys age 9 - 16 who perform music at the park.
- The Titanic Exhibition - this museum about the legendary ship. Extra charge.
- Tivoli Aquarium - the adjacent aquarium is extra charge.
- Amusement Arcades - extra charge.
- Tivoli Jackpot - cash prizes, extra charge.
- Tivoli Festival - takes place from 14 May to 8 September and features more than 50 different events that include opera shows, symphony concerts, chamber music, pop and rock artists, and much more. On Fridays at 10 pm there is a weekly rock concert under the banner Friday Rock.
- The Concert Hall - There has been a Concert Hall at the park since day one; the current Concert Hall was built in 1956 and seats 1660 guests. It was renovated in 1985 and the Rotunda was added then. Extra charge music concerts and shows.
- The Glass Hall Theater - The current Glass Hall was built in 1946, following the destruction of the old one in 1944 during the Nazi occupation of Denmark. The Hall features all kinds of music events as well as theater shows for kids. Extra charge.
- The Harmony Pavilion - music performances throughout the year. Extra charge.
- Open Air Stage - this open-air stage hosts both music performances and other kind of shows.
- Promenade Pavilion - hosts music performances.
In addition, there is a Halloween Fest in October and Christmas Holidays in December. During the summer the park has Fireworks shows.
There are 2 on-site hotels at the park: Hotel Nimb and Tivoli Hotel (both are expensive).
Performing arts 
Besides the rides, Tivoli Gardens also serve as a venue for various performing arts and as an active part of the cultural scene in Copenhagen.
Tivoli Concert Hall 
Tivoli Concert Hall is a classical concert hall featuring concerts with some of the largest names in international classical music. It was built in 1956 by Hans Hansen and sits 1660 people. In 2005 the concert hall saw a major renovation and extension by 3XN where the classical 50's style of the main auditorium—including a characteristic colour scheme of red, blue, yellow and green colours—was restored, while visitor facilities were upgraded and expanded. These include a new gardenside foyer with a two-story bar and lounge and Europe's longest saltwater aquarium in the basement. The Eurovision Song Contest 1964 was broadcast from the auditorium.
The Pantomime Theatre 
The pantomime theatre is an open-air theatre designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup, also known for the design of the Royal Danish Theatre. It is a toy-like historicist built in Chinese style and noted for its mechanical front curtain that takes five men to operate and unfolds like a peacock's tail. As indicated by the name, it is primarily a scene for pantomime theatre in the classical Italian commedia dell'arte tradition, which is performed daily with a live pit orchestra. Besides this original function, the theatre leads a second life as a venue for ballet and modern dance, performing works by choreographers such as August Bournonville, Dinna Bjørn, Louise Midjord and Paul James Rooney.
The Tivoli Boys Guard 
The Tivoli Boys Guard is a music ensemble of boys aged 8–16 dressed in uniforms reminiscent of those of the Royal Danish Guard complete with bearskins. It was founded in 1844 and gives concerts, makes parades, stands guard at the garden's buildings and monuments at special occasions and represents the gardens at various events.
Rhythmical music 
During the warmer summer months, Tivoli also features a live music series dubbed Fredagsrock (Friday Rock), which in the past has featured Roxette, the Smashing Pumpkins, Sting, the Beach Boys, Pet Shop Boys, Kanye West and popular Danish groups such as TV-2, Nephew, Hanne Boel, Raveonettes and Thomas Helmig.
1995–2005: Clavé, Salvador Anton: The global Theme Park Industry. 2007, S. 65
See also 
- Tivoli Rides. Tivoli.dk. Retrieved on 24 November 2011.
- "Tivoli: Besøgstal 2012 samlet højere end 2011". TEA (in Danish). 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
- Tivoli – Tivoli Gardens Copenhagen – Copenhagen Portal – Tourist Guide. Copenhagenet.dk. Retrieved on 15 August 2011.
- ACE Coaster Classic Awards. Aceonline.org. Retrieved on 15 August 2011.
- Tivoli summer 2008. Tivoli.dk (29 June 2009). Retrieved on 15 August 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tivoli Gardens, Copenhagen|
- Official website (Danish)
- Official website (English)
- Copenhagen-Portal – Tivoli and History
- The Roller Coaster Database's page about Tivoli
- Tivoli Gardens Article
- Picture gallery including Tivoli's first Halloween season