Tivoli City Park
Tivoli City Park (Slovene: Mestni park Tivoli) or simply Tivoli Park (Park Tivoli) is the largest park in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. It is located on the northern outskirts of the Center District, stretching to the Šiška District to the north, the Vič District to the south, and the Rožnik District to the west. Several notable buildings and art works stand in the park. Since 1984, the park has been protected as part of Tivoli–Rožnik Hill–Šiška Hill Nature Park. It is home to a variety of bird species.
- Tivoli Castle
Tivoli Castle is a mansion and is the terminus of the Jakopič Promenade. Built in the 17th century atop the ruins of a previous Renaissance-period castle, the mansion was initially owned by the Jesuits. In the middle of the 19th century, it was renovated by Marshal Joseph Radetzky (1766–1858) in the Neoclassical style, giving it its present appearance. In 1864, the Austrian sculptor Anton Dominik Fernkorn (1813–1878) created four cast iron dogs that stand in front of the castle. Because the dogs do not have tongues, it has been falsely rumoured that Fernkorn committed suicide by shooting himself due to this mistake. An alpine-style building called the Švicarija ("Swissery", formerly the Hotel Tivoli) stands behind the mansion. The Jesenko nature trail leads past it.
- Cekin Mansion
The Cekin Mansion is a mansion on the northern edge of Tivoli Park. It houses the Museum of Contemporary History of Slovenia (Muzej novejše zgodovine Slovenije). The mansion was built in 1720, commissioned by Leopold Lamberg and based on plans by the Viennese Baroque architect Fischer von Erlach. Since 1951, it has housed the national museum of contemporary history.
- Tivoli Hall
Tivoli Hall is a complex of two multipurpose indoor sport arenas next to the Cekin Mansion. The complex, based on plans by the architect Marjan Božič and the engineer Stanko Bloudek, was opened in 1965. The larger ice hockey arena has a seating capacity of 7,000 people. When configured to host basketball games, the capacity is adjusted to 6,000. The smaller basketball hall has a seating capacity of 4,500 people. This hall hosted home games of the professional basketball team KK Union Olimpija until 2011, while the larger one is the home of HDD Olimpija Ljubljana professional ice hockey club.
- Tivoli Pond
At the southwestern end of Tivoli Park is located Tivoli Pond (Slovene: Tivolski ribnik). The pond is shaped like a rectangle and is shallow with a small volume. In 2011, it was thoroughly renovated. It has been used for recreation, fishing, and as a flood-control reservoir. It has served as a theme of visual artists and musicians. There is a small bronze plastic named Ribe ("Fish") in the pond. It is a depiction of two vertically standing fish, created in 1935 by the expressionist sculptor France Kralj and erected in 1994. On a lawn beside the pond, an open-air library operates in warm weather and a workshop on recycling books and other printed matter, called "The Read Ones." During winter, the library moves into the nearby greenhouse.
- Greenhouse and rose garden
A greenhouse with tropical plants, operated by the Ljubljana Botanical Gardens, stands near the northwestern end of the pond. Next to the greenhouse, there is a rose garden. It was created from 1993 to 1994 and renovated in 2007. Over 160 types of roses, including the first Slovenian cultivar, "Prešeren", were added in 2010. All of them have been designated with a plate.
From February 1941 to July 1943, during the Italian occupation of Ljubljana, the park near the pond was arranged based on plans by the architect Boris Kobe. He put a playground inside a circular design connected to the pond as the central landscape feature. The playground, named Children's Paradise, was completed with the financial help of Emilio Grazioli, the first High Commissioner of the Province of Ljubljana. It opened with a ceremony on 11 July 1943 that was attended by numerous residents of Ljubljana, the mayor of Ljubljana, Leon Rupnik, and the high commissioner, Giuseppe Lombrassa, and included the blessing by the Ljubljana archbishop Gregorij Rožman. The event happened in the "cultural silence" period, a halt to all cultural activities connected with the occupation, ordered by the Slovene Liberation Front. The Communist Party and the Ljubljana Liberation Front secretary Vladimir Krivic characterised it as a "scandal" for their movement.
Near the northern end of the pond, at the top of a staircase leading towards Tivoli Castle, stands a bronze sculpture by Zdenko Kalin, named Pastirček ("Shepherd") or Deček s piščalko ("Boy with a Whistle"). It was created in 1942 and erected 1 May 1946. It is a bucolic full-length statue of a marching boy with a whistle and represents one of the peaks of Slovene figurative art.
In 2000, the Bosnian sculptor Slobodan Pejić transformed a 300-year old oak tree that fell in a storm into a sculpture named Sožitje ("Coexistence"). With the act, he proposed the beginning of a sculpture garden in the park. The sculpture is a rare combination of oak and bronze. It is 4 metres (13 ft) high and it has been grown over by moss and by lichen. The wood embraces a bronze part named Čisto srce ("Pure Heart").
In September 2004, on the occasion of the centenary of his birth, a sitting statue of the poet, writer, and translator Edvard Kocbek was ceremonially unveiled in the immediate vicinity of the pond on its southern side. It is a bronze statue by the sculptor Boštjan Drinovec. The poet sits on a bank and looks at his 30 cm (12 in) double on a handhold of the bank.
Tivoli Park was laid out upon the plans by the engineer Jean Blanchard in 1813, when Ljubljana was the capital of the French Illyrian Provinces. He joined two existing parks, around Tivoli Castle (at that time called Podturn Manor) and around Cekin Mansion, and linked them to the Ljubljana downtown. The park was named in the second half of the 19th century after a summer residence of the Casino Society with an amusement park, a pub and a cafe, which was opened in 1835 next to Podturn Manor.
The pond was excavated in 1880. It was later used for boating and ice skating, and for fishing. A tree nursery was established in the park by the city municipality in 1894. It was led by the Czech gardener Vaclav Hejnic, who was the first professional gardener in Tivoli, and who arranged parts of the park in the 1920s. In the same time, the park was also renovated by the architect Jože Plečnik, who designed the Jakopič Promenade that runs through the park, creating a linear visual axis going from Tivoli Castle through Cankar Street and Čop Street to Prešeren Square, over the Triple Bridge, and ending at Ljubljana Castle.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tivoli Park (Ljubljana).|
- LjubljanaLife.com (2011). "Tivoli Park Ljubljana | Slovenia - Ljubljana Life". ljubljana-life.com. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
- Slovenia.Info (2011). "Ljubljana, Park Tivoli, Rožnik and Šišenski hill - Cultural and Historical Heritage - Slovenia - Official Travel Guide -". slovenia.info. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
- Bojc, Saša (13 June 2012). "Opazovanje ptic v ljubljanskem Tivoliju" [Birdwatching in the Ljubljana Tivoli]. Delo.si (in Slovenian). ISSN 1854-6544.
- "Seznam kipov v Tivoliju in na Rožniku" [List of statues in Tivoli and on Rožnik]. Muzejske novice [Museum News] (in Slovenian) (Museum of Modern History of Slovenia): 14–16. ISSN 1854-3510. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "Poklon je izvrstna samopromocija" [A Gift is a Superb Self-Promotion]. Dnevnik.si (in Slovenian). 30 October 2010.
- Gams, Matija. "Cekinov grad" [Cekin's Mansion]. In Šmid Hribar, Mateja; Golež, Gregor; Podjed, Dan; Kladnik, Drago; Erhartič, Bojan; Pavlin, Primož; Ines, Jerele. Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem – DEDI [Encyclopedia of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Slovenia] (in Slovenian). Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Športni park Tivoli
- Krelj, Živa (2007). Ekološki status ribnika Tivoli [The Ecological Status of Tivoli Pond] (PDF) (in Slovene and with an abstract in English). Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana.
- Smrekar, Aleš. Bojan Erhartič. Mateja Šmid Hribar (2011). Krajinski park Tivoli, Rožnik in Šišenski hrib [Tivoli–Rožnik–Šiška Hill Nature Park]. ZRC Publishing House. p. 32. ISBN 978-961-254-291-7.
- Gazvoda, Davorin (21 June 2011). "Med varstvom in kaosom: Odnos Slovencev do prostora" [Between Protection and Chaos: The Attitude of Slovenes to Space] (in Slovenian). Mladina.
- Habič, Marko (1997). "Tivolski ribnik" [Tivoli Pond]. Prestolnica Ljubljana nekoč in danes [A pictorial chronicle of a capital city]. Geopedia.si (National Publishing House of Slovenia). ISBN 86-341-2007-4.
- "Razglednice" [Postcards] (in Slovenian). Museum of Modern History. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "Zgodovina" [History]. Slovenski tarok [Slovene Tarock] (in Slovenian). Eurotrade Commerce, d. o. o. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "Muzikološki simpozij: Življenje in delo Emila Adamiča (1877–1936)" [Musicological Symposium: Life and Work of Emil Adamič (1877–1936)] (in Slovenian). 2003. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Seznam kipov v Tivoliju in na Rožniku" [List of statues in Tivoli and on Rožnik]. Muzejske novice [Museum News] (in Slovenian) (National Museum of Contemporary History): 14–16. ISSN 1854-3510. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "The Mobile Molehill – a library on wheels". Ljubljana – World Book Capital City. Department of Culture, City Municipality of Ljubljana. 11 June 2010.
- "Wellness pod hrastom" [Wellness under an Oak] (in Slovenian). Krtina Publishing House. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "S knjigo pod drevesom tudi v mrzlih zimskih dneh" [With a Book under a Tree Also in the Cold Winter Days]. Dnevnik.si (in Slovenian). 4 February 2012.
- "Mestni park Tivoli, Urbanistična/zunanja ureditev, Ljubljana, Jean Blanchard, 1813" [Tivoli City Park, Urban/Exterior Arrangement, Ljubljana, Jean Blanchard, 1813]. Arhitekturni vodnik [Architectural Guide] (in Slovenian). Zavod Trajekt.
- Mastnak, Matjaž. "Rožni vrt v Ljubljanskem Tivoliju" [Flower Garden in Ljubljana Tivoli Park] (in Slovenian). Slovenian rose society. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "Rožni vrt v Tivoliju" [Flower Garden in Tivoli]. Planet Siol.net (in Slovenian). 24 June 2010.
- "Udeležencem otvoritve otroškega igrišča" [To Participants of the Opening of the Playground]. Slovenski narod [Slovene Nation] (in Slovenian) LXXV (54). 10 July 1943. p. 2. ISSN 1408-2373.
- "V hišici Pod turnom št. 2" [In the Little House Pod turnom No. 2]. Slovenski narod [Slovene Nation] (in Slovenian) (Narodna tiskarna). 12 November 1941. p. 2.
- Šorn, Mojca (2007). "Prosti čas" [Free Time]. Življenje Ljubljančanov med drugo svetovno vojno [Life of the Citizens of Ljubljana during World War II] (in Slovenian). Institute for Contemporary History. pp. 426–428, 431. ISBN 978-961-6386-12-8.
- Strgar, Jože (1994). "Tivolski ribnik" [Tivoli Pond]. Tivoli: ljubljanski mestni park [Tivoli: Ljubljana City Park] (in Slovenian). Ljubljana: Kmečki glas [Farmers' Voice]. pp. 78–81. ISBN 961-203-045-6.
- Adamič, Marjeta. Drnovšek, Darinka. Gombač, Metka. Oblak Čarni, Marija., ed. (2001) [July 1943]. "Pismo sekretarja poverjeništva Centralnega komiteja KPS za Ljubljano Vladimirja Krivica dne 20. julija 1943 članu centralnega komiteja KPS Borisu Kidriču" [A Letter of the Secretary of the Trusteeship for Ljubljana of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Slovenia on 20 July 1943 to the Member of the Central Committee Boris Kidrič]. Dokumenti organov in organizacij Narodnoosvobodilnega gibanja v Sloveniji [Documents of the Bodies and Organisations of the National Liberation Movement in Slovenia] (in Slovenian) 8. Arhivi Slovenije [Archives of Slovenia]. p. 319. ISBN 961-6137-53-0.
- "Histories of the Individual Yugoslav Nations". The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-Clio, Inc. 2004. p. 180.
- Burger, Betka (May 2003). "Park Tivoli: Kipi" [Tivoli Park: Sculptures] (in Slovenian).
- Kopriva, Silvester (1989). Ljubljana skozi čas: ob latinskih in slovenskih napisih in zapisih [Ljubljana Through Time: At the Latin and Slovene Inscriptions and Records] (in Slovenian). Založba Borec [Fighter Publishing House]. p. 218. COBISS 14030080.
- "Seznam kipov v Tivoliju in na Rožniku" [List of statues in Tivoli and on Rožnik] (in Slovenian). Modern Museum of Ljubljana. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- Šijanec, Franc (1961). Sodobna slovenska likovna umetnost [Modern Slovene Visual Arts] (in Slovenian) 1. Založba Obzorja [Horizons Publishing House]. COBISS 829704.
- Komelj, Milček. Krečič, Peter (2008). Slovenski slikarji, kiparji in arhitekti akademiki [Painters, sculptors and architects of the Slovenian Academy] (in Slovene and English). Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. p. 163. ISBN 978-961-6242-97-4.
- Vanda Mušič (ed). Bassin, Aleksander. Kokot, Staša. Slobodan Pejić. Self-published by Vanda Mušič Chapman. 2007. ISBN 978-961-245-325-1.
- "Ob Kocbekovem Jubileju" [On the Occasion of Kocbek's Anniversary]. MMC RTV Slovenija (in Slovenian) (RTV Slovenija). 27 September 2004. ISSN 1581-372X.
- Janežič, Rok (2001). "Tivoli urejen za slepe in slabovidne - a zgolj začasno" [Tivoli Adapted for the Blind and Visually-Impaired – but Only Temporarily] (PDF). Pika - Glasilo medobčinskega društva slepih in slabovidnih Ljubljana (in Slovenian) (The Inter-Municipal Society of the Blind and Visually-Impaired Ljubljana) 5 (8).
- "Mestni park Tivoli" [Tivoli City Park]. Arhitekturni vodnik [Architectural Guide] (in Slovenian). Zavod Trajekt. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Smrekar, Aleš. Bojan Erhartič. Mateja Šmid Hribar (2011). Krajinski park Tivoli, Rožnik in Šišenski hrib [The Tivoli–Rožnik–Šiška Hill Nature Park]. ZRC Publishing House. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-961-254-291-7.
- "Mednarodni grafični likovni center" [International Centre of Graphic Arts]. Visitljubljana.si. Ljubljana Tourism.
- "Novomeški ribiči: prvaki Slovenije" [The Fishermen of Novo Mesto: The Champions of Slovenia]. Dolenjski list (in Slovenian) 14 (30). 1 August 1963. p. 11.
- Bałus, Wojciech. Österreichische Gesellschaft für Historische Gärten (2007). "Die Stadtparks in Slowenien 1864–1918" [Town Parks in Slovenia: 1864–1918]. In Géza, Hajós. Stadtparks in der österreichischen Monarchie 1765–1918: Studien zur bürgerlichen Entwicklung des urbanen Grüns in Österreich, Ungarn, Kroatien, Slowenien und Krakau aus europäischer Perspektive [City Parks in the Austrian Monarchy 1765–1918: A Study of the Civil Development of the Urban Green Spaces in Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Slovenia, and Kraków from the European Perspective] (in German). Böhlau Verlag Wien. p. 198. ISBN 978-3-205-77638-3.
- Bassin, Aleksander (9 April 2011). "Ohranimo vrednote" [Let's Preserve the Values] (in Slovenian). ISSN 1408-2373.