To Have and Have Not (film)
|To Have and Have Not|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Howard Hawks|
|Produced by||Howard Hawks
|Screenplay by||Jules Furthman
|Based on||the novel To Have and Have Not
by Ernest Hemingway
|Music by||William Lava
|Edited by||Christian Nyby|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
|Running time||100 minutes|
|Box office||$3.65 million|
To Have and Have Not is a 1944 romance-war-adventure film. The movie was directed by Howard Hawks and stars Humphrey Bogart, Walter Brennan, and Lauren Bacall in her first film. Although it is nominally based on the novel of the same name by Ernest Hemingway, the story was extensively altered for the film.
The film is set in Fort-de-France, Martinique, under the Vichy regime in the summer of 1940, shortly after the fall of France. In this exotic location, world-weary fishing-boat captain Harry Morgan (Humphrey Bogart) is urged to help the French Resistance smuggle some people onto the island. He refuses, until the client, Johnson (Walter Sande), who has been hiring out his fishing boat (and owes him $825), is shot before paying him. The French police take him and several others for questioning and they take his passport and money including what his client Johnson had.
Gerard, the hotel owner commonly known as Frenchy (Marcel Dalio), asks Harry to rent him his boat for one night to transport some members of the resistance. Broke, Harry ends up smuggling Helene (Dolores Moran) and Paul de Bursac (Walter Surovy). Meanwhile, a romance develops between Harry and Marie ("Slim") Browning (Lauren Bacall), an American wanderer who has come to the island, and she feels Harry changed his mind on smuggling the resistance to help her.
After picking up his passengers, Harry is spotted by a patrol boat, and Paul is wounded before they escape. Harry is surprised to find that Marie has stayed in Martinique to be with him. At Frenchy's request, Harry removes the bullet from Bursac's shoulder and learns that the Bursacs have been assigned to help a man escape from Devil's Island. Bursac asks for Harry's assistance, but Harry turns him down.
The police recognized Harry's boat the previous night, and they reveal that they have Harry's alcoholic buddy, Eddie (Walter Brennan), in custody and will coerce him to tell the truth about the boat's cargo. Harry with Slim's help turns the table on the police and at gunpoint, Harry forces Police Captain Renard (Dan Seymour) to arrange for Eddie's release and sign harbor passes, so that he can take the Bursacs to Devil's Island. Slim says goodbye to her piano-playing friend Cricket (Hoagy Carmichael). As soon as Eddie returns, he, Harry, and Marie leave Martinique.
Howard Hughes sold the book rights to independent director Howard Hawks, who sold them to Warner Bros. Although Hawks had a high regard for Hemingway's works in general, he considered To Have and Have Not his worst book, a "bunch of junk," and told Hemingway so; Hawks and Hemingway worked on the story together. The film preserves the book's title, and the names and characteristics of some of the characters, but nothing from beyond the first fifth of the volume. William Faulkner, “out of print and broke”, was on the payroll, helping with the script.
The setting was moved from Cuba to Martinique in order to placate the Roosevelt administration, whose "good neighbor" policy led them not to want to show Cuba in an unfavorable light. The screenplay was further developed by Jules Furthman, and, near the end, by Faulkner, an intense rival of Hemingway. This change, placing the plot on the background of a French colony ruled by the Vichy Regime, also tended to make the film more similar to Bogart's earlier, highly successful Casablanca. Other changes tended in the same direction, like the introduction of a sympathetic piano player (Hoagy Carmichael) as an important supporting character, such as had not appeared in the Hemingway book but was conspicuously present in Casablanca. Several cast members from Casablanca also appear in the film; apart from Dalio and Bogart, Dan Seymour (Abdul in the earlier film) plays the French/Vichy official Renard - a similar name and position to Casablanca's Capt. Renault. Furthermore, the plotline of Bogart's character reluctantly assisting husband-and-wife resistance fighters was similar to Casablanca.
This was Lauren Bacall's first film, at the age of 19. Hawks' wife Nancy "Slim" Keith (whose nickname would be applied to Bacall's character, while Nancy's nickname for Hawks, Steve, would be used by Bacall for Bogart's character) noticed Bacall on the cover of Harper's Bazaar and showed the photo to her husband, who sought out Bacall and signed her for the role. After filming began, a romance developed between Bacall and Bogart, despite Hawks' disapproval. This romance eventually led to the end of Bogart's marriage to Mayo Methot, his third wife, and to Bacall and Bogart getting married.
Bacall's part was greatly extended to take advantage of the Bogart-Bacall chemistry, especially in the legendary double entendre-laced line "You know how to whistle, don't you, Steve? You just put your lips together and... blow" (a quote which sits at #34 on AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes list) scene. According to the documentary A Love Story: The Story of "To Have and Have Not", included on the 2003 DVD release, Hawks, recognizing the star-making potential of the film for Bacall, emphasized her role, while downplaying that of Dolores Moran, the film's other female lead (although Hawks and Moran had their own affair during production).
Hoagy Carmichael plays Cricket, the piano player in the hotel bar. Bacall sings "How Little We Know," written by Carmichael and Johnny Mercer. Another Carmichael song, "Hong Kong Blues," co-written with Stanley Adams, was also used. "Am I Blue?," written by Harry Akst and Grant Clarke, is performed by Carmichael and Bacall. "The Rhumba Jumps," by Mercer and Carmichael, is performed by the Martinique band.
A persistent myth is that a teenage Andy Williams, the future singing star, dubbed the singing for Bacall. According to authoritative sources, including Hawks and Bacall, this was not true. Williams and some female singers were tested to dub for Bacall, because of fears that she lacked the necessary vocal skills. But those fears were overshadowed by the desire to have Bacall do her own singing (perhaps championed by Bogart) despite her less than perfect vocal talent 
To Have and Have Not was adapted as an hour-long radio play on the October 14, 1946 broadcast of Lux Radio Theater with Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall reprising their screen roles.
In 1950, Warner Brothers would re-make To Have and Have Not, under the title "The Breaking Point", starring John Garfield (in his next to last film) in the role of Harry Morgan, and directed by Michael Curtiz. It was much more faithful to the original Hemingway script, and bore little resemblance to the 1944 Bogart//Bacall vehicle.
- Bacall to Arms, a 1940s Looney Tunes short made around the same time, directly spoofing scenes from "To Have And Have Not".
- Thomas Schatz, Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s Uni of California Press, 1999 p 220
- Variety film review; October 11, 1944, page 12.
- Harrison's Reports film review; October 14, 1944, page 168.
- Crowther, Bosley. "Movies: About To Have and Have Not". The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "To Have and Have Not (1944)". Filmsite.org. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "To Have and Have Not (1944) - Overview". TCM.com. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- Hawks telling Hemingway he could film his worst book and that this one was "a bunch of junk": interview with Hawks by Joseph McBride for the Directors' Guild of America, October 21–23, 1977, private publication of the Directors' Guild, p. 21; quoted at length in Mast, p. 243.
- You Must Remember This (retrospective for Warner Brothers' 85th anniversary), American Masters, PBS, broadcast September 23, 2008.
- Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 250.
- Mast relates the contributions of each of the people who worked on the screenplay. He says "the film's many upstairs sequences are Faulkner's primary contribution to the film's conception" (p. 257).
- Hawks on Hawks by Joseph McBride. [Berkeley, University of California Press, 1982] p.130.
- "To Have and Have Not (1944)-Articles". TCM.com. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Crowther, Bosley. "Movies: The Breaking Point". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Mast, Gerald (1982). Howard Hawks, Storyteller. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503091-5.
- Oliver, Charles M. (1999). Ernest Hemingway A to Z: The Essential Reference to the Life and Work. New York: Checkmark. ISBN 0-8160-3467-2.
- Sperber, Ann M., and Lax, Eric. (1997). Bogart. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-07539-8
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- To Have and Have Not at the Internet Movie Database
- To Have and Have Not at AllMovie
- To Have and Have Not at the TCM Movie Database
- To Have and Have Not at the American Film Institute Catalog
- To Have and Have Not film trailer on YouTube