Tobacco in the United States
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Tobacco has a long history in the United States. An estimated 45.3 million people, or 19.3% of all adults (aged 18 years or older), in the United States smoke cigarettes in 2010. By state, in 2010, smoking prevalence ranged from 9.1% in Utah to 26.8% in West Virginia. By region, in 2010, smoking prevalence was highest in the Midwest (21.8%) and South (21.0%) and lowest in the West (15.9%). Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths, or 1 of every 5 deaths, in the United States each year. Cigarette smoke contains over 4,800 chemicals, 69 of which are known to cause cancer. Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body and other chemicals found in cigarette smoke are also known to be the cause of heart disease, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Special dangers exist for pregnant women whom consume tobacco such as suffering from higher possibilities of spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, premature births and low birth weight babies. Nicotine, a key ingredient in tobacco has proven to be a highly addictive drug. Tobacco use by or around children and adolescents is of high concern due to an increased risk for early addiction and passive exposure. Cigarette smoking alone has cost the United States $96 billion in direct medical expenses and $97 billion in lost productivity per year or an average of $4,260 per adult smoker. In 2009 46.6 million, or 20.6 percent of adults 18 and older were current smokers. Men tend to smoke more than women. In 2009 23.5 percent of men smoked compared to 17.9 percent women.
History of commercial tobacco
Commercial tobacco production dates back to the 17th century when the first commercial crop was planted. The industry originated in the production of tobacco for pipes and snuff. Different war efforts in the world created a shift in demand and production of tobacco in the world and the American colonies. With the advent of the American Revolution trade with the colonies was interrupted which shifted trade to other countries in the world. During this shift there was an increase in demand for tobacco in the United States, where the demand for tobacco in the form of cigars and chewing tobacco increased. Other wars, such as the War of 1812 would introduce the Andalusian cigarette to the rest of Europe. This, accompanied with the American Civil War changed the production of tobacco in America to the manufactured cigarette.
On February 4, 2009, the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 was signed into law, which raised the federal tax rate for cigarettes on April 1, 2009 from $0.39 per pack to $1.01 per pack.
- Cigarette taxes in the United States
- No Net Cost Tobacco Act of 1982
- Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act
- Tobacco MSA (Alabama)
- Tobacco MSA (Hawaii)
- Tobacco MSA (New York)
- Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement
- Tobacco Price Support Program
- Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee
443,000 Americans die of smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke each year. For every smoking-related death, another 20 people suffer with a smoking-related disease. (2011)
California's adult smoking rate has dropped nearly 50% since the state began the nation's longest-running tobacco control program in 1988. California saved $86 billion in health care costs by spending $1.8 billion on tobacco control, a 50:1 return on investment over its first 15 years of funding its tobacco control program.
Companies and products
Some of the notable tobacco companies in the US are:
Lobbying and organizations
- Advancement of Sound Science Center
- Alexis de Tocqueville Institution
- American Legacy Foundation
- Tobacco Institute
- Golden LEAF Foundation
- Youth Tobacco Cessation Collaborative
A half million of children work in the fields of America picking food in 2012. In eastern North Carolina has been interviewed children as young as 14 who worked in tobacco, and recent news reports describe children as young as nine and 10. Federal law provides no minimum age for work on small farms with parental permission, and children ages 12 and up may work for hire on any size farm for unlimited periods outside school hours. According to Human Rights Watch farmwork is the most hazardous occupation open to children.
- List of smoking bans in the United States
- Steven C. Parrish, the Senior Vice President of Philip Morris
- Controlled substances in Oregon#Tobacco
- C. C. Little - tobacco researcher
- Tobacco brides
- Tobacco-Free Pharmacies
- Smoker Protection Law
- Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimate Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- Thomas.gov query on H.R.2
- http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/health/48749802-american-lung-association-celebrates-public-health-victory American Lung Association Celebrates Public Health Victory
- Adult Smoking in the US CDC September 2011
- The Hidden Victims of Tobacco HRW September 5, 2012
- Children in the Fields: North Carolina Tobacco Farms NBC August 9, 2012
- Brandt, Allan. The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America (2007)
- Breen, T. H. (1985). Tobacco Culture. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00596-6. Source on tobacco culture in 18th-century Virginia pp. 46–55
- Burns, Eric. The Smoke of the Gods: A Social History of Tobacco (Temple University Press, 2007)
- Hahn, Barbara. Making Tobacco Bright: Creating an American Commodity, 1617-1937 (Johns Hopkins University Press; 2011) 248 pages; examines how marketing, technology, and demand figured in the rise of Bright Flue-Cured Tobacco, a variety first grown in the inland Piedmont region of the Virginia-North Carolina border.
- Kluger, Richard. Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War (1996), Pulitzer Prize
- Price, Jacob M. "The rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake tobacco trade, 1707-1775." William and Mary Quarterly (1954) pp: 179-199. in JSTOR
- Tilley, Nannie May The Bright Tobacco Industry 1860–1929 ISBN 0-405-04728-2.