Tobolsk

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Tobolsk (English)
Тобольск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Tobolsk Kremlin by Dmitry Medvedev.jpg
Tobolsk Kremlin. A photo taken by Dmitry Medvedev,
former president of Russia.
Map of Russia - Tyumen Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Tyumen Oblast in Russia
Tobolsk is located in Tyumen Oblast
Tobolsk
Tobolsk
Location of Tobolsk in Tyumen Oblast
Coordinates: 58°11′43″N 68°15′29″E / 58.19528°N 68.25806°E / 58.19528; 68.25806Coordinates: 58°11′43″N 68°15′29″E / 58.19528°N 68.25806°E / 58.19528; 68.25806
Town Day Last Sunday of June[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Tyumen Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Town of Tobolsk[1]
Administrative center of Tobolsky District,[1] Town of Tobolsk[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2011)
Urban okrug Tobolsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Tobolsk Urban Okrug,[2] Tobolsky Municipal District[2]
Head of Administration[citation needed] Ivan Olenberg[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 99,694 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 165th
Time zone YEKT (UTC+05:00)[4]
Founded June 14, 1587[citation needed]
Town status since June 14, 1587[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[5] 626150-626159
Dialing code(s) +7 3456[citation needed]
Official website
Tobolsk on WikiCommons

Tobolsk (Russian: Тобо́льск) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers. It is a historic capital of Siberia. Population: 99,694 (2010 Census);[3] 92,880 (2002 Census);[6] 94,143 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

Tobolsk in 1750
View of Tobolsk in the 1910s

Tobolsk was founded by Yermak Timofeyevich's Cossacks in 1585–1586 during the first Russian advance into Siberia near the ruins of the Khanate of Sibir's capital, Qashliq. It became the seat of the Viceroy of Siberia and prospered on trade with China and Bukhara. It was there that the first school, theater, and newspaper in Siberia were established. After the Swedish defeat at Poltava in 1709, large numbers of prisoners were sent to Tobolsk. They numbered about 25% of the total population. Many of them were not repatriated until the 1720s, and some of them settled permanently in Tobolsk.

After administrative division of the territory, Tobolsk remained the seat of the Governor-General of Western Siberia until the seat was moved to Omsk in the 1820s or 1830s. Bowing to the city's authority, many Siberian towns, including Omsk, Tyumen, and Tomsk, had their original arms display the Tobolsk insignia. Omsk honors the legacy to this day.

Until the October Revolution of 1917, the town served as the seat of Tobolsk Governorate. Some of the Decembrists were exiled and lived there as well. The town's importance declined when the Trans-Siberian Railway bypassed it in the 1890s.

In August 1917, after the February Revolution, Tsar Nicholas II and his family were brought here to live in relative luxury in the former house of the Governor-General. After the White Army approached the city in spring of 1918, the royal family was moved to Yekaterinburg and shot there, ending the Imperial Romanov Dynasty.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Tobolsk serves as the administrative center of Tobolsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with one urban-type settlement, incorporated separately as the Town of Tobolsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the Town of Tobolsk is incorporated as Tobolsk Urban Okrug.[2]

Climate[edit]

Tobolsk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) bordering on a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc). Winters are very cold with average temperatures from −21.6 °C (−6.9 °F) to −12.7 °C (9.1 °F) in January, while summers are mild with average temperatures from +13.8 to +23.9 °C (56.8 to 75.0 °F). Precipitation is moderate and is somewhat higher in summer than at other times of the year.

Climate data for Tobolsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
5.5
(41.9)
14.7
(58.5)
29.5
(85.1)
35.7
(96.3)
37.2
(99)
36.1
(97)
33.8
(92.8)
30.1
(86.2)
23.0
(73.4)
12.3
(54.1)
4.5
(40.1)
37.2
(99)
Average high °C (°F) −12.7
(9.1)
−10.3
(13.5)
−1.4
(29.5)
7.2
(45)
16.3
(61.3)
22.4
(72.3)
23.9
(75)
20.4
(68.7)
13.7
(56.7)
6.1
(43)
−4.8
(23.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
5.84
(42.52)
Daily mean °C (°F) −17.1
(1.2)
−15.6
(3.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
1.8
(35.2)
10.2
(50.4)
16.7
(62.1)
18.7
(65.7)
15.3
(59.5)
9.0
(48.2)
2.2
(36)
−8.2
(17.2)
−14.9
(5.2)
0.92
(33.67)
Average low °C (°F) −21.6
(−6.9)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−12.5
(9.5)
−3.2
(26.2)
4.7
(40.5)
11.5
(52.7)
13.8
(56.8)
10.7
(51.3)
4.9
(40.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
−11.8
(10.8)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−3.73
(25.28)
Record low °C (°F) −48.5
(−55.3)
−47.7
(−53.9)
−41.8
(−43.2)
−30.3
(−22.5)
−14.6
(5.7)
−2.2
(28)
3.4
(38.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
−6.5
(20.3)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−40.1
(−40.2)
−51.8
(−61.2)
−51.8
(−61.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.91)
17
(0.67)
17
(0.67)
24
(0.94)
45
(1.77)
57
(2.24)
67
(2.64)
73
(2.87)
53
(2.09)
40
(1.57)
34
(1.34)
27
(1.06)
477
(18.77)
Avg. rainy days 1 0.2 3 10 13 16 16 20 20 14 4 1 118.2
Avg. snowy days 22 17 13 6 2 0 0 0 0.4 6 17 22 105.4
 % humidity 81 77 72 65 62 66 73 78 79 79 82 81 74.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61 114 177 217 265 288 298 225 156 92 60 42 1,995
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[8]
Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[9]

Economy[edit]

The economy of modern Tobolsk centers on a major oil refinery. Some traditional crafts, such as bone-carving, are also preserved.

Main sights[edit]

Stained glass window dedicated to Tobolsk at the station "Rechnoy Vokzal" of Novosibirsk Metro

Tobolsk is the only town in Siberia and one of the few in Russia which has a standing stone kremlin (Tobolsk Kremlin): an elaborate city-fortress from the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its white walls and towers with an ensemble of churches and palatial buildings spectacularly sited on a high river bank were proclaimed a national historical and architectural treasure in 1870.

The principal monuments in the kremlin are the Cathedral of St. Sophia (1683–1686), a merchant courtyard (1703–1705), an episcopal palace (1773–1775; now a museum of local lore), and the so-called Swedish Chamber, with six baroque halls (1713–1716). The town contains some remarkable baroque and Neoclassical churches from the 18th and 19th centuries. Also noteworthy is a granite monument to Yermak, constructed to a design by Alexander Brullov in 1839. The town's vicinity is rich in ancient kurgans and pagan shrines, some of which date back to the 10th century BCE.

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Tobolsk is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #53
  2. ^ a b c d Law #263
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Weather And Climate - Climate Tobolsk" (in Russian). Retrieved 21 January 2013. 
  9. ^ "Climate Normals for Tobolsk". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 January 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Тюменская областная Дума. Закон №53 от 4 ноября 1996 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тюменской области», в ред. Закона №71 от 6 октября 2014 г. «Об объединении, упразднении отдельных населённых пунктов, входящих в муниципальное образование Омутинский муниципальный район Тюменской области, и о внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Тюменской области». Вступил в силу с момента официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тюменские известия", №220, 12 ноября 1996 г. (Tyumen Oblast Duma. Law #53 of November 4, 1996 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tyumen Oblast, as amended by the Law #71 of October 6, 2014 On the Merger, Abolition of Several Inhabited Localities Within the Municipal Formation of Omutinsky Municipal District of Tyumen Oblast and on Amending Various Laws of Tyumen Oblast. Effective as of the moment of official publication.).
  • Тюменская областная Дума. Закон №263 от 5 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тюменской области и наделении их статусом муниципального района, городского округа и сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №71 от 6 октября 2014 г. «Об объединении, упразднении отдельных населённых пунктов, входящих в муниципальное образование Омутинский муниципальный район Тюменской области, и о внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Тюменской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Тюменская область сегодня", №213 (без приложений), 12 ноября 2004 г. (Tyumen Oblast Duma. Law #263 of November 5, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tyumen Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of a Municipal District, Urban Okrug, and Rural Settlement, as amended by the Law #71 of October 6, 2014 On the Merger, Abolition of Several Inhabited Localities Within the Municipal Formation of Omutinsky Municipal District of Tyumen Oblast and on Amending Various Laws of Tyumen Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).

Further reading[edit]

  • Brumfield, William. Tobolsk: Architectural Heritage in Photographs. Moscow: Tri Kvadrata, 2006. ISBN 5-94607-063-0

External links[edit]