The Aso Horse Tramway opened the first section of the line between Kuzu and Koena-kashi to haul limestone and timber to the Watarase river port in 1889/90. Individual section opening dates are provided below. Steam locomotion was introduced in 1894, and in 1912 the company merged with Tobu. The line was extended to Tatebayashi in 1914, and electrified in 1927.
On June 23, 1889, Aso-Basha-Tetsudo (Aso Horsecar, 安蘇馬車鉄道) opened the section of the line between Kuzu (葛生) and the former Yoshimizu(吉水).
On August 10 1889 the section of the line between the former Yoshimizu and the former Sano Town(旧佐野町) was opened.
On January 25, 1890 the section of the line between the former Sano Town and Koena-kashi(越名河岸) was opened.
On April 13, 1893 Aso-Basha-Tetsudo changed the company name to Sano Railway(佐野鉄道).
On March 20, 1894 the railway line between Kuzu,the former Sano Town and Koena-kashi was opened.
On June 17, 1903 Sano Railway Line was connected to Ryomo Line(両毛線).
On March 30, 1912 Tōbu Railway merged Sano Railway.
On August 2, 1914 the section of the line between Tatebayashi and Sano Town(the present Sano-shi) was opened.
On August 19 1914 the former Sano Town Station was abandoned.
On October 16 1914 the line between Tatebayashi and Kuzū was operated directly.
On February 1, 1915 the name of the former Yoshimizu station was changed to Horigome station(堀米駅).
On July 1 1915 Yoshimizu station was opened.
On July 5 1915 the passenger operation between Sano Town and Koena-kashi was abandoned.
On February 16, 1917 abolished between the town of Sano and Koena-kashi
On December 16, 1927 electrification was begun on the section between Tatebayashi and Kuzū. Watarase Station(渡瀬駅) was opened.
On April 1, 1943 the name of Sano Town Station was changed to Sanoshi Station(佐野市駅).
On May 1, 1972 Kita-Tatebayashi baggage office(北館林荷扱所) was opened between Watarase and Tajima.
On March 18, 2006 Wanman operation was started on the local train service.
Kuzu Station: A 4 km handcar railway to Aizawa was opened in 1920 to transport limestone and dolomite. Steam locomotives were introduced in 1925, and the line was electrified at 1,500 V DC in 1966, closing in 1997. A 2 km line from Kamishiraishi (1 km past Kuzu) to Daikano opened in 1929, was electrified at 1,500 V DC in 1966 and closed in 1986.